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dimly aware of what is going on and is susceptible to suggestions. The visions are often grotesque, portray-ig people or events. The natives say that the intox ication lasts three hours and seldom has unpleasant aftereffects. Ololiuqui is taken at night and, in contrast to Peyote and the mushrooms, is administered to a single inc.ividual alone in a quiet, secluded place

The use of seeds of Turbma corymbo sa has been recorded for the Chinantec, Mazatec, and others in Oaxaca. They are known ii Oaxaca as P" ale, although each tribe has its own name for the seeds.

The name Ololiuqui seems to have been applied to several plants by the Aztecs, but only one was psychoactive Of one, an early report states: "There is an herb called Ololiuqui or Xix'camatic which has leaves like miltomate [Physa-lis sp.] and thin, yellow flowers. The root is round and as large as a cabbage." This plant could not be Turbi.ia corym-bosa, but its idenrty remains a mystery. The third Ololiuqui, also called Hu-eyytzontecon, was used medicinally as a purgative, a characteristic suggesting the Morning Glory family, but the plant is not convolvulaceous.

Another Morning Glory, Ipomoea violacea, was valued as a sacred hallucinogen among the Aztecs, who called the seeds Tlitliltzin, from the Nahuatl term for "black" with a reverential suffix. The seeds of this Morning Glory are elongate, angular, and black, whereas those of Turbma corymbosa are round and brown. One ancient report mentions both, asserting that Peyote, Ololiuqui, and Tlitliltzin are all psychoactive. Ipomoea violacea is used especially in the Zapotec and Chatin area of Oaxaca, where it is known as Badoh Negro or, in Zapotec, Badungas. In some Zapotec villages both Turbma corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea are known; in others, only the latter is used. The black seeds are often

Page 174 top: The Cuban stamp on the left of Turbina corymbosa was issued at Christmastime. T. corymbosa is very abundant in the western part of the island and flowers in December. The Hungarian stamp on the right indicates the horticultural importance of Ipomoea violacea and its varieties.

Top: Left are the ocher-colced, some what round seeds of Turbina corymbosa. On the right are the black, angular seeds of the Ipomoea violacea called macho ("male") and men take them; the brown seeds, called hembra ("female"), are ingested by women. The black seeds are more potent than the brown, according to the Indians, an assertion borne out by chemical studies. The dose is frequently seven or a multiple of seven; at other times, the familiar thirteen is the dose.

As with Turb:na, Badoh Negro seeds are ground and placeo :n a gourd with water. The solid particles are strained out, and the liquid is drunk. Revelations of the cause of illness or divinations are provided during the intoxication by "intermediaries"—the fantastical badu-ivm, or two little girls in white who ap pear during the seance

A recent report of the use of seeds of Ipomoea violacea among the Zapotec indicates that Badoh Negro is indeed a significant element in the life of these Indians: "... Divination about recovery in sickness is also practiced by means of a plant which is described as a narcotic. This plant. . . grows in the yard ... of a family who sells its leaves and seeds . . . to administer to patients . . . The patient, who must be alone with the curer if not in a solitary place where he cannot hear even a cock's crow, falls into a sleep durmg which the little ones, male and female, the plant children [bador], come and talk. These plant spirits will also give information about lost objects." The modern ritual with Morning Glory seeds now- has incorporated Christian elements. Some of the names—Semilla de la Virgen ("seed of the Virgin") and Hierba Maria ("Mary's herb")—show union of the Christian with the pagan, and clearly an indication that Turbina corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea are considered gifts from the gods.

Top: Left are the ocher-colced, some what round seeds of Turbina corymbosa. On the right are the black, angular seeds of the Ipomoea violacea

Aoove; Tha shaman administers the infusion to a patient assisted by a young girl. The brew must be taken at night in a secluded and quiet place. The patient's problems will be diagnosed by the shaman from interpretation of what he sayc while under the influence of the plants

VIROLA Epená

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