Cannabis L

Cannabis sativa L. Hemp

Cannabaceae (Hemp Family) Warm-temperate zones, i 7 worldwide

A small shrubby climber, Cacalia cordifolia has dusty-puberulent, six-angled stems The leaves are thin ovate, and basally cordate, 1V2SV3 in. (49 cm) long. The flowering hear1 is subsessile or pedicellate, about %in. (1 cm) long.

This and several other species of Cacalia have been referred to in parts of northern Mexico as Peyote and may possibly have once been employed tor hallucinatory purposes. In Mexico Cacalia cordifolia is a presumed aphrodisiac and cure for sterility. An alkaloid has been reported from the plant, but there is no evidence of a chemical constituent with psychoactive properties

This little researched plant is apparently often confused with Calea zacatechichi.

Calea Zacatechichi

Caesalpinia sepiaria or Yiin Shih, a shrubby vine w!th retro-rsely hooked spines, is repui edly used as a hallucinogen in China. The roots flowers, and seeds also have value in folk medicine.

The earliest Chinese herbal— Pen-ts'-ao-ching—stated that the "flowers could enable one to see spirits and, when taken in excess cause one to stagger madly." If consumed over a long period, they produce levitation and "communication with the spirits."

This plant is an extensive climber with pinnate leaves 915 in. (23-38 cm) long and linear-oblong leaflets in 8-12 pairs The large, erect, un branched showy racemes 2! in. (53 cm) long- bear canary yellow flowers. The smooth, elongate ovoid poirted fruit has 4 to 8 ovoid, brown- and black-mottled seeds, % in. (1 cm) long. An alkaloid of unknown structure has been reported from Caesalpinia sepiaria.

Biological Illicit Drugs

Known in Mexico as Zacatechi chi ("bitter grass' ), this inconspicuous shrub, occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica, has been important in folk medicine. It has also 'ieen valued as an insecticide.

Recent reports suggest that the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca take a tea of the crushed dried leaves as a hallucinogen Believing in visions seen in dreams, Chontal medicine men who assert that Zacatechichi clarifies the senses, call the plant Thle-pelakano, or "leaf of g 2d."

Calea zacatechichi is a heavily branching shrub with triangular-ovate, coarsely ♦oothed leaves %-2V£ in. (26.5 cm) long. The inflorescence is densely many-flowered (usually about 12).

No constituent with hallucinatory properties has as yet beer, isolated from C. zacatechichi.

The plant contains germacra-nolides. The subtile psychoactive effect can be described as dreamlike

Cannabis sativa has become very polymorphic, but it is usually a rank, robust, erect, ¡oosely branched annual herb, sometimes attaining a height of 18ft (5.4m). The sexes are normally on separate plants, the staminate weaker and dying after shedding pollen, the pistillate stockier and more foliose. The membranaceous leaves are digitate, with I to 15 (usually 7 to 9) linear-lanceolate, serrated segments commonly 21/4-4in. (6-10 cm) wide. The flowers are borne in axillary or terminal branches dark green, yellow-green, or brownish purple. The fruit is an ovoid, slightly compressed, often brownish akene covered by a persistent calyx enveloped by an enlarged bract, usually lacking a strong marbled pattern; it is firmly attached to the stalk without a definite articulation. The seed is ovoid, mostly Vs by Ve in. (4 by 2mm).

Cannabis indica is pyramidal or conical in form and under 45ft (120-150cm) in height.

Cannabis ruderaiis is small and is never cultivated.

tARNEGlEA Britt. et Rose (1) OESTRUM L. (160)

Carnegiea oigantea (Engelm.) Britt.

et Rose


Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 8 America, northern Mexico

Oestrum parqui L'Herit. Lady of the N ght Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Chile

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