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Psiiocybe semiianceata (Fr.) Queiet Liberty Cap

Strophariaceae

Cosmopolitan,

79 except Mexico

Psychotria vlridis Ruiz et Pavon Chacruna

Rubiaceae (Madder Family)

Amazonia—from Colombia 80 t0 Bolivia and eastern Brazil

Strophariaceae

Cosmopolitan,

79 except Mexico

Rubiaceae (Madder Family)

Amazonia—from Colombia 80 t0 Bolivia and eastern Brazil

Psilocybe cyanescens is rela tively easy to identify by its wavy brown cap %—1 % in. (2-4cm) wide. It doesn't live on dung, but on decaying plants, coniferous mulch, and humus-rich aarth. In olcier mushroom guides it is often called Hyphaloma cyanescens. It is very closely related to the species Psilocybe azurestens and Psilocybe bohemica, both also very powerful hallucinogens.

A traditional or shamanic use of this highly Dotent Psilocybe has not yet been documented

Today Psilocybe cyanescens is used in Central Europe and North America in neo-pagan rituals. In addition, cultivated mushrooms that have a very high concentration of psilocy-bine are eaten. Visionary doses are 1 g of the dried mushroom, which contains approximately 1 % tryptamine (psilocybine, psilocine, and baeocystine).

Many species of Psilocybe are employed in southern Mexico as sacred mushrooms, P. mexicana being one of the most widely used.

P. mexicana grows at altitudes of 4,500-5,500 ft (1,375-1,675m), especially in limestone regions, isolated or very sparsely in moss along i rails, in wet meadows and fields, and in oak and pine forests. One of the smallest of the hallucinogenic species, it attains a height of 1-(rarely) 4in. (2.5-10cm). The conic campanuiate or frequently hemispherical capiA4-1!f in. (1-3 cm) in diameter, is a weak straw color or greenish straw color (sometimes even brownish red) when living, drying to a greenish tan or deep yellow; it has brown striations, and the terminal ninole is often reddish The flesh of the cap turns bluish on bruising. The hollow stipe Is yellow to yellowish pink, red-brown near the base. The spores are deep sepia to dark purple-brown.

Psilocybe semiianceata is the most common and widespread mushroom in the Psilocybe genus. The Liberty Cap prefers to grow in fields with old manure piles and on grassy, fertile meadows. Its cap, in. (1-2.5cni) wide, is conical and often peaked, it usually feels damp and slimy. The "head skin" is easy to peel oft The small iamels are olive to red-brown; the spores are dark brown or purple-brown.

P. semiianceata contains high concentrations of psilocybine (0.97% up to 1.34%). some psi-locme, and less baeocystine (0.33%). This species is one of the most potent Psilocybe mushrooms.

Toward tne end of the Middle Ages in Spain, P. semiianceata was probably used as a halluci nogen by women who were accused of being witches. Allegedly the nomads of the Alps named P. semiianceata the "dream mushroom" and traditionally used it as a psychoactive substance. Today this mushroom is ritually taken in certain circles.

The evergreen shrub can grow into a small tree with a woody trunk, out usually remains at a height of 6-9ft (2-3 m). Its whorled leaves are long and narrow with a color ranging from light green to dark green and a shiny top side. The flowers have greenish white petals on long stalks. The red fruit is a berry that contains numerous small long oval seeds, about 1 in. (4mm) long.

The leaves must be gathered in the morning. They are used either fresh or dried in the production of Ayahuasca. Today they are also used as an Ayahuasca analog.

The leaves contain 0.10.61 % DMT, as well as traces of similar alkaloids (MMT, MTHC) most of the leaves contain around 0.3% DMT.

RHYNCHOSIA Lour.

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