How I Healed my Hair Loss

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Inhibition of Dihydrotestosterone Binding to the Androgen Receptor

MSC and two constituents of Cannabis, A9-THC and cannabinol, were tested for their ability to interact with the androgen receptor in rat prostate cytosol (32). The above-mentioned materials competitively inhibited the specific binding of dihydrotestosterone to the androgen receptor with a dissociation constant (Ki) of 2.1 x 10-7 M for CBN, 2.6 x 107 M for A9-THC, and 5.8 x 107 M for MSC. The data indicate that the antiandrogenic effects associated with marijuana use result, at least in part, from inhibition of androgen action at the receptor level.

Segmental analysis of methamphetamine in hair and nails obtained from a habitual abuser at autopsy by mass spectrometry

Scalp hair (parietal region) For samplings of hair, the scalp hair at the posterior part of parietal region is said to be best, because of its constant growth rate 10 . Prior to analysis, it is necessary to remove environmental (exogenous) compounds attached to the surface of hair. Some surfactants, 0.05-1 sodium laurylsulfate, organic solvents such as n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol and acetone, and 0.01-0.1 M HCl are used for washing the hair surface. To enhance the washing efficiency, an ultrasonic cleaner is often used. To extract a target compound from hair, the sample is put in methanol, 0.1 M HCl or 0.1 M NaOH and incubated at 40-60 C. There are also methods employing digestion with 2.5 M NaOH or proteinase K. These extracts are subjected to liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction to purify target compounds the final analysis is usually made by immnnoassays, HPLC, GC or GC MS 1, 11 .

Drug Administration Drug formulations

Topical application of testosterone, as a gel or from transdermal patches, can lead to absorption and systemic effects (SEDA-16,158). Transdermal absorption of testosterone (usually from treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus et atrophicus) can lead to increased libido, clitoral hypertrophy, pubic hirsutism, thinning of the scalp hair, facial acne, voice change, hirsutism, and even virilization (69).

General adverse effects

Chronic arsenic poisoning is marked by edema of the eyelids and face, mucosal inflammation, pruritus, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Long-term use of small doses can produce keratinization and dryness of the skin, sometimes with frank dermatitis and pigmentation alopecia can follow, and basal cell epithelioma is a late effect (13). In the long run, as in the fatal cases noted in the introduction of this monograph, there is serious damage to internal organs.

CRH Overexpression Novel Insights into Old Problems

In 1992, a transgenic mouse line overexpressing CRH was developed (Stenzel-Poore et al. 1992). These animals exhibit prominent endocrine abnormalities involving the HPA system, such as high plasma levels of ACTH and corti-costerone. CRH transgenic mice display physical changes similar to those of patients with Cushing's syndrome, such as excess fat accumulation, muscle atrophy, thin skin, and alopecia (Stenzel-Poore et al. 1992). Behavioral analysis revealed increased anxiety-related behavior when transgenic mice were tested in a light dark box (Heinrichs et al. 1997) or on the elevated plus-maze. In the latter paradigm, increased anxiety-related behavior in transgenic animals could be reversed by administration of the non-selective CRH antagonist a-helical CRH (Stenzel-Poore et al. 1994). Interestingly, adrenalectomy did not attenuate the anxiogenic effect of CRH overproduction, although it normalized plasma corticosterone levels in these animals (Heinrichs et al. 1997), suggesting...

Observational studies

Considerable efforts have been made to improve the efficacy of interferon alfa in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Currently used regimens, including long-term interferon alfa alone or in combination with ribavirin, produce a sustained response rate of 40-50 . Other possibly effective strategies include a longer duration of treatment, higher fixed doses, and high-dose induction (2). A longer duration of treatment has been evaluated in patients with chronic hepatitis B. In 118 patients, treatment for 32 rather than 16 weeks enhanced the virological response to hepatitis B without increasing the severity of adverse effects, except for hair loss, which was more frequent during prolonged therapy (3).

Susceptibility Factors Age

There is little information on the use of interferon alfa in children with chronic hepatitis C. In a review of 19 studies published between 1990 and 2000, there were data on only 366 treated children (105 untreated) and they suggested a higher rate of sustained response than in adults (393). Besides flu-like symptoms, reversible weight loss, neutropenia, and alopecia were the most commonly reported adverse events, but adverse events were not systematically recorded in these studies.

Critical Thinking Exercises

Burton is receiving methyltestosterone (Oreton Methyl) for treatment of metastatic breast cancer. The drug has caused changes in her appearance, namely deepening of her voice, some male pattern baldness, and facial hair. Analyze the situation and decide what suggestions you could give this patient who has a limited income and may be unable to afford extensive cosmetic and wardrobe changes.

Adverse Reactions

Antineoplastic drugs often produce a wide variety of adverse reactions. Some of these reactions are dose dependent that is, their occurrence is more common or their intensity is more severe when higher doses are used. Other adverse reactions occur primarily because of the effect the drug has on many cells of the body. Because the antineoplastic drugs affect both cancer cells and rapidly proliferating normal cells (ie, cells in the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive tract, and the hair follicles), adverse reactions occur as the result of the action on these cells. Adverse reactions common to many of the antineoplastic drugs include bone marrow suppression, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, diarrhea, and hair loss. Adverse reactions seen with the administration of these drugs may range from very mild to life threatening. Some of these reactions, such as the loss of hair (alopecia), may have little effect on the physical status of the patient but may definitely have a serious...

Gerontologie Alert

Alopecia (loss of hair) is a common adverse reaction associated with some of the anti-neoplastic drugs. Some drugs cause severe hair loss, whereas others cause gradual thinning. Examples of drugs commonly associated with severe hair loss are doxorubicin and vinblastine. Methotrexate, bleomycin, vincristine, and etoposide are associated with gradual hair loss. If hair loss is associated with the antineoplastic drug being given, the nurse informs the patient that hair loss may occur. This problem occurs 10 to 21 days after the treatment cycle is completed. Hair loss is temporary, and hair will grow again when the drug therapy is completed. The nurse warns the patient that hair loss may occur suddenly and in large amounts. Although it is not life threatening, alopecia can lower self-esteem and serve as a reminder that the individual is undergoing treatment for cancer. Depending on the patient, the nurse may need to make plans for the purchase of a wig or cap to...

Adulteration of Hair and Saliva Specimens for Drug Testing

Hair and saliva specimens are alternatives to urine specimens for drug testing (see Chapter 11). Several products available through the Internet claim that washing hair with their shampoos can help pass a drug test. Clear Choice Hair Follicle Shampoo claims to remove all residues and toxins within 10 min of use. One application is sufficient for shoulder-length hair, and the effect can last for 8 h. Root Clean hair-cleansing system shampoo has also been commercially available. However, no systematic study has been reported to investigate the effect of using these products in a drug test. Saliva samples are also used for drug testing. The chances of adulteration of saliva specimen are very low to non-existent. However, the manufacturer of a commercially available mouthwash claims that by rinsing the mouth twice with this product, a person can beat saliva-based drug testing, which is a popular method of testing by insurance companies. The same company claims that its specially...

General Information

Minoxidil is a potent vasodilator effective in severe hypertension irrespective of the cause. Isolated case reports have been published of hair growth in areas of male pattern baldness in patients treated with oral minoxidil, therefore topical minoxidil has been used for the treatment of alopecia areata and alopecia androgenica, with some success. Topical minoxidil stimulates new hair growth and arrests loss of hair in androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is poorly absorbed through the skin (less than 4 ) (1), and plasma concentrations of minoxidil are far less than 10 of the mean minoxidil concentration present 2 hours after oral ingestion of 5 mg, the lowest dose for the treatment of hypertension (2). Its adverse effects after topical application are therefore usually limited to the application site on the scalp. They include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. These effects are seen in 5.7 of patients who use a 5 solution...

Therapeutic studies

The results with a 2 solution of minoxidil are variable, and experience has suggested that higher concentrations may be more effective. Topical twice-daily minoxidil 2 and 5 have therefore been compared for 48 weeks in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in 393 men (aged 18-49 years) with androgenic alopecia (4). The higher concentration of minoxidil was significantly more effective than both the lower concentration and placebo in terms of change from baseline in non-vellus hair count, patient rating of scalp coverage and treatment benefit, and investigator rating of scalp coverage the response to treatment occurred earlier with 5 minoxidil. However, there was more pruritus and local irritation with 5 minoxidil.

Organs and Systems Nervous system

In 24 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer given suramin twice weekly intravenously targeted to reach plasma concentrations of 50-100, 101-150, 151-200, or 201-250 mg ml plus doxorubicin, fatigue occurred in 18 and was dose-limiting in two (17). Eight developed neurological symptoms, of whom three, all receiving the highest dose, developed grade 3 toxicity. There were five cases of neuropathies. Two patients had evidence of a demyelinating neuropathy, one of whom developed a Guillain-Barre-like syndrome and inflammatory myopathy. A further patient had a mixed axonal and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Two patients developed a motor neuropathy that exacerbated pre-existing neurological defects. Other frequent adverse events were proteinuria, leukopenia, and alopecia. However, the respective roles of suramin and doxorubicin in causing these adverse effects were uncertain.

Gerontologic Alert

With long-term administration, the female patient may experience mild to moderate masculine changes (virilization), namely facial hair, a deepening of the voice, and enlargement of the clitoris. Male pattern baldness, patchy hair loss, skin pigmentation, and acne may also be seen. Although these adverse effects are not life threatening, they often are distressing and only add to the patient's discomfort and anxiety. These problems may be easy to identify, but they are not always easy to solve. If hair loss occurs, the nurse can suggest the wearing of a wig. The nurse advises the patient that mild skin pigmentation may be covered with makeup, but severe and widespread pigmented areas and acne are often difficult to conceal. Each patient is different, and the emotional responses to these outward changes may range from severe depression to a positive attitude and acceptance. The nurse works with the patient as an individual, first identifying the problems, and then helping the patient,...

Physiology and Pharmacology

Hair growth goes through a three-phase cycle (74) anagen (growth phase), catagen (involution), and telogen (rest). At the end of the telogen phase, hair is shed and the next cycle begins. In a normal scalp, approximately 90-95 of hair is in the anagen phase. The duration of anagen determines the hair length. Hair diameter is determined by the volume of the hair bulb. The scalp's terminal hair follicles are predetermined to grow long thick hair, whereas the vellus hair follicles on most of the body are predetermined to grow short and fine hair. In androgenetic alopecia, the cycle of scalp hair growth is altered, with gradual reduction in the length of anagen phase leading to a reduction in the ratio of anagen to telogen hair (86). This leads to progressive miniaturization of the scalp hair in a recognizable pattern. The main difference between the male and female androgenetic alopecia, other than the visible pattern, is that bald men have reasonable...

Pharmchem Sweat Drug Patch Test

The substance collected for sweat testing is actually a combination of secretions onto the skin. Cannabinoids and other drugs are transported into sweat by diffusion from blood and other depots. Sweat from eccrine glands and sebum from apocrine sweat glands and sebaceous glands are the main constituents. Eccrine glands are located throughout the body near the surface of the skin, and the sweat they produce is aqueous, contains salts, is usually in the pH range of 4.0-6.0, and is produced at variable rates with an average of approx 20 mL per hour. Apocrine sweat glands are located in the shaft of the hair follicle and excrete a substance that is viscous, cloudy, and rich in cholesterol, triglycerides, and fatty acids. This secretion mixes with sebum, a similar viscous liquid rich in triglycerides and long-chain esters, from sebaceous glands in the hair bulb region. Sweat and sebum mix to form an emulsion on the skin surface. When sweat is collected for testing, this mixture is the...

Androgenrelated Antitumor Agents

Androgens are steroidal hormones that stimulate and control the masculine primary and secondary characteristics. They exert their action by binding to a nuclear receptor called the androgen receptor (AR)36 and the complex acts as a transcription factor, in a similar way to estrogens. The main androgens are testosterone and its reduced metabolite 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which has a higher affinity for the AR and three- to tenfold greater molar potency than testosterone. Testosterone 5a - Dihydrotestosterone

Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

A fetus had an extremely hypotrophic caudal body pole, aplasia of the lower spine, and complete renal agenesis diagnosed in the second trimester by ultrasound. The mother had used minoxidil solution to prevent hair loss for 4 years before and during gestation. She had also taken co-trimoxazole during the first trimester. She was not diabetic and had no history of familial genetic disorders.

Hair Growth Disorders

Common baldness, also known as male-pattern baldness, affects approximately 50 of men by age 50 (72), although it can start as early as the teen years. Till the late 1980s, common baldness was viewed as a merely cosmetic condition that has no health implications with the introduction of hair growth agents, the condition was medicalized and redefined as androgenetic alopecia. Androge-netic alopecia affects women as well, but in a different pattern that is usually referred to as female-pattern baldness, diffuse hair loss, or diffuse androgen-dependent alopecia. An estimated 30 of Caucasian women, and 15-20 of all women, develop the condition before age 50 (73, 74). Whereas hair loss, like other lifestyle conditions, is not a direct threat to a person's well-being, it can be a distressing and psychologically disturbing condition because of lower satisfaction with one's body image (75, 76). In one of the clinical studies on minoxidil, the majority of participants thought that personal...

Inhibitors of 5areductase

The androgenic activity in the prostate is due to 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), since 95 of testosterone entering the prostate is converted to the more potent androgen DHT by the 5a-reductase enzyme of the type 2. Hence, blockade of that enzyme, whose expression is largely restricted to the prostate, facilitates the inhibition of testosterone action on urogenital sinus tissue derivatives, notably 5a-Dihydrotestosterone FIGURE 3.24 Reduction of testosterone to 5a-dihydrotestosterone. 5a-Dihydrotestosterone FIGURE 3.24 Reduction of testosterone to 5a-dihydrotestosterone. the prostate, without blocking peripheral androgenic action due to testosterone. Their main use so far is the treatment of alopecia and benign prostate hyperplasia, and there is interest in their potential use as cancer chemopreventive agents.

Order Papaverales Cronquist 1981

Uses In Indonesia, Pericampylus glaucus (Lamk.) Merr. is used to counteract hair loss and to resolve swelling of the spleen. In Malaysia, the plant is used to treat fever, cough, headache and asthma. In Philippines, the juice of the roots is used to counteract snake-poisoning.

Treatment Options in Bipolar Disorder

The side effects of the mood stabilizers can be troubling. Lithium often causes increased appetite with weight gain, tremor, increased thirst and frequent urination, and can impair thyroid and kidney function when taken for many years. Valproate can cause fatigue when first started and increased appetite with weight gain. People often notice some mild hair loss after two to three months on valproate, though it generally grows back without difficulty. Rarely, valproate and carbamazepine can cause potentially serious blood disorders. All three require regular blood work to measure levels in your body and ensure that you are not having a toxic reaction. Lamotrigine can cause a rash and liver failure.

Cannabis for cachexiaanorexia associated with AIDS wasting syndrome and cancer

Recent pharmacological advances have proven more effective than TPN. At this time two oral medications are approved by the FDA for use as appetite stimulants megestrol acetate (Megace), and dronabinol (Marinol). Megace is supplied in 20 and 40 mg tablets and is commonly used as a treatment for breast or endometrial cancer. Its side effects include abnormal uterine bleeding, carpal tunnel syndrome, thrombophlebitis (blood clots) and alopecia (hair loss). Dronabinol is a synthetic tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) molecule in capsule form. It has been shown in clinical research to significantly increase appetite and body weight at a dosage level of 2.5-mg TID (three times per day), without euphoric effects associated with larger doses. Cannabis contains THC as its main pharmacological component, along with about 60 other lesser-known cannabinoids.

Dose Scheduling and Cell Cycle

Competition between cells within a tumor favors those that continuously progress through the cell cycle. Tumor cells generally proliferate and differentiate at a faster rate than the immediately surrounding normal cells, and this leads to disease progression. However, healthy rapidly dividing cells are also affected by chemotherapy, which gives rise to the recognized side effects, such as myelosuppression, alopecia, dermatitis, and GI, liver, and kidney toxicities.

Pericampylus glaucus Lamk Merr

Pericampylus Glaucus

Pharmaceutical interest The pharmacological potential of Pericampylus glaucus (Lamk.) Merr. remains unexplored. This plant is known to produce some alkaloids and triterpenes such as epifriedelinol and daucos-terol (Liang P et al., 1998 Tomita M et al., 1967). The anti-hair loss, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant are most probably due to isoquinoline alkaloids. Note that norreticuline and reticuline, benzyltetrahy-droisoquinoline alkaloids common in the Ranunculales, stimulate the proliferation of cultured cells from the murine hair apparatus and stimulate mouse hair regrowth (Nakaoji K et al., 1997). What is the mechanism involved here a-receptors

Radioactive Glass Beads Microspheres

This therapy is a useful addition to current treatments for liver cancer because, although surgical removal of a liver tumor offers the best intervention, only 15 or less of cancer patients are suitable for surgery, usually because their tumors are too far advanced at the time of diagnosis or because of other medical considerations. Systemic chemotherapy is still the first-line treatment for most liver cancer patients but unfortunately it is not very effective. Therefore, this procedure, which can be carried out in an outpatient setting, offers the possibility of effective treatment without the usual side effects of nausea, weakness, hair loss, and radiation burns. So far, very encouraging results have been obtained from clinical trials with hundreds of liver cancer patients in various countries, including Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada. Thus, it is likely that this treatment will become more widespread in the future. It is also possible that this...

Im Built Like a Bean Pole

Not long after we began training, one of my lifting buddies showed up with a pill that he says will help us get bigger and stronger faster. The pill is a steroid, and he told us it is harmless and said if we really want to get really big we can stack steroids. I wasn't totally sure about this, so I went to talk with Coach Smith. She told me that stacking is when two or more anabolic steroids are taken together. people who stack mix oral and injection steroids and sometimes add drugs like stimulants or painkillers. She said the idea behind stacking is an unproven belief that the different drugs interact to produce a greater effect on muscle size. She also said we needed to be careful because steroid use had some really nasty side effects. It can cause acne, reduce a guy's sperm count, shrink the testicles, lead to impotence, result in difficulty or pain in urinating, baldness, and even irreversible breast enlargement. She said that the long-term effects can include cancer and possibly...

Eosinophiliamyalgia syndrome

No severe or irreversible adverse effects of tryptophan were reported until 1989, when an eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome was described, and l-tryptophan-containing products were withdrawn from the market (SEDA-15, 518). This syndrome was characterized by an eosinophil count of at least 1 x 109 l and intense generalized myalgia. Other relatively frequent signs and symptoms were fatigue, arthralgia, skin rash, cough and dyspnea, edema of the limbs, fever, scleroderma-like skin abnormalities, increased hair loss, xerostomia, neuropathy, and pneumonia or pneumonitis with or without pulmonary vasculitis. About one-third of the cases required hospitalization, and a substantial number of patients died. The syndrome is suspected to have been due to an unidentified impurity in products from one manufacturer (SEDA-18, 22).

An estrogen an androgen

The adverse effects of estrogen + androgen therapy include mild hirsutism and acne (5). One group of workers, who examined the use of Estratest'' (an esterified combination of estrogen and methyltestosterone), concluded that in their experience under 5 of women developed acne or facial hirsutism, a frequency similar to that experienced when using conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg day. Women had significantly less nausea with the estrogen + androgen treatment than with conjugated estrogen therapy. Cancers, cardiovascular disease, thromboembolism, and liver disease were stated to be rare among users of the combination. The only adverse events exceeding 4 of total reports were alopecia, acne, weight gain, and hirsutism (6). However, much higher rates of complications with such combinations have been reported from other centres (1).

Vitamins minerals and trace elements

Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements can and should be used when the mother has real deficiencies. This also applies to iron and to vitamin D preparations. Such usage - and this also applies to fluoride for dental prophylaxis (Koparal 2000) - does not require lowering the infant's dosage in cases where he or she is also being treated directly, However, routine prescription of vitamin and mineral preparations during breastfeeding is not necessary if nutrition is balanced. In the interest of the future diet of the child who is still being breastfed, the mother should be made aware of the special importance of healthy nutrition, which, in the long run, can prevent the need for both her and her child to take not only substitutes but also therapeutic tablets. For iodine, see Chapter 4.11. Postpartum hair loss, which is frequently bemoaned and can be observed for many months, is physiologic and almost always improves spontaneously. The effectiveness of using mineral...

Native Hormone

General mechanism of action of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones cross through the plasmatic membrane without apparent difficulty favored by gradient. Some, which can be considered prohormones, are metabolized and transformed into more active products. This is the case with testosterone, which becomes dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the target tissues of androgens, through the 5-alfa-reductase enzyme. The hormone binds to the receptor, a soluble protein of the cellular cytosol that, in the absence of hormone, is found associated with other proteins (hsp90 and others) that maintain the receptor in an inactive state. The hormone-receptor bond causes the other proteins to separate and a homodimer to be formed. The homodimer is the activated form of the receptor since it is capable of recognizing the genes that depend on that steroid hormone as well as of activating its expression, which leads to the synthesis of specific proteins


Hirsutism is common in patients taking androgens, and is often irreversible (39,40). In contrast, in women, loss of scalp hair can occur (41). Of 81 female-to-male transsexual subjects, mean age 37 years (range 21-61), treated with testosterone esters (n 61 250 mg intramuscularly every 2 weeks) or testosterone undecanoate (n 20 160-240 mg day orally), 31 developed male-pattern baldness thinning of the hair was related to the duration of androgen administration and was present in about half of the transsexuals after 13 years (42).


The epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of alveolar echinococcosis of the liver have been described in French patients followed between 1972 and 1993 (5). From 1982 benzimidazoles were used. Of 117 patients, 72 took either albendazole or mebendazole for 4-134 months. The most common adverse effects were an increase in alanine transaminase activity to more than five times the top of the reference range (in six patients taking albendazole and in three taking mebendazole). Neutropenia (leukocyte count below 1.0 x 109 l) occurred in two patients taking albendazole. Alopecia occurred in four patients taking mebendazole. Minor adverse effects of albendazole included malaise, anorexia, and digestive intolerance in one patient each. In 13 patients treatment had to be withdrawn because of adverse effects (n 10) or non-adherence to therapy (n 3).


Liver A 50-year-old woman taking spirono-lactone for androgenic alopecia developed hepatitis with minimal cholestasis 6 weeks after starting therapy (17A). After withdrawal of spironolactone, her symptoms resolved and liver function tests improved. She was not rechallenged.

Flatin compounds

There are about 28 publications about treatment during the second and third trimesters, administered as mono-drug Lherapy as well as multi-agent chemotherapy. Han (2005) reports two cases with apparently normal outcome after therapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin. Ferrandina (2005) describes a healthy male premature baby after prenatal exposure to six cycles of cisplatin. Tomlinson (1997) reports a normal pregnancy using cisplatin and cyclophosphamide, and gives a summary on nine further cases, including a premature birth with neutropenia and reversible hair loss from day 10 onwards which had been exposed to cisplatin, bleomycin, and etoposide until 6 days prior to birth. At the age of 1 year, the child was apparently normal except for a moderate sensineural hearing loss bilaterally (Raffles 1989 see also case description in section 2.13.4). One case report describes a premature infant that developed cerebral atrophy with enlargement of the cerebral ventricles its mother had...

Thyroid Hormones

Effects A class of drugs that mimic the hormone produced in the thyroid gland. Subclinical hypothyroidism, or a slightly underfunctioning thyroid, can be one reason for poor concentration, mental confusion, and memory disturbances . The condition is also characterized by such symptoms as cold hands and feet, menstrual problems, dry skin, thin hair, and low energy levels. It is little-known and often overlooked by doctors.


About 20 cases of thallium ingestion, with suicidal intent or to provoke an abortion, have been reported. A case of chronic intoxication by a rodenticidc containing thallium at the workplace has also recently been described. Most of the children survived the poisoning of their mother, if she was treated adequately. Apart from alopecia, premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation (but no birth defects) seem to be possible effects of prenatal exposure, including the first trimester (Hoffmann 2000).


Hair and saliva are considered as alternative specimens to urine for drugs of abuse testing. Drugs can be trapped in the segment of hair as it develops in a hair follicle and the hair segment emerges from the follicle and becomes keratinized and it carries the drug already trapped in the hair. This trapping of drugs permits analysis a few months later of the actual abuse and has a much longer window of detection than urine or saliva testing. However, several factors may influence amount of drug trapped in the hair such as hair color. Saliva is also an alternative specimen to urine for testing of abused drugs. The main advantage of saliva and hair testing is that the donor has a little chance to adulterate the specimen. Already in use in the transportation and

Interferon Beta

Common side effects include some form of pain at the site of injection, sinusitis, migraine headaches, fever, weakness, chills, muscle aches, abdominal pain, flu-like symptoms, menstruation that is painful or irregular, constipation, vomiting, liver inflammation, sweating, and a reduction in white blood cells. Less common side effects include swelling, pelvic pain, cysts, suicidal tendencies, thyroid goiter, heart palpitations, high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, bleeding, laryngitis, breathing difficulties, stiffness, tiredness, speech problems, convulsions, uncontrolled movements, hair loss, visual disturbances, pink eye, feelings of a need to urinate, cystitis, breast pain, and cystic breast disease. Rare side effects encompass symptoms occurring almost everywhere on the body.


Minoxidil is used orally as a systemic antihypertensive drug with vasodilatory activity. Topically, it is used in cases of androgenetic alopecia and other types of baldness. The ingredient is lipophylic, and the resorption rate is 2-3 o. The concentrations in the serum are far below therapeutic levels in adults. In a prospective study, 17 pregnant women were treated with minoxidil. Of 15 newborns, 1 had an unspecified developmental disorder of the heart (Shapiro 2003). A case report Smorlesi 2003) describes a woman who applied minoxidil to her scalp at least twice daily during pregnancy. Fetal pathology revealed an enlarged heart with distal stenosis of the aorta, an enlarged sigmoid colon and mesentery, and enlarged cerebral ventricles with brain hemorrhages. The placenta had numerous

Reproductive system

In women and children, the main effect will be one of virilization in its various forms, ranging from hirsutism and deepening of the voice to enlargement of the female clitoris and male pattern baldness the effect on the voice rapidly becomes irreversible because of changes in the larynx laryngeal polyps have also been observed (46). In women, menstrual abnormalities are likely. Short-term treatment can produce increases in estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone (total and unbound), and the ratio of dihydrotestosterone to testosterone.

The Mormon Elders

The Internals Betel Leaf

Even more erratic than kavakava in its aplnodisiacal effects is L-dopa, a pharmaceutical used mainly in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The widespread medical use of the drug has demonstrated that it can be a colossal sexual turn-on for1 a small percentage of patients who receive it Reports of hospitalized men and women in their late sixties acting like pubescent rabbits are not uncommon, but really not frequent enough to make L-dopa worth experimenting with. Its nasty side-effects include nausea, anxiety, confusion, hot flashes and hair loss. This dangerous chemical shouldn't be taken without a doctor's advice.


Effect depends on the degree to which it is turned into dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5-a-reductase in the target tissues. It is believed that all steroids, including testosterone, exhibit their effect by binding with corresponding receptors in target tissues. It has been shown that the affinity to androgenic receptors of the 5-a-dihydrotestosterone is approximately 10 times stronger than that of testosterone. It has also been shown that the binding of androgens with corresponding receptors leads to the synthesis of a few specific proteins in the body, i.e. their use is always accompanied by anabolic action.

Vinca Alkaloids

Dark Floral Wallpaper

In the initial in vivo screens carried out by Eli Lilly, the plant extracts were shown to reduce white blood cell counts, which prompted an investigation of their anticancer properties, particularly in the leukemias. The isolated alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine and the related semisynthetic vindesine and vinorelbine (Structure 4.2) are now used to treat certain solid tumors (mainly lung and breast), lymphomas, and acute leukemias. All of these agents are given by intravenous administration, and side effects include neurotoxicity, myelosuppression, and alopecia. Myelosuppression and neurological toxicities are the major adverse effects associated with the vinca anticancer agents. Although all members of the family cause some neurological side effects, which normally manifest initially as autonomic or peripheral neuropathy, vincristine is the most affected and neurotoxicity is the dose-limiting toxicity for this agent. Conversely, vincristine causes the least myelosuppression of...


Skin Rosacea, accompanied the use of Mirena in a 36-year-old woman for 2 years and disappeared within 6 months of removal (78A). Although, as the authors noted, skin complications (acne, alopecia, and pruritus) have been associated with Mirena, one is bound to wonder whether this was a direct reaction to levonorgestrel or a stress reaction to the absence of menstrual periods. Like many other Mirena users, this woman had amenorrhea associated with facial flushing and pustules conditions such as urticaria, eczema, pompholyx, and erythema multiforme occur cyclically in some women in the second half of the menstrual cycle, irrespective of contraceptive use.


The interest in pharmacological therapy for male pattern hair loss started as early as 1965, when a topical preparation of testosterone was tested for presumed benefits. Topical testosterone failed to show any efficacy (86). The interest then declined until reports about stimulation of hair growth in hypertensive patients being treated with the then experimental drug minoxidil renewed the hopes. demonstrated until the project moved to large phase III multi-center clinical trials (111) .Up-john's efforts were culminated in 1988 by the approval of minoxidil 2 topical solution for male pattern androgenetic alopecia. In 1991, the FDA approved it for female pattern hair loss. The OTC switch of minoxidil topical solution was approved in 1996 after an NDA application. In 1997, the FDA granted its approval of 5 minoxidil topical solution for initial marketing as an OTC medication. Minoxidil (5 ) was never marketed as a prescription drug. Unlike minoxidil, the discovery of finas-teride was a...


Tacrolimus shares many dose-dependent side effects with CsA (94). These include nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Nephrotoxicity with tacrolimus may be less of a problem than with CsA, especially in renal transplantation (95). Diabetogenesis is approximately three times more common with tacrolimus than with CsA (96). Hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hirsutism, and gingival hypertrophy are also observed following tacrolimus use, but less commonly than with CsA (97). Alopecia is also associated with tacrolimus use (94).


Hair Effects of hormonal or antihormonal products on the hair are reported sporadically. A woman taking tamoxifen for metastatic cancer (presumably from the breast) developed alopecia she began to lose her hair within 3 months and was entirely bald after 13 months of treatment (72A). The authors did not make it clear whether cytostatic drugs (which can cause alopecia) were also used, but it is striking that there have been several earlier reports of baldness with tamoxifen.

Naturally gay

If and when someone comes to grips with the fact that they want to physically switch genders, they have a tremendous uphill battle. It is not just the stigma of being labeled a 'freak', but it involves tough decisions about their future health. For both men and women who are seeking gender reassignment, it involves taking massive doses of estrogen or testosterone and growth hormone. Women who start the therapy to become men experience widening of the jaw, male pattern baldness and hair growth on the body. But with hormone treatment comes serious risk of cardiovascular disease and perhaps some types of cancer. The jaw-dropping moment when it comes to discussing gender reassignment is usually when one broaches the topic of radical genital surgery. For both male and female surgeries the reconstruction is radical and can lead to long-term complications. So, there is a simple question that is left dangling To what extent is gender misassignment biological

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