Amanita L

(50-60) ANADENANTHERA Speg. (2)

Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Pers. Fly Agaric

Amanitaceae

Europe Africa, Asia, 3 Americas

Anadenanthera colubruna (Vellozo) Brennan Cebil, Villta l.eguminosae (Pea Family) Northwest Argentina

Araceae (Arum Family)

Temperate and warm zones 2 of both hemispheres

Amanitaceae

Europe Africa, Asia, 3 Americas

The genus Acacia is widely distributed throughout the tropica: and subtropical regions of the world. It encompasses for the most part medium-sized trees with pinnate, occasionally smooth leaves. The flowers grow in clusters and the fruit is pea-like. Many acacias are a traditional additive to psycho active products, such as betel beer, balche, pituri, and pulquo. Some of the species are suited for the preparation of Ayahuas-ca analogs. Numerous Australian species (A maidenii, A. phlebophylla A simplicifolia) contain higher concentrations of DMT in their bark and. leaves.

Acacia maidenii, a beautiful erect tree with a silvery splendor, contains different trypta mines. The bark contains 0.36% DMT. The leaves are usable as a DMT-delivering component of Ayahuasca analogs. These acacias are easy to cultivate in temperate climates such as in California and southern Europe.

Some evidence, although weak and indirecl suggests that the Cree Indians of northwestern Canada may occasionally chew the rootstalk of Sweet Flag for its psychoactive effects

Sweet Flag is a semiaquatic herb with a long, aromatic, creeping rootstock producing shoots of erect, linear, swordlike leaves up to 6ft (2 m) in length The tiny flowers are borne on a sond, lateral greenish yellow spadix. The rootstalk or rhizome contains an essential oil responsible for tne plant's medicinal value.

It has been suggested that the active principles are a-asarone and fi- asarone. There is a structural resemblance between asarone and mescaline, a psy choactlve alkaloid. No evidence has ever been producec', however tnat asarone can be associated with psychotomimetic activity.

Amanita muscaria is a beautiful mushroom growing in thin forests usually under birches, firs and young pines. It may attain a height of 8-9 in. (20-23cm) The somewhat viscid, ovate, hemispheric, and finally almost flat cap measures 3-8in. (8-20cm) when mature. There are three varieties: one with a blood red cap with white warts found in the Old World and northwestern North America; a yellow or orange type with yellowish warts common in eastern and central North America; and a white variety that is found in Idaho. The cylindrical stem, which has a bulbous base, is white, Vz-1 in. (1-3cm) thick, with a 'onspicu-ous cream-white ring covered basically with encircling scales. The white valve adheres to the base of the stem. The gills vary from white to cream color or even lemon yellow

This mushroom, perhaps man's oldest hallucinogen, has been identified with Soma of ancient India.

This tree grows 9-50ft (3-18 m) and has an almost black bark often adorned with conical thorns The leaves are finely lo cular and reach up to 1 ft (30 cm) long The yellowish white flowers are round. The leathery dark brown fruit podi grow to 1 ft (35 cm) long and contain very flat red-brown seeds xk to 1 in. (1-2 cm) wide, with rounded to right angles.

The seeds have been used as a hallucinogen by the Indians of the southern region of the Andes for approximately 4,500 years. They are either worked into a snuff powder, smoked, or used as an additive for beer. Primarily they are used in shamanism

The seeds of the Cebil or Vill ca contain 'ryptamines, espe cially bufotenine

ANADENANTHEflA Spec (2)

nadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. opo

Leguminosae (Pea Family)

Trop'ial zones of South 5 America, West Iridies

ARGYREIA Lour.

Argyreia nervosa (Burman f.) Bojer, Hawaiian Wood Rose Convovuiaceae (Morning Glory Family)

India, Southeast Asia, 5 Hawaii

ARiOCARPUS Scheidw.

Ariocarpus retusus Scheidw. False Peyote

Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico, Texas

Leguminosae (Pea Family)

Trop'ial zones of South 5 America, West Iridies

Anadenanthera peregrina is a mimosa like tree, mainly of open grasslands, attaining a height of 65ft (20m) and with a trunk 2ft (60cm) in diameter. The black-:sh bark is coarsely armed with conical mucronate projections. The leaves have from 15 to 30 pairs of pinnae with many very small hairy leaflets. Many minute white flowers in spherical heads arranged in terminal or axillary clusters comprise the inflorescence Flat, thin, glossy black, roundish seeds occur in rougn, woody pods, from 3 to 10 in a pod.

A potent hallucinoge >:c snuff is made from the beans of Ana denanthera peregrina in the Or inoco basin where it is called Yopo. Its former shamanic and ritual use in the West Indies, under the name Cohoba, was reported as early as 1496. Sadly, this use has disappeared due to the exploitation of the native people.

The tree native to the edges of the large forested areas of Guyana is stiil used by different tribes, primarily the Yanomano and Waika: for the production of Epenâ. The shamanic snuff is made from cultivated trees in addition to other substances and plant ashes. The seeds contain mostly N,N-Dimethyl-tryptamine (DMT) as well as 5-MeO-DMT and other trypta-mines. The shaman of the rain forest people of the Orinoco region (for example, the Piaroa) cultivate this tree which is not native to that area. That way they secure their snuff supplies

The mature stems of this vigorously growing twining bindweed climb up to 30ft (10m) high and carry a latexlike milk. The stemmed, heart-shaped leaves are finely haired and have a silvery appearance due to a dense white down that covers the young stems and the leaf undersides. The funnel-shaped flowers are violet or lavender and are carried in the leaf axis Their sepals are finely haired. The round fruit are berrylike arid contain smooth brown seeds. In each seed capsule there are 14 seeds.

The plant originates in India where. it has been used medicinally since ancient times. A traditional use as an entheogen has not yet been discovered. Phytochemical research is to thank for the awareness of its potent psychedelic constitution. The seeds contain 0.3% Ergot alkaloids (ergine and lysergic-acid-amides). Most psycho-nauts describe LSD-like effects after taking 4-8 seeds

These plants are small, grayish green to purplish gray or brownish cactuses, 4-6 in. (10-15 cm) in diameter. They hardly appear above the ground. Often called Living Flocks they can easily be mistaken for rocks in the stony desert where they grow. Their horny or fleshy, umbricateo three-angled tubercles are characteristic of the genus. Dense masses of hair often fill the areoles. The flowers vary from white to pink and purplish and measure approximately 21/4 in. (6cm) long and up to 11/^in. (4cm) wide when fully open

Indians in northern and central Mexico consider A. fissura-tus and A. retusus as "false Peyotes."

These species of cactus, related to Lophophora, are typical desert plants, growing preferentially in the open sun in sandy or rocky stretches.

Several psychoactive pheny-lethylamine alkaloids have been isolated from A. fissuratus and A. retusus.

Atropa belladonna L. Deadly Nightshade Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Europe, North Africa, Asia

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