Growing Mushrooms at Home

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! Read more here...

Mushroom Growing 4 You Overview

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P Wasson and R G Wasson Mushrooms Rusala anfl History New York Pantheon Books 1957 Vol II pp215216

In 1957 the Kassons presented a review of all the previous evidence along with their own discoveries. They argued that the pre-Columbian mushroom stones which had been found in the highland of Guatemala really were meant to represent mushrooms as a symbol of the center of a sacred cult. The earliest of these artifacts have been dated about 1500 B. C.22 The ceremony itself has been described in detail (with pictures) by the Wassons, who were the first outsiders to partake of the sacred mushrooms in the secret rite, which took place at night and combined ancient Indian religious tradition with some Roman Catholic symbols. The mushrooms are used in different ways in different places in the remote

Psilocybin And Psilocin Psychedelic Mushrooms

Psilocybin and psilocin are the hallucinogenic components of certain species of mushrooms found all over the world, especially in North, Central, and South America. Early users were so impressed by the effects of these mushrooms that they believed the fungi had divine origins. The sacred mushrooms of Mexico were called the teonanactl, or flesh of the gods, by the Aztecs. Today, Mexican ceremonies combine shamanism and Roman Catholic ritual during nighttime, candlelight ceremonies. The shamans, usually women, conduct these services to treat illnesses, solve problems, and contact the spirit world.

Psilocybin Flows In And Out Of The Western Mind

However, psilocybin, although initially sparking the psychedelic fire, soon left the scene of the divine crime, once more to fade underground from whence it mysteriously originated. By the mid-sixties, its synthetic rival d-Lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD acid, a substance whose structure and psychoactivity are distinct from psilocybin, had taken over as the prime mover, demonstrating the popular appeal of laboratory produced pills and tabs. Unsurprisingly then, although the psychedelic pioneers of the early 60's were originally turned on by the psilocybin experience - most notably the members of Harvard's psychology faculty - they soon became completely embroiled in acid and the media, and never really picked up upon the Gaian shamanic pulse of the mushroom. Perhaps this is why Wasson remained highly aloof of the whole hippy counter-culture. He quietly pursued his academic research into ancient mushroom use, whilst other researchers like R.E.Schultes continued to meticulously...

Support For The Mushroom Grows

Another well-known writer at the time of psilocybin's first wave of Western use was the revered author and poet Robert Graves who also wrote publicly of his mushroom experience. Actually, Graves had been intrigued by mushrooms ever since he had licked a species of fly agaric as a young boy and had consequently experienced burning sensations on his tongue. Perhaps the incident had been a symbolic Gaian kiss of sorts, or at least a taste of things to come. At any rate, as the reader will recall, it was Graves who originally notified Wasson of the secret mushroom ceremonies still extant in Mexico. It comes as no surprise then that Graves eventually went on to write speculative articles on entheogenic mushroom use in ancient Greece (such speculation remains contentious) after he had tried the sacred sacrament in Wasson's New York apartment in 1960. Graves was, it transpires, understandably apprehensive about his first brush with psilocybin, especially worried that he might perceive...

Chapter Five The Mushroom And The Synapse

Now that I have acquainted the reader with the full spectrum of the psilocybin experience (and others like it), it is time for us to focus our attention upon psilocybin's physical modus operandi. If we can get to grips with how alkaloids like psilocybin work their spectacular effects upon the human psyche then we will be one step closer to a preliminary understanding of the nature of the conscious human mind and the underlying factors governing the switch from normal awareness to the mystical perception of an intelligent Other. At this point, consciousness lies at the centre of our enquiry. All our paths of investigation lead directly to it. The psilocybin cultural history covered in the first few chapters of this book arose solely because of the radical change in consciousness induced by the mushroom in the Aztec and Mayan psyche. The pre-LSD events at Harvard were likewise spawned by the psilocybin-induced state of consciousness. Indeed, the whole 60's thing happened, in part,...

Psychotropic Mushroom Species Around The World

Figure 55 - Giant mushroom sculpture from Kerala, India. There is considerable debate among experts about the significance and purpose of the sculpture. Figure 56 - Magic mushrooms & water buffalo t-shirt from Thailand, designed for the Western tourist market. Figure 56 - Magic mushrooms & water buffalo t-shirt from Thailand, designed for the Western tourist market.

Jack Czarnecl s Shiitake in Burgundy Butter Sauce

1 lb. fresh Shiitake caps In a skillet, saute the onions in the butter until transparent, then add water. Add the other ingredients, except the mushrooms and cornstarch, and stir for 1 minute. Add the mushrooms, and turn the heat to low. Cover the skillet with a tight-fitting lid, and let simmer for 30 minutes. Thicken the mix ture with the cornstarch-and-water mixture, and serve alone or over rice. According to Jack, the sauce actually enhances the flavor of the Shiitake. Makes 4 servings.

Hope Orsop 3V Iters Hot Mushroom Dip Especial

1 lb. fresh mushrooms* Chop mushrooms quite fine and saute in pan with butter and lemon juice. Let simmer 5-10 minutes. Add onions, sour cream, bouillon granules, salt and pepper. Simmer 5-10 minutes more. Make a paste of the remaining butter and flour. Add to hot mixture and stir until thickened. Serve hot, in fondue pot or chafing dish, with chips, crackers, or fresh vegetables. (Note if thickened with seasoned bread crumbs, fresh dill may be added as filling for Mushroom Squares. Use crescent roll dough. Pat the dough into a small 9 inch pan, spread filling and cover with more dough. Bake 20-30 minutes at 375 F. Cut into squares and serve hot.) Hope has prepared and served this dish to the kudos of mycologists throughout the world. * Morels Lion's Mane Shiitake, or Shimeji. Gleaned, with permission of the author, from a book entitled Zone's Mushroom Cookbook, 1993, Mad River Press by Hope Miller.

A idrew Weils Shiitake Teriyaki

1 cup dried Shiitake 1 4 cup sake 2 chopped green onions a few drops (roasted) sesame oil Reconstitute 1 cup dried Shiitake by covering with hot water and let stand till caps are completely soft. (Or cover with cold water, microwave on high for 2 minutes and let stand.) Cut off and discard stems. Squeeze excess liquid from caps and slice into 1 4 inch pieces. Place pieces in saucepan with 1 4 cup sake, 1 4 cup soy, and 2 tblsp. light brown sugar. Bring to boil and simmer, uncovered, till liquid is almost evaporated, tossing mushrooms occasionally. Remove from heat, cool, and chill. Sprinkle with finely chopped green onions and a few drops of dark (roasted) sesame oil. Serve as appetizer, side dish, or over rice.

An Experiment with Psilocybin

Such theoretical discussions about the magic drugs were supplemented by practical experiments. One such experiment, which served as a comparison between LSD and psilocybin, took place in the spring of 1962. The proper occasion for it presented itself at the home of the J ngers, in the former head forester's house of Stauffenberg's Castle in Wilflingen. My friends, the pharmacologist Professor Heribert Konzett and the Islamic scholar Dr. Rudolf Gelpke, also took part in this mushroom symposium. Shortly before sundown we took the drug, not the mushrooms, but rather their active principle, 20 mg psilocybin each. That corresponded to some two-thirds of the very strong dose that was taken by the curandera Maria Sabina in the form of Psilocybe mushrooms. After an hour I still noticed no effect, while my companions were already very deeply into the trip. I had come with the hope that in the mushroom inebriation I could manage to allow certain images from euphoric moments of my childhood,...

Deer Mushroom Ecology in Mexico

As was noted in another chapter, Stropharia cubensis, reportedly the strongest hallucinogenically of all the psychoactive species found in Mexico, is a dung fungus it is typically found growing on manure in open meadows. Like other mushrooms, Stropharia reproduces by releasing countless microscopic spores from its gills into the wind, which deposits them in the surrounding grassland.* Like those of other coprophyllic species, the spores of S. cubensis do not germinate directly when they reach a suitable environment but require passage through the digestive system of grazing animals in other words, they are ingested with the forage, being subsequently deposited as the animal evacuates. Not all herbivorous animals are capable of playing this essential symbiotic role, however rather, it appears that to propagate, Stropharia requires the complex digestive system of ruminants. And indeed, the mushroom is today typically found on cow dung. This curious circumstance has long worried those...

T72 cTrow Tng gourmet mushrooms on enriched sawdust

Bags of Shiitake mycelia incubatir.g on sterilized sawdust. Note that bags ar. na rrowly spaced, but are not touching, which aids in the loss of heat Figure 139. Bags of Shiitake mycelia incubatir.g on sterilized sawdust. Note that bags ar. na rrowly spaced, but are not touching, which aids in the loss of heat Super-pasteurization of supplemented oak sawdust substrates, although effective, often results in less total yield than from the same substrate sterilized. Comparative studies by Badham (1988) showed that there are no appreciable differences in yields of Shiitake between supplemented sawdust blocks subjected to high pressure autoclaving vs, atmospheric steam sterilization for the first flush. In comparing total yields, however, more mushrooms can be grown per pound of sawdust if pressure sterfction is employed. The greater yield from sterilized sawdust, according to Royse et al. (1985), is not due tc he survival of contaminants, but a function of the rendering of the...

Mushroom Stones and the Cult of Sacred Mushrooms

Mention in several of the early sources on Guatemalan Maya languages of a mushroom specifically named for the underworld i.e. the realm of the dead is especially interesting in light of the discovery of a ceremonial cache of nine beautifully sculptured miniature mushroom stones and nine miniature metates (grinding stones), dating back some 2,200 years, in a richly furnished tomb at Kaminaljuyu, a late Preclassic and Early Classic archaeological site near Guatemala City. The coincidence of the number of mushroom effigy sculptures interred with a Maya dignitary and the number of rulers of the traditional Maya underworld immediately impressed archaeologist Stephan de Borhegyi (1961), who proposed that the mushroom idols were almost certainly connected with the Nine Lords of Xibalba, as described in the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Quiche-Maya. Stone effigies of mushrooms have in fact been turning up in archaeological contexts in Guatemala and Mexico since the nineteenth century....

Conocybe Cyanopus Tiny Mushrooms Of Remarkable Potency

While studying the magic mushrooms of Mexico during the 1950s, R. Heim described a new species of the genus Conocybe. be siligineodes Heim was reported to grow up to 8 cm (3.25 in.) tall, a beautiful, reddish brown to orange-colored mushroom that thrived on rotten wood and which was used as a psychotropic species by the Indians as well. However, the species did not appear again in the literature, nor were the chemical composition or the effects of these samples published. Even after decades of field research in Mexico, Guzman was unable to find the species there. Similarly, he did not discover native usage of any kind of Conocybe species. Heim's description however, aroused curiosity as to the chemical composition of this species. Approximately 55 European species which existed saprophytically were relegated to a shadow existence in the older literature. Also, the differentiation of these species is very problematic at times. For the most part, the mushrooms are small and fragile,...

Magic mushrooms Figure

The magic or hallucinogenic mushroom is a popular name for ones which exhibit hallucination (visual and auditory), mental derangement and muscle flaccidness. In central and south America, such mushrooms were being used in religious ceremonies since ancient times. The hallucinogenic effects vary according to different individuals they are similar to those obtained with LSD, though they are much weaker than those of LSD. They were illegally sold, in the forms of cultivation kits, dried pieces or tablets, on the streets and via the Internet before 2002. Various species of the Psilocybe genus are being used as magic mushrooms. Most magic Cultivation of magic mushrooms (Psilocybe cubensis). Cultivation of magic mushrooms (Psilocybe cubensis). Structures of psilocybin and psilocin. mushrooms being circulated in Japan are Psilocybe cubensis and or P. subcubensis and Cope-landia genus. The responsible toxins are psilocybin and psilocin. The psilocybin is metabolized into psilocin in human...

Site Location of a Mushroom Patch

A suitable site for a mushroom patch is easy to choose. The best clue is to simply take note of where you have seen mushrooms growing during the rainy season. Or just observe where water traverses after a heavy rain. A gentle slope, bordered by shrubs and other shade-giving plants, is usually ideal. Since saprophytic mushrooms are non-competitive to neighboring plants, they pose no danger to them. In fact, plants near a mushroom bed often thrive the result of the increased moisture retention and the release of nutrients into the root zone. An ideal location for growing mushrooms is in a vegetable, flower, and or rhododendron garden. Gardens are favored by plentiful water ing, and the shade provided by potato, zucchini, and similar broad-leaf vegetable plants tend to keep humidity high near the ground. Many gardeners bring in sawdust and wood chips to make pathways between the rows of vegetables. By increasing the breadth of these pathways, or by creating small cul-de-sacs in the midst...

Build A Paddy Mushroom Grow House In Thailand

Yield Potentials On average, V. volvacea produces two substantial flushes of mushrooms in quick succession, with the first giving 75 of the total yield and the second producing the remaining 25 . Harvest Hints For the best flavor as well as the best form for market, the mushrooms should be picked before the universal veil breaks, i.e. in the egg form. In the matter of hours, egg-shaped fruitbodies develop into annulate fruitbodies. Light has a governing influence on the color and overall quality of the harvestable crop. t'1 ' ' ' o 01 ' J fV.- Figure 310. Paddy Straw mushrooms are best in fn a wide array of Asian dish .Ili to inject onion soaked soy (or tamar) via synr.e into each Paddy Straw egg, cover with foil, ind bake in an oven at 375 F. (190 C.) for 30-45 mi ute Th , mushroor when eaten whole, exf lodes in your mouth creating a flavor sensation P ketone* Canned Paddy Straw mushrooms ail to proxi ie a flavor experience comparable to fresh V volvacea. Comments This mushroom is...

Annual Mushroom Festivals Events

Many of the mycological societies stage annual mushroom exhibits. Here is a short list of some of the more notable annual mushroom exhibitions. Most are held in September or October unless otherwise indicated. Please contact them for more specific information. Asheville Annual Labor Day Mushroom Foray Boyne City's Mushroom Festival Colorado Mycological Society Mushroom Show Lincoln County Mushroom Society Mount Pisgah Arboretum Fall Festival & Annual Mushroom Show Annual Mushroom Show Oregon Mycological Society Annual Fall Mushroom Show puget Sound Mycological Society Annual Mushroom Exhibit Vancouver Mycological Society Mushroom Show Wild Mushrooms Telluride

Features for Evaluating and Selecting a Mushroom Strain

The strain of mushroom, its unique personality mannerisms, sensitivities, yield expressions is the foundation of any mushror m farm. When a strain goes bad, production precipitously declines, typically followed by a proliferation of disease organisms.Therefore, cultivators must continuously scrutinize new strains to find candidates worthy of production. Once a strain has been 1. Recovery The time for a mushroom strain to recover from the concussion of inocu- Figure 96. Healthy mushroom mycelium running through cardboard. Figure 96. Healthy mushroom mycelium running through cardboard. lation. This is often referred to as leap off. * Oyster and Morel strains are renowned for their quick leap off' after transfer, evident in as short as 24 hours. Some strains of mushrooms show poor recovery. These strains are difficult to grow commercially unless they are re-invigo rated through strain development and or media improvement 2. Rate of growth Strains differ substan dally -n their rate of...

International Mushroom Associations

International Society for Mushroom Science Albion Mushroom Club Asheviile Mushroom Club Blue Ridge Mushroom Club Lower East Shore Mushroom Club Michigan Mushroom Hunters Association Northwestern Mushroomers Association Prairie States Mushroom Club South Sound Mushroom Club Spokane Mushroom Club Tacoma Mushroom Club Triangle Area Mushroom Club Wenatchee Valley Mushroom Society

Mushroom Cultivation Room Design

Mushroom Greenhouse Design Structure

Purposesi To recapture as many mushrooms possible whichcan not be realized in controlled environment growing rooms.This building can solve a dilemma constantly confronting the growing room personnel to maximize mushroom yield while not jeopardizing future crops as contaminants become more common as the cycle comes to completion. By the third or fourth flush, yields are in a state of precipitous decline. Rather than discarding this mycelium, additional harvests can be realized, with minimum effort, if the substrate is placed outside during conducive weather conditions. In the temperate regions of the world, these favorable weather conditions span several months. During these moist months, Oyster and Shiitake mushrooms produce prolifically outdoors. I am continually amazed at the size of mushrooms that can be harvested outside from spent straw or sawdust that has been exported from the indoor growing rooms. Two types of buildings serve this purpose well. air flow is naturally high. If...

The Paddy Straw Mushroom of the Genes Volvari

Prodigiously fast growing and one of my favorite mushrooms for for the table, this mushroom thrives at warm temperatures (between 75-95 F. or 24-35 C.) and dies when temperatures drop below 45 F. (7 C.). This temperature range limits its cultivation in all but the warmest c'imates or months of the year. In subtropical and tropical Asia, many farmers rely on the cultivation of V. volvacea as a secondary source of income, making use of waste rice straw and cottonseed hulls. This mushroom has become an economic ma- 'Stay in the agricultural economies of Thailand, Cambodia. Vietnam, Taiwan and China.

Stumps as Elatforms for Growing Mushrooms

Oyster Large Log Inoculation Methods

Stumps are especially suitable for growing gourmet mushrooms. There are few better, or more massive platforms, than the stump. Millions of stumps are all that remain of many forests of the world. In most cases, stumps are seen as having little or no econonr potent' J. These lone tombstones of biodegradable wood fiber offer a unique, new opportunity for the mycologically astute. With selective logging being increasingly practiced, cultivating gour met and medicinal mushrooms on stumps will be the wave of the future. light. Stumps in ravines are better candidates than those located in the center of a clear-cut. An uprooted stump is not as good a candidate as a well-rooted one. The presence of mosses, lichens, and or terns is a good indicator that the microc' mate is conduc ve to mushroom growth. However, the presence of competitor fungi generally disqualifies a stump as a good candidate. These are some of the many factors that determine the suitability of stumpage. Cultivating mushrooms...

Representative mushrooms causing poisoning cases Rhodophyllus rhodopolius Figure

This mushroom shows the highest incidence of poisoning in Japan, because a very similar edible species Rhodophyllus crassipes is available and grows at similar locations. The poisoning symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain appearing 30 min-3 h after ingestion. The stem of Rhodophyllus rhodopolius is easily crushed by pressure with the finger, but that of the edible Rhodophyllus crassipes is not. The toxic compound being contained in the mushroom is reported to be muscarine or choline. Outline of mushroom poisoning analyses undertaken by Department of Legal Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine Causative mushroom detected from the liver and the mushroom Amanita virosa (mushroom not available) Amanita virosa (mushroom not available) Amanita virosa (mushroom available) not detected from blood or the mushroom Amanita virosa (mushroom available) not detected from blood stomach contents or the mushroom Agaricus biazei (mushroom available) not detected from blood or the...

Amanita Mushrooms Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria Panther Mushroom Amanita pantherina

Parts Amanita Muscaria

Amanitas are a family of large, beautiful mushrooms that grow in many parts of the world. Some of them are deadly, the most poisonous of all wild mushrooms. Some are edible and delicious. Two are neither deadly nor edible as food but are used as psychoactive drugs. Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric, is a big mushroom with white dots on a red or orange cap. Agaric is an old word for mushroom the name fly comes from an old practice of chopping this mushroom into a saucer of milk to attract and kill flies.) The fly agaric is often pictured in illustrations of fairy tales and cannot be mistaken for any other mushroom. Fly agarics growing in the eastern United States are yellow and not usually psychoactive. Those in the western states are red or orange their pharmacological power correlates with cap color, the reddest mushrooms being strongest. Amanita muscaria was the traditional intoxicant of a number of primitive tribes of Siberia people who did not have access to other drugs but did...

Fly Agaric Mushroom Amanita Muscaria

Since prehistoric times, ancient peoples have used the red-capped, white-spotted hallucinogenic mushroom called fly agaric (so named because a substance in the mushroom kills flies) as part of shamanistic rituals. Shamans were priests who acted as a the link to the spirit world. After drinking the extract from this mushroom, shamans translated the divine will and prophecies of the gods for their fellow tribesmen. Since this mushroom is native to Siberia, some say the word shaman originated there with these rites. It is hypothesized that Siberian nomads brought shamanism to the Americas when they journeyed across the Bering Strait about 15,000 years ago. Other interesting history tells us that Norse Vikings ate fly agaric before going into battle to produce ecstatic reckless rage for which they earned the nickname berserkers. Reindeer of that region still fight each other over the chance to eat these mycologic mysteries. This psychedelic mushroom is so potent that the urine of those...

Antiquity and Origins of the Mushroom Cult

It can of course be argued that the two great mushroom traditions, that of New World Indians and that of the peoples of Eurasia, are historically unconnected and autonomous, having arisen spontaneously in the two regions from similar requirements of the human psyche and similar environmental opportunities. But are they really unrelated A good though controversial case has been made by some prehistorians for sporadic early contacts across the Pacific between the budding civilizations of the New World and their contemporaries in eastern and southern Asia, perhaps as early as the second millennium BC The West, until very recently, consistently underrated the maritime capabilities of the early Chinese, whose ships more than 2,000 years ago were not only already considerably larger and more seaworthy than those of medieval Europe but were equipped with an effective rudder of a type adopted by the Europeans only shortly before Columbus embarked on his first voyage of discovery. Moreover, it...

What are common contaminants of the mushroom culture

Most specialty mushrooms are grown on sterilized substrates, and once a contaminant gets a foothold, it flourishes in the absence of competition from other contaminants. In nature, complex interactions among hundreds of other fungi, bacteria, nematodes, etc. maintain an ecological equilibrium. In a sterilized medium, the grower provides ideal conditions for the contaminant to prosper. In sawdust bags, contamination usually involves another fungus living off the waste products or on the remains of the cultivated fungus, or sometimes on the living mycelium or fruiting body of the cultivated fungus. The only competition for these contaminants is the cultivated fungus itself. Yellow to brown lesions form on mushrooms. Typically, spotting occurs at or near the edge of mushroom caps. Blotch occurs when mushrooms remain wet for a period of 4 to 6 hours or longer after water has been applied. The bacterium is spread in air-borne soil particles. Controls include lowering humidity and watering...

An Ancient Mushroom Ceremony

First thing which they ale at the gathering was small, black mushrooms which lliey calLed nonoeotl. These are intoxicating and cause visions lo be seen and even provoke sensuousness. They ale these mushrooms before dawn, and they also drank chocolate before daylight . They ate these little mushrooms with honey, and when they began lo be excited by them, lliey began lo dance, some singing, others weeping, for they were already intoxicated by the mushrooms. Some did not want lo sing but sat down in their quarters and remained there as if in a meditative mood. Some saw themselves dying in a vision and wept others saw themselves being eaten by a wild beast others imagined that lliey were capturing prisoners in bailie, thai lliey were rich, I hat they possessed many slaves, that they had committed adultery and were lo have llieir heads crushed for the offense, thai they were guilty of a theft for which lliey were to be killed, and many other visions which lliey saw. When the intoxication...

Mushroom Cultivation Classic Findings And New Techniques

While conducting research on the Mexican mushroom species during the 1950s, R. Heim and R. Cailleux determined the basic conditions essential to the cultivation of various mushrooms. Before providing additional details, I would like to briefly summarize the nutritional requirements and characteristics of fungal growth, to the extent that these issues are of interest here. In terms of cultivation parameters and nutrients, the psychotropic species are no different from table mushrooms and other common gilled mushrooms. For that reason, Oss and Oeric's speculations about extra-terrestrial origins of these species clearly belong into the realm of fables. In addition, psilocybin and psilocin are substances that can be derived from tryptophan by means of discernable reactions indeed, the amino acid tryptophan in its free form has been found in a large number of mushroom species. The natural propagation of higher mushrooms is linked to their basidiospores, which are produced on the gills of...

Intimations Of A Sacred Mexican Mushroom

In 1952 an acquaintance of the Wassons, the noted poet and historical writer Robert Graves, wrote a crucial letter informing them of a supposed secret mushroom cult still in existence in Mexico. Graves included in his letter a clipping from a Canadian pharmaceutical journal which discussed finds made by Richard Evans Schultes years earlier. It transpired that Schultes, one of the world's leading ethnobotanists attached to Harvard had, in 1938, identified a species of Panaeoleus mushroom as being the sacred sacrament allegedly employed by Mexican Indians. At that time, only this one entheogenic species had been identified by Schultes and although a few European people had observed a native Mexican mushroom ceremony, no outsiders had been permitted to partake of the mushroom itself. This is significant, for without actually personally experiencing the psilocybin mushroom, one can only guess at it's effects and therefore the early anthropological observations passed by without much...

Intoxications And The Oldest Known Mushroom Cult In Africa

So far, the mycoflora of the African continent has been studied only peripherally and remains largely unknown. During the late 1980s, Italian mycologist G. Samorini and Terence McKenna, working independently, found evidence for the oldest known mushroom cult in Africa. Their discoveries were not just sensational, but most surprising as well. On the other hand, it really shouldn't come as a surprise that the oldest traces of human contact with mushrooms were found on the very continent known as the cradle of humanity. The rock drawings date from as far back as 10,000 B.C. up to the present. Among the drawings from the Stone Age (7,000-5,000 B.C.), there are those described as typical of the so-called round head phase. They include pictures of pasture animals as well as evergreen and deciduous trees. On top of a Sahara plateau, at an altitude of 6,500 ft., there exist pictures of mythical beings with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic attributes which are reminiscent of early Mexican images...

Gymnopilus Purpuratus Magnificent Mushrooms From South America

Another controversy documented in the literature revolves around the psychoactivity of several species of the genus Gymnopilus. More than 50 years ago, in October 1942, a remarkable case of intoxication occurred m Cleveland, Ohio, which was attributed to Pholiota spectabilis. Today, these mushrooms have been identified as Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.)A.H. Smith (USA). In Europe, they are also Known as Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) Orton. A woman had been out for a walk in the woods one afternoon and had taken a few nibbles from a mushroom that she found, feeling confident that she could distinguish the edible from the poisonous ones. As soon as she lay down, she began to experience the most glorious visions of color and sounds of music, but with no feelings of discomfort whatsoever. A friend who was with her felt that a doctor should be called immediately. When she consulted me about her symptoms, I told her that certain mushrooms are known to cause the symptoms she suffered. I added that...

Psilocybe Cyanescens Potent Mushrooms Growing On Wood Debris

While Psilocybe semilanceata is a species that has long been clearly defined and is well known by this name, there are, according to Krieglsteiner, other strongly bluing mushrooms that can be described as belonging to the Psilocybe cyanescens complex. These are all mushrooms that grow on raw compost and plant debris. The classification of these synonyms is particularly difficult, because the mycologists involved provided detailed descriptions for isolated collections of fruiting bodies only, followed by comparisons with mushrooms found at other locations, using dates provided in the literature. Under the best of circumstances, an analysis was performed on dried samples from different herbariums. However, the microscopic data pertaining to the Psilocybe species are poorly delineated and oftentimes overlap. It is therefore imperative that additional mycological studies of Psilocybe cyanescens be performed. To this end, fresh mushroom samples from various European locations should be...

Reflections On The History And Scientific Study Of Magic Mushrooms

It is remarkable that cultures native to the American continent knew about a relatively large number of natural mind-altering substances compared to early cultures that evolved in Europe or Asia. Botanical evidence does not support the notion that Europe is home to fewer hallucinogenic plants than other regions. Furthermore, the growing number of recently discovered European mushroom species containing psilocybin indicate a flourishing psychotropic mycoflora in Europe similar to those found in other countries. It is unlikely that early European cultures learned less about local plants and mushrooms through usage and experience than cultures elsewhere in the world. Most likely, early cultural knowledge of European psychoactive plants and mushrooms was lost or destroyed at some time in history, probably as early as several hundred years ago. The discovery that the fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria) was known for its psychoactive properties in Siberia invited the conclusion that this...

Time Scale Of The Mushrooms

The fruiting cycle lasts about 2 weeks. After the initial flush, the mycelium cake begins to turn blue and no more mushrooms form. If the cake is thoroughly cleaned of abhorts and stray fungus blobs after the initial fruiting and given the PF double ended cake casing tek, fruiting can be doubled or even tripled.

Magic Mushrooms And Other Indole Trips

Various trees, vines, etc. and mushrooms containing dimethyl-try ptamine (DMT) and analogs have been used by the natives of Central and South America for millennia. Precise chemical and botanical identification have been made on a number of species, the first and most famous of these being certain species of mushrooms of the genus Psilocybe, species of which are found in the U.S.A., Canada, Scotland, Australia, etc. as well as Central America. Psychedelic species of the closely related genera Conocybe, Stropharia, Pholiota, Copelandia and Panaeolus are found widely scattered around the world. Not all species of each genus necessarily contain significant amounts of hallucinogens, but it seems that most do. A general test is that the stem of indole containing species tends to turn blue several hours after it is picked and slightly crushed. These are generally found in late summer and fall in the U.S.A. Pictures are given in many mushroom books including R. Heim, LES CHAMPIGNONS...

Mushrooms And The Maya

Psilocybin mushroom use has also been associated with the spectacular Mayan civilisation of Mesoamerica, whose Classic period held sway from 250 to 900 AD At the turn of this century Guatemalan 'mushroom stones' came to the attention of archaeologists. These Mayan relics, of which hundreds have been found, some dating as far back as 1000 BC., were initially considered to be phallic representations though the current consensus is that the mushroom stones reflect a Mayan religious mushroom cult. To bolster support for this theory, it has been noted that some of the stone mushrooms are carved emerging from human figures with trance-like facial expressions. Others are linked to kneeling female figures at a metate, a kind of work surface upon which plant items are crushed. When Wasson first explored mushroom use in Huautla in the 1950's, metates were still sometimes used in order to grind mushrooms so that an entheogenic infusion could be made. Still other of the mushroom stones carry...

Cniz Siamets9 Fresh Shiitake Omelet

1 2 cup cashews lb- fresh Shiitake Mix the eggs and water in a large bowl and beat thoroughly. Saute mushrooms in frying pan with oil until water is cooked-out. Add onions and garlic, cookfor one minute then add cashews In me-lium sized skillet, spray a thin coat of oil or butter, add egg mixture and cover for 1 minute. Add layer of cheese. Poui nixture that includes Shiitake, onions, cloves, etc over layer of cheese. Fold over and cook for 2-3 minutes. Makes four servings.

Hallucinogenic Mushrooms North of Mexico

As a matter of fact, the ethnographic and ethnobotanical situation in North America proves just that. While we have as yet no conclusive evidence that any kind of psychoactive mushroom was employed by Native Americans north of Mexico, however important edible mushrooms might have been to their diet, it is a fact that, as was noted in a previous chapter, a number of varieties containing psilocybine and other hallucinogenic compounds occur in North America, including species of Psilocybe. Moreover, as La Barre (1970c) has pointed out, the flaming-red variety of Amanita muscaria the sacred species of the northern Eurasians is native not only to Asia and Europe but to British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and Colorado, as well as the Sierra Madre of Mexico. The yellow variety occurs elsewhere in North America, including the northeast, especially in coniferous and birch forests precisely the favorite habitat of Amanita muscaria also in the Old World. If so, all knowledge of it has...

Psilocybin and the

It is difficult to determine how the use of certain hallucinogenic substances would be treated in the courts. Possession of psilocybin and psilocin (misspelled in the U.S. code as psilocyn) is a felony under Title 21, Section I, (C) of the United States Code (1970 Edition). Psilocybe mexicana is also illegal. There was sufficient ignorance on the part of the law makers not to include the many other mushroom species containing psilocybin and psilocin. Theoretically the possession of any psilo-cybin-bearing mushroom would be the same as possessing the alkaloid itself. But when it comes to prosecution it does not necessarily work like that. Lysergic acid amides which occur in morning glory seeds, stems, and leaves are also illegal, but there is no way to prevent gardeners from raising this ornamental flower. It would be considered illegal for anyone to extract the active principles from any of the above mentioned plants. And it would be considered illegal for anyone to extract psilocybin...

Shiitake or Maitake Clear Soup

2 tblsp. miso 1 2 oz. dried mushrooms 1 1 2 cups mushroom broth (or 1 4 lb- fresh mushroomi) Soak cut or broken mushrooms in 2 cups cold water for 15 minutes. Drain off broth and save. Cover mushrooms with more cold water and soak for another 20 minutes .Add saved mushroom broth back into preparation and boil it for a few minutes. Season soup with soy sauce and miso. Add chopped tofu, onions and or other vegetables. (If needed add 1-2 cups more water.) Bring back to a boil for 1-2 minutes and turn down heat. Allow to simmer for 5 minutes. Serves four people. Shiitake Hazelnut- Vegetarian Pate* * Credit for this recipe is gratefully given toTimmer, Pershern & Miller's CookingAmericanwiM an Oriental Favorite-Recipe evelopment with.Shiitake Mushroomsfrom Shiitake Mushroom ANanonaSymposucmTr e Show University of Minnesota Center for Alternative Plunt and Animal Products College of Natural Resources, College of Agriculture, St. Paul, Minnesota, May 3-5,1989. 4 oz. Shiitake Mushrooms 1 8...

Analysis of toxins of magic mushrooms Psilocybe species

For analysis of hallucinogenic toxins, such as psilocybin and psilocin, GC, GC MS, LC and LC MS are being used. The authentic standards of psilocybin and psilocin are not commercially available in Japan the solution vials of psilocin can be imported after an appropriate procedure from Sigma, USA. After ingestion of psilocybin, it is easily metabolized into psilocin in human bodies. In a recent report 6 , psilocin is said to exist in the glucuronide-conjugated form in human samples they have insisted that enzymatic hydrolysis with glucuronidase is required before analysis. Psilocybin is dephosphorylated into psilocin in an injection chamber of GC at high temperature TMS derivatization is required for GC or GC MS analysis. The readers can refer to the reference 6 on the details of the method. iii. Extraction from a mushroom 5 i. A 300-mg aliquot of a mushroom is mixed with 30 mL methanol and homogenized. iv. Extraction from a dried mushroom 7 i. A 100-mg aliquot of a dried mushroom is...

Drying and Preservation of the Mushrooms

Wire Mesh Used For Drugs

Once you have grown and harvested some mushrooms, you need to think about preserving them. They will only keep for a short time in their fresh state. Sometimes a single mushroom needs to be harvested and it isn't enough for a dose. Other times, too many mushrooms will be fully grown for a single dose. Either way, you will be in a situation where you want to preserve them for later. And, even if this didn't happen, you may find your self in a situation where you simply don't have the time or inclination to trip. The good news is that if they are dried correctly, nearly all of the psycho-active compounds can be preserved for many months. drastically reduce the mushroom's potency if you use heat to dry them. Cut another circular section of mesh so that it fits above the calcium chloride and leaves a nice air gap. The mushrooms will be placed on this mesh in order to dry them. Make sure the calcium chloride is not touching the bottom of this screen. There should be an air gap between the...

Mescaline Lsd And Psilocybin Birds Of A Feather

Difference Between Lsd And Mushrooms

Three of the most common hallucinogenic drugs used today are mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin. Some people insist that these three drugs produce the same psychological effects, and even some experienced users cannot tell the effects of each drug apart. Others, however, believe that the effects produced by psilocybin, LSD, or mescaline are unique. Several key pharmacological differences between these drugs are outlined in the table below PSILOCYBIN Psilocybin Psilocybin Figure 4.3 Chemical structure of LSD and psilocybin

Growing Wild Mushrooms

A Complete Guide to Cultivating Edible and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms An Introduction to the Mushroom i A Note on Cultivation 19 Equipment for Sterile Culture Work 20 Gathering Materials Sterile Technique Spore Streaming on Agar Sterile Removal of Tissue from Freshly Gathered Mushrooms Transfer from the Agar Media Transfer from Grain to Grain Transfer to Compost Non-sterile) Incubation 58 Agar Gra fl Compost Sources of Materials 68 North American P ilocybin Mushrooms 73 An Introduction to the Mushroom This is a book about you, me, and mushrooms. Just what is a mushroom This basic question is a good place to begin. A mushroom is a class of fungi. Where are fungi found, and how do they grow Although some of you may know some of the answers to these questions, let's talk about fungi in general before discussing specifically the various varieties of fungal fruits. between these two, is called mycorrhizal-symbiotic. In this relationship the fungus is associated with the root of a green...

Finding Psilocybin Mushrooms

All it takes is one mushroom or a few spores. From this, one can quickly develop a culture that will continue to produce as much psilocybin as desired for years to come. Because the common San Ysidro mushroom Psilocybe cubensis (Singer), formerly Strophanti cubensis (Earl), is the most easily obtainable, most readily cultivated, most disease resistant, and psychoactively strongest species, the techniques in this book are geared to its use. There are, however, numerous other species which contain psilocybin. In case one of these other species is all that is available, pertinent information for several of them is given such as relative potency where and when to find specimens what growing conditions (medium, temperature, lighting, etc.) they favor and how resistant they are to contamination. Psilocybe cubensis can be found in many parts of the United States, Mexico, Colombia, Australia, and even Southeast Asia. It is usually found growing on or near cow dung in pastures during warm...

Magic Mushrooms Around the World

Reflections on the History and Scientific Study of Magic Mushrooms 10 3.1 Psilocybe semilanceata The Classic Species Among European Psychotropic Mushrooms 16 3.2 Psilocybe cyanescens Potent Mushrooms Growing on Wood Debris 29 3.5 Gymnopiluspurpuratus Magnificent Mushrooms from South America 51 3.6 Conocybe cyanopus Tiny Mushrooms of Remarkable Potency 55 4. Mushroom Identification Taxonomic Confusion and the Potential for Deadly Mistakes 61 6. Mushroom Cultivation Classic Findings and New Techniques 66 7. Psychotropic Mushroom Species Around the World 77 7.6 Intoxications and the Oldest Known Mushroom Cult in Africa 95 8. Some Comments on Effects of Mushrooms from the Category Phantastika 102 Figure 4 - Fresh Panaeolus subbalteatus mushrooms. Figure 4 - Fresh Panaeolus subbalteatus mushrooms.

D Fruiting Producing Mushrooms and Harvesting The Fruiting Chamber Terrarium

Spread the cakes out as much as possible so that the mushrooms have room to grow. If the chamber is much too tall or too large, it may be difficult to keep the humidity high enough. The bottom of the chamber must be able to contain water, and the lid must be somewhat airtight in order to keep the humidity inside high. Light must be able to shine into the terrarium. If you are using a cooler or non-transparent plastic container, you will need to cut a window into the top of it and seal it with some sort of transparent material so that light can get in but humidity can't get out. For this reason, glass aquariums make very nice fruiting chambers if they are kept at the right temperature range.

Mushroom of the Underworld

Actually, Thompson was only partly right when he said that the Spaniards were silent on the matter of hallucinogens among the Maya, for several of the early dictionaries compiled by Spanish priests in the Guatemalan highlands demonstrate considerable Indian knowledge of the intoxicating effects of a number of mushroom species.* One of the oldest of the Colonial word lists, the Vico dictionary, which was apparently compiled well before the 1550's, explicitly mentions a mushroom called xibalbaj okox (xibalba underworld, or hell, realm of the dead okox mushroom), with the implication that this species is hallucinogenic. In fact, in this context xibalbaj refers not just to the Maya underworld, with its nine lords and nine levels, but also to having visions thereof, so that the name can be understood to mean mushroom which gives one visions of hell or of the world of the dead. The same intoxicating mushroom is also mentioned in a later word list, Fray Tomas Coto's Vocabulario de la lengua...

Maintaining a Psilocybin Farm

Mushroom primordia Fruiting the Mushroom Mushroom primordia People who cultivate psilocybian mushrooms initiate fruiting of the mushroom after the mycelium has developed rather than immediately extract the psilocy-bin. Great pleasure is derived from nurturing a mushroom from inception to fruition. Before the substrate is cased, a suitable growing container must be chosen. The easiest method is to leave the colonized grain medium in the cultivation jars and simply case the surface. The fruiting mushroom bodies will then grow out of the mouth of the jar. (Use of a wide mouth jar makes it easier to remove the mushrooms when the time comes). There are a few disadvantages with this method mushrooms frequently and unsuccessfully attempt to grow between the grain and the glass surface of the jar the low ratio of surface area to grain depth means that much of the mycelium is unable to form carpophores and it is more difficult to water and pick mushrooms without damaging developing pinheads,...

Cruz Stamets Mushroom Saut Supreme

1 2 lb. fresh Shiitake 2 tablespoons pesto Trim and discard stems of Shiitake, dice upper part of stems into small pieces, and put aside. Discard lower stems. Then tear each Shiitake mushroom into six or more pieces. In medium size skillet using 1 2 cup canola oil, bring heat up to high, then add mushrooms. Cook Shiitake until golden brown on each side. Add pesto and olive oil. Lower heat to medium, add diced onions, tarragon, thyme, garlic, almonds, ana water. Salt and pepper to taste. Simmer for five to ten minutes. Once cooked, this mixture can be

Mushrooms And Psilocybine

AKA Liberty caps, magic mushrooms, 'nti-si-tho, Psilocybe cubensis, sacred mushrooms, teonanacatl, tey-huintli. Aside from the fly agaric mushrooms, there are four other genera that have hallucinogenic properties Cono-cybe, Panaeolus, Psilocybe, and Stro-pharia. They are found all over the world, but only in Mexico are they used in rituals. The Copelandia cyanescens fungus that is cultivated in Bali is more potent than any of these mushrooms. The main psychoactive ingredients in all of these is psilocine and psilocybine, the latter of which can be manufactured synthetically. Precautions Common side effects include nausea, pupil dilation, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, high body temperature, shivering, anxiety, numbness in the face, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, disorientation, paranoia, panic, and bad trips. Not everyone sees the infinite clockwork, or the cosmic secrets of the mushroom. According to Mexican Mazatec healer Maria Sabina in de Rios' Visionary Vine, as the...

Psilocybin and Psilocin

With the help of this reliable test on human subjects, the active principle could be isolated, concentrated, and transformed into a chemically pure state by means of the newest separation methods. Two new substances, which I named psilocybin and psilocin, were thereby obtained in the form of colorless crystals. These results were published in March 1958 in the journal Experientia, in collaboration with Professor Heim and with my colleagues Dr. A. Brack and Dr. H. Kobel, who had provided greater quantities of mushroom material for these investigations after they had essentially improved the laboratory cultivation of the mushrooms. Some of my coworkers at the time-Drs. A. J. Frey, H. Ott, T. Petrzilka, and F. Troxler-then participated in the next steps of these investigations, the determination of the chemical structure of psilocybin and psilocin and the subsequent synthesis of these compounds, the results of which were published in the November 1958 issue of Experientia. The chemical...

Achronologyofpsilocybian Mushrooms Compiled by Irimias the Obscure OT

Frescoes of dancing shamans holding mushrooms in the presence of white cattle are painted on the rock surfaces of the Tassili Plateau in Southern Algeria ** c. 2500 B.C. Aryan people with hallucinogenic mushroom use as a central part of their religion enter India. Wasson has argued for Amanita muscaria as the identity of the mysterious Soma. The question remains an open one. A psilocybian mushroom may well have been the source of Soma. c. 1100-400 B.C. Eleusinian Mystery rites using ergotized rye (Wasson) or psilocybian mushrooms (Graves) focus the mystical aspirations of the Ancient World. 300-500 B.C. In the latter half of this century, mushroom stones were found in highland Guatemala dating back at least as far as 300-500 B.C. c. 300 A.D. Frescoes have been found in central Mexico with mushroom designs indicating the existence of a mushroom cult at this time. 387 A.D. St. Augustine, formerly a follower of Mani, con-dems Manichaeans for mushroom eating. 1502 A.D....

Found at Last A Living Mushroom Cult in Mexico

He was to be proved right in the late 1930's. In 1936 Papa Weitlaner encountered magic mushrooms for the first time in the country of the Mazatecs in Oaxaca. He sent a specimen to Reko, who forwarded it to the Harvard Botanical Museum, where unfortunately it arrived too badly deteriorated to be identified. In 1938, Weitlaner, his daughter Irmgard, and her future husband Jean Basset Johnson, on a field trip to Huautia de Jimenez became the first outsiders permitted to attend though not participate in an all-night curing ritual in which mushrooms were eaten. Johnson, who lost his life in North Africa in 1944, described the experience at a meeting of the Sociedad Mexicana de Antropolog a in August 1938 and in a more extensive paper published by the Gothenburg Ethnographic al Museum (1939). Mushroom use, he wrote, appeared to be widespread in Mazatec country shamans, or curers, used them primarily for the purpose of divining the cause of an illness, and during the session it was the...

The Sacred Mushroom Teonancatl

Late in 1956 a notice in the daily paper caught my interest. Among some Indians in southern Mexico, American researchers had discovered mushrooms that were eaten in religious ceremonies and that produced an inebriated condition accompanied by hallucinations. Since, outside of the mescaline cactus found also in Mexico, no other drug was known at the time that, like LSD, produced hallucinations, I would have liked to establish contact with these researchers, in order to learn details about these hallucinogenic mushrooms. But there were no names and addresses in the short newspaper article, so that it was impossible to get further information. Nevertheless, the mysterious mushrooms, whose chemical investigation would be a tempting problem, stayed in my thoughts from then on. As it later turned out, LSD was the reason that these mushrooms found their way into my laboratory, with out my assistance, at the beginning of the following year. Through the mediation of Dr. Yves Dunant, at the...

Some Comments On Effects Of Mushrooms From The Category Phantastica

Extensive animal research efforts during the 1950s furnished evidence that both psilocybin and psilocin are alkaloids of negligible acute toxicity. Specifically, the dosage of psilocybin that caused death in 50 of the experimental mice (LD 50) was determined to be 280 mg kg body weight. By comparison, noticeable effects in humans generally occur at dosages as low as 0.02 mg kg. Animal tests showed that, on average, psilocybin was a substance only half as toxic as mescaline, and at the same time, turned out to be 50 times more potent as a psychoactive substance. For example, up to 2 g of mescaline were being administered with no dangerous side effects, while the usual dose of psilocybin ranged from 3 to 30 mg as part of psychological testing and psychotherapy sessions. As is the case with other psychotropic substances, human beings most likely have a more sensitive reaction in response to psilocybin than mice do. Still, the range of safety in controlled experiments comes to several...

Current situation of mushroom poisonings in Japan

According to National Record of Food Poisoning Incidents 1 , the number of mushroom poisoning incidents taking place in Japan in 1974-1997 was 1,068 it was 431 in 1988-1997 (10 years) with 1,842 poisoned people, including 20 fatal victims. Among the 431 incidents, the numbers of incidents according to causative mushrooms are Rhodophyllus rhodopolius plus Rhodophyllus sinuatus, 133 Lampteromycesjaponicus, 127 Tricholoma ustale, 42 Amanita virosa plus Amanita verna, 16 Amanita pantherina, 15 Clitocybe acromelalga, 15 Psilocybe argentipes (a species of magic mushrooms), 12 other mushrooms, 36 not specified, 35 (> Figure 2.1)b. Toxic mushrooms can be classified into 6 groups according to their actions as follows. Other mushrooms (specified H Other mushrooms (specilied) Incidence ratio of mushroom poisonings according to species in Japan. It is calculated from the data of National Record of Food Poisoning Incidents. The number of the mushroom poisoning incidents was 431 the poisoned...

The Sacred Mushrooms Rediscovery In Mexico

If true, surely one of the more significant developments in the study of the ritual use of plant hallucinogens in Middle America is the recent spate of reports that at least some individuals in two Maya populations in southern Mexico are employing the psychoactive mushroom Stropharia cubensis* in the context of religious ceremony, divination, or curing. The two groups for which this has been reported but not as yet wholly confirmed by scientifically trained observers are the Choi, who live not far from the Classic Maya ceremonial and funerary center of Palenque, Chiapas (which, like other Maya lowland sites is thought to have been built and inhabited by Cholan-speaking Maya), and one small population of Lacandones, of whom only a few remnant groups survive today in the general area of the Usumacinta River near the border of Guatemala. Pending the necessary confirmation, the several accounts that have reached anthropologists and others in the recent past have already led to speculation...

The Reindeer and the Sacred Mushroom

Now, it happens that not only Siberian shamans but their reindeer as well were involved with the sacred mushrooms. Several early writers on Siberian customs reported that reindeer shared with man a passion for the inebriating mushroom, and further, that at times the animals urgently sought out human urine, a peculiarity that greatly facilitated the work of the herders in rounding them up and that might just possibly have assisted their reindeer-hunting ancestors in early efforts at domestication these animals (reindeer) have frequently eaten that mushroom, which they like very much. Whereupon they have behaved like drunken animals, and then have fallen into a deep slumber. When the Koryak encounter an intoxicated reindeer, they tie his legs until the mushroom has lost its strength and effect. Then they kill the reindeer. If they kill the animal while it is drunk or asleep and eat of its flesh, then everybody who has tasted it becomes intoxicated as if he had eaten the actual fly...

Attempts To Dam The Flow Of Psilocybin

At this point in our journey I should like to examine the main objections which were often levelled against the use of psilocybin when it first became available in the wake of Wasson's discovery, Such objections were expressed precisely and clearly by various writers and social commentators, most notably the writer and philosopher Arthur Koestler whom I briefly mentioned earlier. Koestler, who had written numerous acclaimed books on science, philosophy, and the paranormal, tried psilocybin on at least two occasions at the start of the sixties. Leary, a fan of Koestler's work, had written to him about psilocybin's miraculous properties and invited him to come out to Harvard to try it for himself. As it happened, Koestler's first psilocybinetic encounter occurred at the psychology department of Michigan which, unfortunately, was another hotbed for covert CIA experimentation and therefore not the best of places in which to start one's psychedelic journeying. His second taste occurred at...

Recommended Mushroom Cookbooks

A Cook's Book of Mushrooms by Jack Czarnecki, 1995. Artisan Books, Workman Publishing New York. Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America A Field-to-Kitchen Guide by David W. Fischer and Alan E. Bessette, 1992. University ofTexas Press, Austin, Texas. Hope's Mushroom Cookbook by Hope Miller, 1993. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. Joe's Book of Mushroom Cookery by Jack Czarnecki, 1988, Athen eum, New York. Mushroom Cookery by Rosetta Reitz, 1945,206 pgs. Gramercy Publishing Co., New York. Mushrooms Wild & Tamed by Rita Rosenberg, 1995. Fisher Books, Tucson, Arizona. Taming theWild Mushroom A Culinary Guide to Market Foragingby Arleen Rainis Bessette and A,lan E. Bessette. University ofTexas Press, Austin Texas. The Mushroom Feast by Jane Grigson, 1975. Alfred Knopf, New York. Wild about Mushrooms for Foresters & Feasters, by Louise & Bill Freedman 1987. Addison & Weseley, 1987 Wild Mushroom Cookery ed. Mike Wells & Maggie Rogers, 1988, The Oregon Mycological Society,...

Mushroom Lore

The shamanic use of fly agaric mushrooms by primitive Siberians seemed to date far back into history as there were various legends that spoke of its mythical origins. For instance, a Koryak legend tells of a hero named Big Raven who was able to attain immense strength by eating spirits given to him by the god Vahiyinin - the god of existence. By spitting upon the earth, Vahiyinin caused the necessary spirits to grow, these being fly agaric mushrooms with their ability to provide supernatural strength and wisdom. The Wassons theorised that it was this archaic shamanic practice of fly agaric ingestion, so well reflected in legend and mythology, that had eventually lead to the mycophobic pre-Christian taboos against eating mushrooms which were still evidently shared by most of the peoples living around the shores of the North Sea. In other words, since the mushroom was used mainly by shamans in a ritual context, cultural injunctions and taboos would conceivably have begun to evolve in...

Kombucha mushroom

Kombucha ''mushroom'' (SEDA-20, 430) is a symbiotic yeast bacteria aggregate surrounded by a permeable membrane. It has no proven efficacy for any indication and has serious adverse effects (33). and mechanic's hands,'' was attributed to the consumption of Kombucha ''mushroom'' (35).

Finding The Mushroom

All it takes is one mushroom or a few spores and from this one can quickly develop a culture that will continue to produce as much psilocybin as one desires for years to come. Because the common San Ysidro mushroom, Psilocybe cubensis Singer (Formerly Stropharia cubensis Earl) is the most easily obtainable, the most readily cultivated, most disease resistant, and psychoactively strongest species we have geared our instructions to it's use. There are, however, numerous other species which contain psilocybin. In case one of these is all that is available, we give for several of these pertinent information such a relative potency, where and when to find specimens, what growing conditions (medium, temperature, lighting, etc.) it favors and how resistant it is to contamination. The states, provinces, and regions named are by no means the only places where the species is to found. They are places in which there have been numerous reports of findings. They are given here to give a general...

Magic mushrooms

The Government's use of a clarification of the law to put fresh magic mushrooms in Class A contravened the spirit of the Misuse of Drugs Act and meant that the ACMD was not given the chance to consider the evidence properly before responding. (Paragraph 55) 21. The Chairman of the ACMD's attitude towards the decision to place magic mushrooms in Class A indicates a degree of complacency that can only serve to damage the reputation of the Council. (Paragraph 57) 22. The ACMD should have spoken out against the Government's proposal to place magic mushrooms in Class A. Its failure to do so has undermined its credibility and made it look as though it fully endorsed the Home Office's decision, despite the striking lack of evidence to suggest that the Class A status of magic mushrooms was merited on the basis of the harm associated with their misuse. (Paragraph 57)

Amanita Mushrooms

AKA Amanita muscaria (bolond gomba, fly agaric, Gluckspilz, ha ma chun, mukhomor, Narrenschwamm, tu ying hsin), Amanita pantherina (panther mushroom). The amanita family of mushrooms can range from those that are harmless (and actually quite delicious) to those that are deadly poisonous the above are the only two that are psychoactive. The name fly agaric is derived from the fact that flies will drop into a helpless stupor after sucking on its juices. It is also noteworthy that the mushroom is believed to have contributed to the frenzied behavior of the Norse Vikings known as Beserkers. The degree of psychoactivity is related to its color yellow is the weakest, red is the strongest, and orange is in between on where and when it is grown, and on what trees it grows near. It can be dried and smoked eaten fresh, cooked, or dried or it can be brewed in a tea. In reindeer-hunting communities in Siberia, only the shamans were allowed to eat the fly agaric mushrooms, but others found they...

This mushroom

Earvest Hints Mushrooms should be harvested when the caps are convex. Since the stems elongate muchTn th san n lerasEno* e (Flammulina velutipes), the harvest method is similar. Out doors, this mushroom forms clusters, often wiffi several dozen mushrooms arising from a common base. Comments High yielding strains of Hypholoma capnoides for indoor cultivation have not yet been developed. I hope readers will clone wild specimens, especially those forming unusually large clusters and screen for commercially viable strains. At present, this mushroom is better grown outdoors than indoors. Hypholoma capnoides is one of the few gourmet mushrooms adaptive to cultivation on conifer stumps and logs. Once sawdust spawn is implanted into fresh cuts via wedge or sandwich inoculation techniques, rhizomorphs soon form. Large diameter stumps and logs have been known to produce crops every season for more than a decade. Agri-foresters should carefully consider the judicious use of this fungus in design...

Mushroom Pizza

Cook your favorite frozen pizza according to directions. Several minutes before the pizza is done cooking, add finely sliced fresh mushroom pieces to the pizza. Optionally, you can add some grated cheese on top of the newly added mushroom pieces. Adding cheese will help encapsulate the mushroom pieces and dramatically help mask the taste. Place pizza back in > Obviously, some of the people that grow these mushrooms are going to be looking for a 'mind melting' experience. Bad trips on mushrooms are rare, but they do happen. One of the most common reasons for bad trips on mushrooms is taking a high dose of mushrooms that have grown on cakes that also have contamination growing. Toxins get absorbed by the mushrooms growing on these contaminated cakes and as the dosage gets higher it starts to become an issue. Care should always be taken to avoid contamination but if you plan to dose on the high side, it is absolutely mandatory. Think about it. How fun would it be to have a nasty...

Woodland Mushrooms

Agaricus subrufescens The Sylvan Agaricus Agaricus sylvicola Agaricus lilaceps * Black Poplar Agrocybe Agrocybe aegerita The Clustered Woodlovers Hypholoma capnoides Hypholoma sublateritium Psilocybe cyanescens and allies Oyster-like Mushrooms Hypsizygus ulmarius Hypsizygus tessulatus (-H. ( sajor-caju) Tricholoma giganteum The Deer Mushroom Pluteus cervinus Shiitake Mushroom Lentirula edodes Leniinula spp. Garden Giant or King Stropharia Stropharia rugoso-annulata

Grassland Mushrooms

Meadow Mushrooms Agaricus campestris Agaricus arvensis Lepiota procera Horse Mushroom Lepiota naucina * The Parasol Mushroom Lepiota procera Fairy Ring Mushroom Marasmius oreades The Button Mushrooms Agaricus brunnescens Agaricus bitorquis ( rodmanii) The Magic Mushrooms Psilocybe cubensis Panaeolus cyanescens ( Copelandia cyanescens) Panaeolus subbalteatus Panaeolus tropicalis (Copelandia tropicalis) Compost Litter Disturbed Habitat Mushrooms Lepiota rachodes * The Termite Mushrooms Figure 14. Gardening with gourmet and medicina' mushrooms. Figure 14. Gardening with gourmet and medicina' mushrooms.

Mushroom

Alkaloids occur in many other botanical families. Moreover, there are alkaloids derived from L-tryptophan which occur in mushrooms genera Psilocybe mushrooms (Psilocybe), Conocybe mushrooms (Conocybe), Haymaker's mushrooms (Panaeolus) and Stoparia mushrooms (Stoparia). Serotonin, psilocin and psilocybin are basic alkaloids derived from these mushrooms (Figure 19). They are powerful psychoactive and neurotransmitter compounds. Recreational use of hallucinogenic mushrooms has been reported in several European countries, including England, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands and Germany191. Psilocybe semilanceata and Phanaeolus subbalteatus proved to be the only psilocybin-containing fungi that can be gathered in middle and northern Europe in sufficient quantities to permit abuse191. Psilocybin Figure 19. Basic alkaloids of mushrooms. Psilocybin Figure 19. Basic alkaloids of mushrooms.

Feral C u tare Lres yeologieal Landscapes

Natural culture is the cultivation of mushrooms outdoors. After mycological landscapes are constructed and inoculated, the forces of Nature take over. I also call th s Mssez-faire cultivation in other words the mushroom patch is left alone, subject to the wt ims of Nature except for some timely watering. The mushroom habitat is spec'fically designed, paying particular attention to site location and the use of native woods and or garden by-products. Once prepared, the cultivator launches the selected mushroom species into a constructed habitat by spawning. In general, native mushroom species do better than exotic ones. However, even ihose obstacles to growing exotic species are easily overcome with some forethought to design, and the helpful suggestions of an experienced cultivator. Every day, gardeners, landscapers, rhododendron growers, arborists, and nurseries utilize the very components needed for growing mushrooms. Every pile of debris, whether it is tree trimmings, sawdust or...

Method 3 Using an Ultra Sonic Humidifier

It will free you from the tyranny of your terrarium. It will effortlessly produce enough humidity to support as many mushrooms as you can grow at once. This setup will automatically eliminate CO2 buildup before it occurs. The only draw back is that ultra sonic humidifiers cost around 40. A little more for a super nice one, a little less for a budget version. Just about any ultra sonic humidifier will work.

Preface To The Revised Edition

It is not often that something as fragile and culture-bound as a religious mystery can rise from the ashes of near extinction. Even the natural life of a religious mystery ends finally in erosion of connection to the mysterious driving power of some archetype. But few religious mysteries exist long enough to experience this decadence. Most are suppressed by dominant orthodoxies already in place or recently imported throughconquest. This latter situation is an apt description of the status of the mushroom religion of Meso-America at the time of the Spanish Conquest. In the case of Meso-American mushroom use, an ancient shamanic religion of which we know next to nothing confronted a Spanish Catholicism whose relatively advanced technology meant complete subjugation of the people, complete breakdown of the ancient gnosis. Practitioners of the mushroom cultwere burned as heretics. The Indians' insistence on the mushroom as the flesh of the gods must have particularly excited the...

Dosage and Various Ways to Ingest

These mushrooms will be fairly consistent in potency. They are all grown on the same medium under the same circumstances. If you take 4 average P. cubensis mushrooms, that will put you at the same relative spot on the spectrum as 4 beers. But remember that psilocybin is more powerful than alcohol. What you experience will be more intense than 4 beers. However, on the spectrum of what is possible, you will still be on the low side. What are average size mushrooms Mushrooms are like snowflakes. No two are the same. I would call a mushroom that has a stalk 3 inches long and a cap 1 inch in diameter average. Drying the mushrooms as described in this document will have minimal impact on their potency. Many sources claim that dried mushrooms are significantly less potent that fresh ones. If you use the method to dry the mushrooms described in this document, you'll find that claim is not true. It's your choice whether to eat them fresh or in their dry state. Some people have strong feelings...

The Authors First Trip

Well, I was surfing the net one day and decided to test the reach of information contained on it. I was trying one exotic topic after another in Yahoo. I was amazed at the knowledge contained on the net. I decided to push it to the limit. I asked about psilocybin. To my amazement, a few indexes to documents came back. I quickly down loaded them and started studying them. I was astonished to find out that the spores for Psilocybe mushrooms could be mail ordered because the spores did not contain any controlled substances. And best of all, there was no overdose for psilocybin. ft ft I followed their directions and had cultures well under way soon enough. But, I was frustrated with their humidification techniques. They did not work for me even though I experimented like crazy. My job involves doing research and development at a high technology computer company. I was determined to solve the problem and make it easy for others with access to the net to succeed. I found a few people on the...

Raising Crop Cultures Of Mycelia

The process of growth can be followed with a saccharimeter. The maximum growth and highest percentage of psilocybin occurs about four days after all of the broth's sugar content has been used up. The mycelium should be harvested at this time. Any jars that cannot be harvested on that day should be refrigerated until this can be done.

Pure Culture Technique

The most difficult part of psilocybian mushroom cultivation is the observance of the rules of pure culture technique. These are the sanitary codes of mushroom cultivation. There are usually many varieties of bacteria and fungal spores in our environment floating in the air, clinging to our hands and clothing, issuing from our mouths with every exhalation. Extreme measures must therefore be taken to keep these out of the mycelial cultures, which could be rapidly overrun. The following points should be diligently observed.

Large Scale Production

The techniques and procedures described in this guide can be employed to cultivate modest supplies of psilocybin for personal use, or they can be expanded to apply to the large scale production of many thousand doses per week. A small 10 x 15 foot room with standard 8 foot ceilings can be set up to produce an unending yield of at least 5000 doses per week. The stock culture shelves here are 1 foot deep and 5 feet long. Each could hold twenty 15 cm petri dishes. If shelving is spaced six inches apart, there can be as many as 16 shelves stacked in this space. This would allow for up to 300 stock culture dishes going at one time. The crop culture shelves can be stacked ten inches apart, accommodating one quart size mason jars and giving ten levels. With the dimensions of the room as mentioned this much shelving could hold about 2800 jars (3 deep and 3 per running foot). The entire room - walls, ceiling, and shelving - should be painted with a white, glossy kitchen enamel. This is not...

Dual Chambered Terrarium Techniques

The mushrooms get water from 2 sources the substrate they grow on and the air that surrounds them. The surrounding air must be highly humidified. The fungus needs to bathe in a shroud of floating water molecules. 100 humidity is where there is the maximum number of water molecules floating amongst the air atoms. The dual chambered terrarium easily achieves these conditions.

Spore Printing Equipment

Flame sterilize the scissors with an alcohol flame and snip off the mushroom cap. Cut the top of the stem as far up into the cap as possible so that the gills of the mushroom will sit flat on the surface of the jar bottom. With quick and sure movements, place the cap into the jar and place the lid on loosely. Pierce the top of the cap with a straight pin to pick it up and handle it. 3. Leave the jar with a loose cap for a couple of days in a draft free area away from direct sunlight. After the print is taken, quickly and with as little air disturbance as possible, remove the jar cap and extract the mushroom cap from the jar. With a loose jar cap, let the jar sit in a draft free place to dehumidify for a few days before sealing it up (with tape) because there will be some residual moisture left behind on the spores and glass. Store the spore print jar at room temperatures in a dark place away from sunlight. Don't store it in a refrigerator.

Transfer From Grain To Grain

The grain-grown cultures can be used to inoculate properly prepared compost for carpophore production. In this case the transfer is done non-sterilely. If the compost is done properly, unlike the grain medium, it will be selective for mushroom growth and resist the growth of a whole multitude of yeast and p nicillium type contamination. Therefore, when the compost is laid out (in boxes, bags whatever area or container) a layer of grain spawn is sprinkled out over the top and covered with a few inches of compost and allowed to incubate for three to four weeks before induction of carpophores (or two if the temperature and humidity are high enough 55*75 F and a 70-80 humidity, depending on the species).

Larry Lonikf Morel Quiche

Gratefully reprinted, with permission of the author, from The Curious Morel Mushroom Hunter's Recipes. Lore & Advice. Preheat oven to 400 F. (200 + C.). In a 10 inch lightly greased pie pan mix bacon, mushrooms, onion green pepper and cheese. In medium-sized bowl add milk, Bisquick eggs, salt and pepper. Beat until smooth. Pour into pie pan. Bake 35-40 minutes or until inserted toothpick comes out

Irene Gary LincofTs Pickled Mediate Henofthe Wood

Season marinade with salt, peppercorns, bouquet garni, or other preferred spices. After cleaning the mushrooms, and separating the leaves of Maitake in bite-size pieces, throw them in boiling water for 2 minutes, drain, and let cool on paper towels. Bring marinade to a boil and cook the mushrooms in the marinade until done to taste (crunchy to soft). Remove mushrooms. Discard solids from marinade. Store mushrooms, covered with marinade, in glass jars, with a thin layer of olive oil on top to help preserve. Store refrigerated.

What is perlite and how does it work

Perlite can be purchased from most gardening supply stores. It's generally kept in the same area as bags of dirt, manure, fertilizers etc. A small bag is about 5 and a large bag is about 20. Apparently perlite can also be purchased in automotive stores for use in helping clean up oil spills best to avoid this variety as some sources suggest it is treated with chemicals which may not be good for growing mushrooms.

The Laboratory Complex

Purposes To isolate and develop mushroom cultures for generating pure culture spawn Facility A building well separated from the growing room complex. Maximum Temperature 80 F. (26-27 C.) Minimum Temperature-70 F. (21-22 C.) Humidity. 35-50 Light 500-1000 lux. Insulation. R16-R32

The Growing Room Complex

Purpose To grow as many mushrooms as possible Additional Comments Ideally, a flow-through design is followed, both in consideration of fresh mushrooms as well as the entry and exit of substrate mass. Removing contaminated substrates into the same corridor through which freshly spawned substrate is being transferred causes cross-contamination. Spent substrate should be exited out of the opposite ends of the growing rooms. Many farms bring their fresh nushrooms into the main hallway, en route to the sorting and cold storage rooms.

Inoculating the bags Long Needle Method

Place the bags into a humidity chamber, this is simply a 4ft by 2ft fish tank, also note that I have added a layer of soaked hydro pellets to the bottom of the tank, this will keep the interior nice & humid, there has also been a layer of plastic placed over the top of the tank to create a seal, so that none of the humidity escapes & no fly's can get in. All that needs to be done for the next few days is to fan some fresh air into the tank twice a day & keep an eye out for signs of forming mushrooms. Fig 31. Here we see the first signs of mushrooms starting to form, it is time to cut the bag down the sides & remove as much of the bag as needed, I like to leave at least 2cm of the bottom of the bag intact, this allows me to stand the bags anywhere I like, without the worry of them getting to wet when they are standing in the humidity chamber. Fig 32. Here again we see the first signs of small mushrooms starting to form. Fig 32. Here again we see the first signs of...

Spore printing Pictorial

The mushrooms should have popped their veils, and formed a nice open cap that is nearly flat. it's best if you wait for the right time before printing, maybe another day or two past prime picking time. 3. Now you're ready for action clean your hands again, and open the terrarium lid. Choose your mushroom - one that has opened right up, and preferably has some purple spore dust on the stem, so you know it's already dropping. stick the pin in the middle of the cap. Holding the pin, cut off the cap as high up as you can with the sterile blade. Place cap gills-down on the foil, lifting glass briefly to do so. don't touch it with your fingers, they're filthy 5. Repeat with the next mushroom, until the tray is full. Now cover the whole deal with the other clean teatowel, and put it out of harm's way in a dark cool drawer for a while, 12 - 24 hours.

Incubating the sawdust spa vn bags

Dispersing the spawn throughout the sawdust by shakir g. The inflated bag not only facilitates shaking, but provides a sufficient atmospheric plenum within each bag, accelerating the growth of the mushroom mycelium- 1 igure 129. Dispersing the spawn throughout the sawdust by shakir g. The inflated bag not only facilitates shaking, but provides a sufficient atmospheric plenum within each bag, accelerating the growth of the mushroom mycelium- to grow mushrooms on. (However, most of the species described in this book benefit from having the sawdust enriched with a readiiy avai'able, nitrogenous supplement such as bran ) For the cultivation of Shiitake Lentinula edodes), Enokitake (.Flammulina velutipes), Maitake (Grifola frondosa), Karitake (.Hypholoma sublateriiium), Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus), The Black Poplar Agrocybe aegerita), and Nameko (.Pholiota nameko), the following formula is recommended. Alterations to the formula The base substrate is composed of fast- t...

Hypsizygus tessulatus Bulliard Fries Singer

Introductir n A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese Shimeii mushrooms. Firm textured this mushroom is considered one of the most gourmet of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. (Ikekawa, 1990). Increasingly better known this obscure mushroom compares favorably to P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius in North American. European and Japanese markets. Common Names The Beech Mushroom Buna-shimeji (Japanese for Beech Mushroom Yamabiko Hon-shimeji (Mountain Echo Mushroom) Tamo-motashi (The Elm Oyster Mushroom) tp gZessu. is a synonym of both Hypsizygus marmoreus and Pie ZaZ' t L Footed Oyster Mushroom (Redhead 1986), and is not a synonym of Hypsizygus ulmanus. Be he name tessulatus refers to the water spots on the caps. Mannoreu means marble again n reference to the m ut ngs on the cap surfa . Elongatipes refers to the ab , of Ms to fe t long stems, especially promoted when the...

The Australian Mycolfora Attracts Attention

Cleland publicized the existence of 12 mushroom species of the genus Psilocybe in South Australia. Up to that time, there had been no accounts about psychotropic intoxications from the fifth continent. Cleland was probably the most renowned Australian mycologist of the 20th century. As early as 1927 he had already described a new species named Psilocybe subaeruginosa. This mushroom grows in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia and turns bluish-green with age or in response to pressure. During the 1940s several accounts surfaced which detailed a series of hysterical psychoses caused by Panaeolus ovatus Cke. & Mass. (also see Chapter 3.3). In 1958, Aberdeen and Jones described the geographic distribution of Psilocybe cubensis across the southeastern valleys of Queensland and New South Wales. They speculated that this was the mushroom responsible for the cases of intoxication, not the Panaeolus species. They proposed this hypothesis, because the mushrooms in...

Newyork Greenhouse Film

Fruitbody formation ofLentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing, on the an iicial me- j dia. Mushroom Science IX (Part I). Procee i igs of the Nhth International Scient fic I Congress on the Cultivation of Edible Fungi, Tokyo. Anselmi, N. & G. Deandrea, 1979. Culture dePleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) Quel, surdu bois i de salicicacees applications pratiques et risques eventuels de diffusion hemiparasitaire. Mushroom Science X Part2 451-461. I Arora, D. 1979, (2nd ed., 1986). Mushrooms demystified. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley. Azizi K.A.,T.R. Shamala, & K.R. 1990. Cultivation ofPleurotus sajor-cajuon certain agro industrial wastes and utilization of the residues for cellulase and D-xylanase production. Mushroom Journal for the Tropics (10)1 21-26. _ 1988. is autoclaving Shiitake substrate necessary Mushroom Journal for the Tropics (8) Bano, Z S. Rajarathnam, & N. Nagaraja. Some aspects on the cultivation of Pleurotusflabellatus in India. Mushroom Science X, Part 2 597-607. Bano,...

The Development of Indoor Morel Cultivation

Ascus Morel

All attempts at controlled, indoor Morei cultivation failed, until Ron Ower succeeded in 1982. By his own admission, the discovery of Morel cultivation was more by accident than design. And, Ron Ower told me that his experiences growing Psilocybe mushrooms combined with an accident in the laboratory led to success. (He revealed he had used the casing formula outlined in my first book, Psilocybe Mushrooms & their Allies (S tamets (1978)) as the sclerotia-forming formula.) Under pres sure from venture capitalists, Ron Ower applied for and was awarded two patents, along with G. Mills and J. Malachowski, for the cultivation of Morchella esculenta, the Yellow or White Morel. (Oweret al., 1986 & 1988). The patent describes a technique whereto the Morel mycelium is grown from a nutritious food source into anon-nutritious medium. Once physically separated the mycelium forms sclerotia in the nutritionally impoverished substrate. After a period of dormancy the sclerotia are saturated with...

Spore Mass Inoculation

Spore Mass Inoculation

By far the simplest way to grow mushrooms is to broadcast spores onto prepared substrates outdoors. First, spores of the desired species must be collected. Spore collection techniques vary, according to the shape, size, and type of the mushroom candidate. For gilled mushrooms, the caps can be severed from the stems, and laid, gills down, on top of clean typing paper, glass, or similar surface. (See Figure 15.) A glass jar or bowl is placed over the mushroom to lessen the loss of water. After 12 hours, most mushrooms will have released thousands of spores, falling according to the radiating symmetry of the gills, in an attractive outline called a Spore Print. This method is ideal for mushroom hunters on the go who might not be able to make use of the spores immediately. After the spores have fallen, the spore print can be sealed, stored, and saved for future use. It can even be mailed without harm. By collecting spores of many mushrooms, one creates a Species Library. A mushroom hunter...

Pluteus Salicinus A Littleknown Woodinhabiting Species

Within the Pluteaceae family, there are about 45 European species of the genus Pluteus, some of whom also produce psilocybin. Historically, the Pluteus species were classified as belonging to the Amanitaceae family, which also include the death cap and its relatives, as well as the fly agaric mushroom, both of which belong to the genus Amanita. Unlike all the other psychoactive mushrooms mentioned here in this book, the Pluteus species are classified as light-spored mushrooms, because of their rose-colored spore dust. The first description providing qualitative evidence for the presence of psilocybin and psilocin was provided by Saupe in 1981, who examined extracts of Pluteus salicinus (Pers. Fr.) Kumm. from Illinois. Surprisingly, psilocin turned out to be the alkaloid with the highest levels of concentration in the samples tested. This mushroom species had previously been described in Europe about 200 years ago. Since then, however, it has rarely been mentioned in the literature,...

Formulas for Creating Grain Spawn

Moisture content plays a critical role in the successful colonization by mushroom mycelium of sterilized grai. . If the grain is too dry. gro vth is retarded with the mycelium forming fine threads and growing slowly. Should too much water be added to the grain, the grain clumps, and dense, slow growth occurs. Higher moisture contents also encourage bacterial blooms. Without proper moisture content, spawn production is hampered, even though all other techniques may be perfect. determine the moisture content of any given formula, weigh 100 grams of the grain, dry it out, and re-weigh the remaining mass. (This can easily be determined by drying out the moistened grain in an oven for at 300 F. (150 C.) for 8 hours. The difference in weight is the water lost, or the percentage moisture.) Now water is xdded to achieve a targeted moisture content. Once cooked, a sample of grain is taken and oven dried. To check the proposed formula, just take the mass of the lost water divided by the total...

How to Collect Spores

Lentinula Edodes Mycelium Growth

A culture arising l'rom cloning is fundamentally di Jerent than a culture originating from spores. When spores are germ' ated, many different strains are created, some incompatible with one another. A cultivator will not know what features will be expressed until each and every strain is grown out to the final stage, that of mushroom production.T1 is form of genetic roulette results in very diverse strains, some more desirable than others. Mushroom spores are collected by taking a spore print. Spore prints are made by simply severing the cap from the stem, and placing the cap, gills down, upon a pece of typing paper, or glass. Covering the mushroom cap with a bowl or plate lessens evaporation and distur bance from air currents. Within 24 hours spores fall in a Beautiful pattern according to the radi- at ng symmetry of the gills. (See Figure 14.) A single mushroom can produce from tens of thousands to a hundred million spores I prefer to collect spores on plates of glass, approximately...

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