Datura L

Datura metel L. Datura Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Tropical and warm p 3 iemperate zones of Asia and Africa

Datura stramonium t Thorn App e Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Tropical and moderate zones 29 of both hemispheres

Leguminosae (Pea Family)

Southern Europe, northern 26 Africa, western Asia; C anary Islands, Mexico

Solanaceae

(Nightshade Family)

Tropical and warm-27 temperature zones of both hemispheres

Rarely are foreign plants incor porated in ceremonial use in aboriginal American societies. Native to the Canary Islands, Genista was introduced into Mexico from the Old World, where it has no record of use as a hallucinogen. It apparently has acquired magical use among the /aquí Indians of northern Mexico, where medicine men value the seed asa hallucinogen.

A coarse, evergreen, much-branched shrub up to 6ft (1,8 m) tali, Cytisus canariensis bears leaves w!th obovate or oblong, hairy leaflets Vi-Vfc in. (.5-1 cm) long. The fragrant, bright yellow flowers, in terminal, many-flowered, dense racemes, measure about 1/2Ín. (1 cm) in length. The pods are hairy 1/2-3/4 in. (1-2cm) long.

Cytisus is rich in the lupine alkaloid cytisine, which is common in the Leguminosae. Cystine has similar properties as nicotine. For this reason, plants that contain cystine are often smoked as a substitute for Tobacco

The most extensive use of Da■ tura centers in Mexico and the American Southwest, where the most important psychoactive species seems to be Datura innoxia This is the famous To-loache of Mexico, one of the plants of the gods among the Aztecs and other Indians. The modern Tarahumara of Mexico add the roots, seeds, and leaves of D. innoxia to tesquino, a ceremonial drink prepared from maize. Mexican Indians believe that, unlike Peyote Toloache is inhabited by a malevolent spirit.

Datura innoxia is a herbaceous perennial up to 3ft (1 m) tall, grayish because of fine hairs on the foliage; the leaves unequally ovate, repand or sub-entire, measure up to 2 or 2V4 in. (5cm) in length. The erect sweet-scented flowers, 51/2-9in. (14-23 cm) long, are white with a 10-pointed corolla. The pendant fruit is nearly globose, 2 in. (5 cm) in diameter, covered with sharp spines.

In the Old World, the most culturally important species of Datura for medicinal and hallucinogenic use is D. metel.

Datura metel, native probably to the mountainous regions of Pakistan or Afghanistan westward, is a spreading herb, sometimes becoming shrubby 3-6ft (1-2 m) tall. The triangular-ovate, sinuate, and deeply toothed leaves measure 51/281/2 in. (14-22cm) long, 3-4'/4 in. (8-11 cm) wide. The solitary flowers, which may be purple, yellowish, or white, are tubular, funnel- or trumpet-shaped, almost circular when expanded, may attain a length of 61/2in. (17cm). The drooping, round fruit, up to 2V| in (6 cm) in diameter, is conspicuously tuber-culate or muricate, opening to expose flat, light brown seeds. The flowers are primarily violet and grow at an angle or upright to the sky

All types of Datura contain the hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids scopolamine, hyosyamine and someatropine.

This annual herb grows to about 4ft (1.2 m) and has many-forked branches and branched, leafless stems. The rich green leaves are coarsely serrated. The funnel shaped flowers are 5-pointed stand erect and open upward. The common variety carries white flowers that at 2-3 in. (69 cm) long are among the srnai -lest of the Datura species. The tatula variety has smaller violet flowers. The green egg-shaped fruit is covered with thorns and stands erect. The flat, liver shaped seeds are black.

The origins of this powerful hallucinogenic species of Thorn Apple is uncertain and its botanical history ardently argued over. Some authors suggest that Datura stramonium is an ancient species that originates in the region of the Caspian Sea. Others believe that Mexico or North America is the original habitat. Today the herb is found throughout North, Central and South Ameiica, North Africa; Central and Southern Europe; in the near East; and in the Himalayas.

Desfontainia spinosa R. et P. Taique

Desfontainiaceae

Highlands of Centra, 30 America and South America

Duboisia hoowoodiiF. v. Mueil Pituri Bush Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Central Australia

Echinocereus trigiochidiatus Engelm

Pitallito Cactus

Epitheiantha micromeris (Engelm.) Weber ex Britt. et Rose Hikuli Mulato

Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 32 America, Mexico

Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 33 America, Mexico

Desfontainia spinosa R. et P. Taique

Desfontainiaceae

Highlands of Centra, 30 America and South America

Duboisia hoowoodiiF. v. Mueil Pituri Bush Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Central Australia

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