Contents

7 preface

9 introduction

10 what are plant hallucinogens?

16 the plant kingdom

20 phytochemical research on sacred plants

26 geography of usage and botanical range

31 plant lexicon

62 who uses hallucinogenic plants?

65 overview of plant use

81 the most important hallucinogenic plants

82 mainstay of the heavens

86 the hexing herbs

Atropa (Deadly Nightshade) Hyoscyamus albus (Yellow Henbane) Hyoscyamus niger (Black Henbane) Mandragora (Mandrake)

92 the nectar of delight

Cannabv- (Hemp, Marijuana, Hashish)

102 st. anthony's fire

Claviceps (Ergot)

106 holy flower of the north star

Datura innoxia (Toloache)

Datura metel (Datura)

Datura stramonium (Thorn Apple)

112 guide to the ancestors

Tabernanthe (Iboga)

116 beans of the hekula spirit

Anadenanthera peregrina (Yopo)

120 seeds of civilization

Anadenanthera colubrina (Cebil)

124 the magic drink of the amazon

Bamsteriopsis (Ayahuasca)

Psychotn i (Chacruna) Peganum (Sy-an Rue) Tetrapteris (Yage)

137 ayahuasca analogs

140 trumpets of the angels

Brugmansia (Golden Angel's Trumpet) Brugmansia (Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet)

144 the tracks of the little deer

Lophophora (Peyote)

156 little flowers of the gods

Conocybe

Panaeolus cyanescens (Blue Meanies) Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Hoop-petticoat)

Panaeolus subbalteatus (Dark-rimmed

Mottlegill) Psilocybe cubensis (San Isidro) Psilocybe cyanescens (Wavy Cap) Psilocybe mexicana (Teonanacatl) Psilocybe semilanceata (Liberty Cap)

164 diviner's sage

Salvia divmorum

166 cactus of the four winds

Trichocereus (San Pedro)

170 vines of the serpent

Ipomoea (Morning Glory) Turbina (Ololiugui)

176 semen of the sun

Virola (Epena)

182 gateway to dreamtime

Duboisia (Pituri Bush)

184 chemical structures of hallucinogens

188 uses of hallucinogens in medicine

196 epilogue

198 picture credits

199 bibliography

199 acknowledgements 204 index

The dreaming smoker stretched out comfortably on his chaise enjoys visions induced by Hashish. This engraving is from M. von Schwind's Album of Etchings, published in 1843.

Page 4 left: The witches of medieval Europe inc jced inebriation with a great variety of brews, most of which had at least one of the Nightshades as a psychoactive constituent. During their intoxications, they engaged in many aspects of hexing both malevolent and benevolent. This illustration, a woodcut, published in 1459, portrays two witches calling for rain and thunder, possibly during a dry spell, and preparing a brew to help them achieve this goai

For the Huichol Indians of Mexico, the Peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii) (see page 7) is not a plant but a god, a gift from the Earth Goddess to humans to assis* them in attaining a connection to her in the mystical realms The Huichol celebrate a great Peyote festival every year (below), at which all members of the tribe partake in eating the freshly harvested Peyote cactus.

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