Fungal Poisons

Mushroom Growing 4 You

Growing Mushrooms at Home

Get Instant Access

Poisonous Mushrooms

Mushroom poisoning is caused chiefly by the consumption of raw or cooked mushrooms and toadstools. The term toadstool comes from the German word Todesstuhl, which translates death's stool. Toadstool is a name commonly given to poisonous mushrooms, but for individuals who do not possess the proper identi fication skills, there are generally no easily recognizable differences between poisonous and nonpoisonous species. In fact, there is no general rule of thumb for distinguishing edible mushrooms and poison- Agaricus Xanthodermus ous toadstools. Any skilled or unskilled attempts at gathering mushrooms should be made secretly by the Dungeon Master.

Amanita

These beautiful, stark-white mushrooms are among the deadliest mushrooms in the world, containing enough poison to kill a healthy adult with just one bite. All of these mushrooms have a cap 2" to 5" wide oval becoming convex, then broadly convex to nearly plane in age. The flesh is smooth, dry, stark white, sometimes coloring to yellow or to bright red with age. Gills are white and close. Stems are 3" to 8" long and .5" to 1" thick, frequently tapering somewhat to apex and flaring to an enlarged base. Bases are smooth or finely hairy, white, with a persistent skirt like ring that almost always remains. The smell is most distinctive in older specimens, being like strong bleach.

Agaricus

The caps of this mushroom range in size from 1" to 5". The color is whitish with a smooth and glossy to fibrous surface. The gills are free from the stem, having a deep pink color that becomes brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity. These gills are covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stems are 1" to 2.5" long and .5" thick, sometimes tapering slightly to the base. The taste and smell are appealing.

This genus also includes some very good edibles. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC20 when trying to gather edible Agaricus, otherwise they will pick a toxic variety when foraging.

Agaricus Albolutescens

Common Name(s): Meadow Toadstool

Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Bisporigera Common Name(s): Death Angel Poison: Amanitin

Amanita Brunnescens

Common Name(s): Cleft-Foot Amanita

Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Chlorinosma Common Name(s): Toad Bleach, Chlorine Amanita Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Muscaria Common Name(s): Fly Agaric Poison: Muscimol

Amanita Ocreata

Common Name(s): Destroying Angel Poison: Amanitin

Amanita Pantherina Common Name(s): Panther Poison: Muscimol

Amanita Parcivolvata

Common Name(s): False Fly Agaric

Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Phalloides Common Name(s): Death Cap Poison: Amanitin

Amanita Smithiana

Common Name(s): Smith's Amanita

Poison: Orellanine

Amanita Vaginata

Common Name(s): True Grisette

Poison: Amanitin

Amanita Verna

Common Name(s): Spring Destroying Angel

Poison: Amanitin Amanita Virosa

Common Name(s): Spring Amanita Poison: Amanitin

Amanita Cothurnata

Common Name(s): Booted Amanita

Poison: Muscimol

Amanita Flavoconia Common Name(s): Yellow Patches, Yellow Wart Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Flavorubescens Common Name(s): Yellow Blusher Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Frostiana Common Name(s): Frost's Amanita

Poison: Paresthesine

Amanita Gemmata

Common Name(s): Gemmed Amanita, Jeweled Deathcap Poison: Muscimol

Boletus

These red-pored mushrooms are recognized by large size and club-shaped stem with coarse, reddish scales. Caps range from 3" to 7" wide and are broadly convex, almost spherical. The surface is dry, uneven or pitted, color ranging from dull-brown to cream-brown, the pigments often mottled, frequently tinged reddish towards the edge. Most turn blue when cut. The odor is not distinctive and they have a mild taste. The spores of Boletus are brown to dull olive-brown.

Some members of the genus Boletus are among the best edible mushrooms. To have much success with identification, you will need working familiarity

Boletus Satanus

Agaricus Placomyces Common Name(s): Black Scale Toadstool

Poison: Paresthesine

Agaricus Silvicola

Common Name(s): White Peck

Poison: Paresthesine

Agaricus Xanthodermus Common Name(s): Yellow Stainer Poison: Paresthesine with this genus. The mushrooms in Boletus often change their appearance rather drastically as they develop. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC30 when trying to gather edible Boletus, otherwise they will pick a toxic variety when foraging.

Boletus Frostii

Common Name(s): Frost's Bolete Poison: Paresthesine

Boletus Pulcherrimus

Common Name(s): Beautiful Bolete

Poison: Paresthesine

Boletus Satanus

Common Name(s): Satan's Bolete Poison: Paresthesine

The caps of the Clitocybe range from 2" to 10" wide and convex with an incurved margin. They have a color ranging from grayish to light brownish gray. The surface almost always moist, and the flesh is thick, white. The stems are also white, sizes range from 2" to 10" long and 1" thick. The spores are yellow and plentiful. All have an unpleasant odor, either rancid or skunky.

Clitocybe Clavipes Common Name(s): Clubfoot Funnelcap, Fat-Footed Clitocybe Poison: Coprine

Clitocybe Dealbata

Common Name(s): Sweater Cap

Poison: Muscarine coprinus

Caps range from 1" to 6" wide and are oval when young, expanding to broadly convex or bell-shapes, sometimes with a curled up and/or tattered margin. The flesh is yellow brown, amber, or sometimes paler and becoming paler with age towards the margin. Gills are attached to the stem and pale, becoming brown, then black. These black gills will liquify, turning to black "ink". Stems are 1" to 3" long but never more than .2" thick. They are white, fibrous, and hollow. Spores are smooth and black.

Coprinus Atramentarius Common Name(s): Inky Cap Poison: Coprine

Coprinus Fuscescens Common Name(s): Dark Cap Poison: Coprine

Coprinus Insignis

Common Name(s): Reagle Ink

Poison: Coprine

Coprinus Micaceus Common Name(s): Mica Cap Poison: Coprine Cortinarius Orellanus Common Name(s): Poznan Cort Poison: Coprine

Entoloma

Caps are 2" to 6" wide, being slightly convex and lumpy. Skin color ranges from dark bluish-gray to light gray. Gills are notched, white to pale blue in color, becoming pinkish as spores mature. Stems range from 2" to 4" long, .5" to 1" thick, and are usually streaked bluish-gray above, and pallid to whitish below. Spores are always salmon-pink.

Very few members of the genus Entoloma are edible mushrooms. To have much success with identification, you will need working familiarity with this genus. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC30 when trying to gather edible Entoloma, otherwise they will pick a toxic variety when foraging. Even those with the requisite skills have a -5 when identifying.

Entoloma Mammosum Common Name(s): Pink Nipple

Boletus Sensibilis

Common Name(s): Delicate Boletus, Splatty Boletus Poison: Paresthesine

Chlorophyllum Molybdites Common Name(s): Green Gill, Green Spored Lepiota, Green-Spored Parasol Poison: Paresthesine

The cap is 2" to 7" broad paraboloid, keeping a shaggy margin from veil fragments in youth. It is brown, sometimes with white tints, with occasion al expansion cracking. It will sporadically turning carrot-orange when injured. The gills are free and close, cream colored in age, buff-brown to grayish-olive when young The stem is 2" to 4" long, and .5" to 1" thick, slightly enlarged Clitocybe to bulbous at the base and white, bruising dull vinaceous-brown, then gray-brown in older material. The spores are a distinctive green color.

Chlorophyllum Molybdites is a toxic look-alike of Macrolepiota Rachodes, a good edible species. The differences between these two species can be subtle, particularly when young. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC26 when trying to gather the edible Macrolepiota Rachodes, otherwise they will pick a toxic Chlorophyllum Molybdites when foraging.

Clitocybe

Clitocybe Rivulosa Common Name(s): Miller's Cap Poison: Muscarine

Clitocybe Truncicola Common Name(s): No Name Poison: Muscarine

Conocybe

Characterized by a obtusely-conic cap, almost a sharp funnel shape or bell-shaped, .3" to 1" across. The surface is smooth, at first light-brown, fading to dull brown. The stalks are tiny and fragile, often quite long in proportion to width. Gills are usually rusty brown , to cinnamon brown at / maturity. Spores are brown to cinnamon brown.

This genus also includes some very good edi-ciavipm bles. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC18 when trying to gather edible Conocybe, otherwise they will pick a toxic variety when foraging.

Conocybe Cyanopus

Common Name(s): Blue Conocybe

Poison: Psilocybin

Conocybe Filaris

Common Name(s): Cotton Conocybe Poison: Amanitin

Conocybe Smithii

Common Name(s): Smith's Conocybe Poison: Psilocybin

Entoloma Nidorosum

Common Name(s): Pink Gills Poison: Paresthesine

Entoloma Pascuum

Common Name(s): Passover Entoloma Poison: Paresthesine

Entoloma Rhodopolium Common Name(s): Rhode Entoloma Poison: Paresthesine

Entoloma Salmoneum Common Name(s): Salmon Cap Poison: Paresthesine

Entoloma Strictius

Common Name(s): Erect Entoloma

Poison: Paresthesine

Entoloma Vernum

Common Name(s): Spring Entoloma Poison: Paresthesine

Galerina

Galerina caps are 1" to 2" wide, and slightly convex. Their flesh is usually moist, yellow-brown to cream, with a strait margin. Gills are tan to rust-brown and close. The gills are very distinct, making it easier to recognize this species from below than from above. Stalks range from 3" to 4" tall and .2" to .5" wide, have smooth skin and range from pale brown to dark brown in color. Spores are rust-brown.

Gomphus Bonari

The stem is up to 5" tall, .5" to 1" thick, stout, tapering downward, and hollow near the base, sometimes discoloring brown.

Though a few describe members of this genus as edible and even choice, they have a mealy flavor and are usually regarded as mediocre by most mushroom hunters. This species also attracts insects and is often infested with fly larva. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC30 when trying to Gyrom¡tra gather edible Entoloma, otherwise they will pick a toxic variety or an insect infested mushroom when foraging.

Gomphus Bonari

Common Name(s): Short & Woolly Poison: Paresthesine

Gomphus Floccosus

Common Name(s): Woolly Chanterelle

Poison: Paresthesine

Gomphus Kauffmanii Common Name(s): Woolly Gomphus Poison: Paresthesine

Californica

Gomphus Bonari

Gymnopilus

, Caps range from 2" to > 6" across, with a convex then expanded shape similar to a large furniture button. These mushrooms have a rich

Galerina Autumnalis

Common Name(s): Deadly Galerina

Poison: Amanitin

Galerina Marginata

Common Name(s): Margined Galerina Poison: Amanitin

Galerina Venenata

Common Name(s): Brownie Cap

Poison: Amanitin

Gomphus

Caps are cylindrical and vase-shaped, up to 5" wide with a margin plane to strongly uplifted. The skin is moist, nearly smooth when young, and coarsely scaly at maturity, especially at the center. Color ranges from yellowish-orange to reddish-orange fading in age.

golden color and are usually covered in small fibrous scales. The meat is pale yellowish and taste very bitter. Stems are 2" to 5" long and up to 1" thick, usually swollen in the lower part but narrowed again at base. Spores are rusty-orange.

Gymnopilus Aeruginosus Common Name(s): Golden Saucer Poison: Psilocybin

Gymnopilus Validipes Common Name(s): Tree Rotter Poison: Psilocybin

Gyromitra

Caps range from 1" to 4.5" wide and are very misshapen, looking like a large wrinkled prune. Color ranges from tan to yellow brown, and rarely with red shades. The under-sides are paler, ingrowing with stem where contact occurs. The stem is 1" to 4" long, pale tan to white and as thick as the cap, with ribs or waves.

Gyromitra are toxic look-alikes of the Morchella genus, best known as morels. Morels are among the most popular edible mushrooms. False morels grow almost everywhere that morels grow. This makes hunting for morels in the spring a risky enterprise, despite the fact that so many people feel confident. Those without the proper Knowledge skill have a DC30 when trying to gather the edible Morchella, otherwise they will pick a toxic Gyromitra when foraging. Even those with the requisite skills have a -10 when identifying.

Gyromitra Ambigua

Common Name(s): Devil's Morel, Bull Nose

Poison: Gyromitrin Gyromitra Brunnea

Common Name(s): Brown False Morel Poison: Gyromitrin

Gyromitra Californica

Common Name(s): Red False Morel

Poison: Gyromitrin

Gyromitra Caroliniana Common Name(s): Brown Bonnet Poison: Gyromitrin

Gyromitra Esculenta

Common Name(s): Beefsteak Morel

Poison: Gyromitrin

Gyromitra Fastigiata Common Name(s): Elephant Ear Poison: Gyromitrin

Gyromitra Gigas

Common Name(s): Snow Mushroom, Snow-Bank Morel Poison: Gyromitrin

Gyromitra Infula

Common Name(s): Walnut Morel Poison: Gyromitrin

Hebeloma

Caps range from 3" to 5" wide, con

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment