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Figure 1.1 - This is section of the map of Asia. The area in the square is where scientists believe cannabis started its Life.

Today, human intervention has caused the Cannabis plant to grow under more controlled conditions and in areas where the plant would not have had a previous history. It is estimated that in most countries there must be at least 2 - 12 different cannabis strains growing wildly.

Wild Cannabis plants are rare in countries that have tried to eliminate the plant by burning fields and conditioning woodlands. In certain countries the Cannabis plant has been identified as a dangerous drug and has been killed off by human beings and law enforcement officials. It is treated as a weed and as a plant that causes social, mental and physical problems. None of these reasons for removing the plant are well founded but the cull of cannabis has occurred anyhow.

The Cannabis plant was used for many things other than the extraction of THC (to be discussed later). Our ancestors, up until the late 1800's early 1900's, used the Cannabis plant to create clothing and other materials. The Cannabis plant or Ahemp' as it is called in the textile industry is a very strong material and will withstand large amounts of stress applied to it. Hemp material is widely regarded as one of the best possible materials for producing fabrics. A pair of trousers made from hemp, or a shirt made from hemp will withstand the test of time. It is a far more superior material than cotton. This should give you some clues as to why the fabrics industry wanted to put a stop to the cultivation of marijuana in the late 1800's. Hemp fabric products will last longer than cotton fabric products thus the buyer buys less over longer periods of time. This is the first instance of the Cannabis plant being subjected to ridicule for capitalist gain.

The Cannabis plant has been subjected to a number of stereotypical formats. The first one is that the resin produced by the plant is physically addictive. This is not true and I will explain why. In psychiatry there is a list of classifications for addictions of all abusive substances. It is contained in a paper called - ICD-10 (classifications of Mental and Behavioural Disorders) with you can read here. http://www.who.int/whosis/icd10/

Medical doctors are not informed clearly about the use and abuse of cannabis. This is because cannabis research is illegal in most countries or if research is allowed most of the results are suppressed.

The only way a medical doctor can help a person with a cannabis problem is by having some experience with people who have had cannabis problems in the past. There are no special books to turn too. There are no references which explain clearly what to do or IF cannabis is physically addictive. There are no pills for cannabis addiction (there are for alcoholism). The only place a doctor can go is to the archives of what other countries have said about the drug and it's abuse. As a doctor, one would maybe try Holland and read up on some of the material there, or Belgium or Switzerland. There can be found medical research papers that relate to cannabis dependence and all of them say the same thing. (A) Can it be abused? YES. (B) Can it be addictive? YES. (C) Is cannabis abuse or use life threatening? NO, but mental side effects such a depression can be, but only a small percentage of addicts (NOT USERS, BUT ADDICTS) go through this. (D) Has anyone ever died of cannabis use? ONLY 1 PERSON in the history of cannabis has died from its use, but read on. Bruce Lee, the martial arts expert died after taking cannabis, but the death certificate was later changed too 'death by misadventure' because of another medical herb that he took which he did not know he was allergic too. So the correct answer is 0 people have died from using cannabis. (E) How do you treat cannabis addiction? Psychotherapy is the only answer.

In fact there are absolutely no reasons for the prohibition of cannabis, other than:

1) It is hard to tell if someone is under the influence of cannabis. Driving/working with machinery may be problems here.

2) People might smoke too much and become a little lazy.

3) Many governments have prohibited it for over 70 years and it would seem very stupid if they told everyone that they where wrong about it.

Now let us look at these points for a moment.

1) Yes it is hard to tell and make no mistake -if you drive smoking cannabis then you are just as stupid as if you where driving under the influence of alcohol. It is never advised to use cannabis and then perform a procedure, like driving, which requires your total attention. As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyser test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months. However, alcohol is not banned in a lot of countries but cannabis is.

2) It happens. Some people do smoke too much pot and they become docile to the point where they just want to watch television and eat. However, if there is no money about, and the person needs to survive or live somehow, you will soon find that person can restore their life back to the way it was before they started their cannabis binge by simply - Not smoking for a few days. A few days of not smoking is all it takes to rid cannabis of any effects it has had on the human body. There may be residual cannabinoids left in the system but this does not pose any problems and will soon wear away.

This is not that easy with alcohol or heroin user. They will have to go through a long period of detoxification before they can resume a normal life. A cannabis user does not have to go through the detoxification period because there simply is none. Not only does the alcohol user have to spend a few days getting it out of his/her system but they will also have to deal with the withdrawal symptoms. This can last for months. With cannabis, it is simply, stop smoking cannabis and resume operations as normal. (Note: Pharmaceutical firms would love to sell a pill to cure cannabis addiction, but as of yet can not. They can not prove that their pill does anything because there are no cannabis withdrawal systems to observe. Thus the pill would be deemed a fraudulent product if put on the market.) Also many homeless people's living standards in most cases are attributed to alcohol dependence/addiction and rarely, IF ever, is their low living standard attributed to cannabis dependence. Cannabis dependence is psychological. Treatment of cannabis addiction is done by psychiatrists and psychologists and GP's. Heroin and alcohol is treated by psychiatrists, psychologists, GP's and doctors of internal medicine for the somatic systems of addiction.

3) This is a major problem because the government may have to set people free from prison and radically change their justice departments stance on cannabis which means that jobs will be lost and revenues will be lost if cannabis was decriminalized. Cannabis prohibition is a booming industry that creates jobs and capital. However if cannabis was decriminalised then these lost profits could be derived from a new cannabis industry.

Probably one of the best sites for medical information is www.lycaeum.org or www.overgrow.com

One other thing to mention is that street cannabis may contain other added drugs. In most clinical cases, a person who complains about cannabis addiction and shows physical signs of addiction is not actually addicted to cannabis. They are addicted to the other drug substances that the supplier has added to his produce to make it stronger. 100% home grown clean cannabis does not contain physical additive properties. People who add other drugs to cannabis are not doing the cannabis community a favour. This is a good reason to grow your own pot.

There are many strains or versions of the Cannabis plant alive today. Most strains are the result of human intervention and these are the types you will most likely come across or even smoke. Breeders try to produce strains that are tasty, smell good and give the user different types of highs. These are the strains that are best looked out for because you can be guaranteed that the plant has got a Agrow history' behind it and that the seller of the seeds will know a good bit about the plant and how it ^works'.

This ends our brief look at the history of Cannabis. There is much more to it than just this and many other books that discuss the legal aspects of Marijuana go into great detail about the history of Marijuana. In fact the history of Marijuana is so interesting and deep that a dozen chapters here would not cover the vastness of this plant's background.

HOW CANNABIS IS USED

Whenever we hear the word Cannabis we think of the famous leaf shape like the one on this book's cover. Many magazines show joints being rolled thick with leaves. Leaves are in fact the lesser potent part of the plant next to the stem and the roots. The cannabis plant can be divided into 6 main sections (Fig 1.2.). Bud, Stem, Branches, Nodes, Leaves, and Main Cola.

How Heroin Grown

Fig 1.2 - This is a picture by BigIslandBud. Each of the parts of the plant has been indicated. The 3 horizontal lines on the right show 3 Node levels of branching and where they occur.

The next thing to know is that plants have a gender. The genders are male and female and sometimes a mix gender called the hermaphrodite condition. Now listen to this closely.

1) The male plant is not used for smoking because it contains low levels of THC and does not taste very good, but it can get you high.

2) The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but produces also seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced.

3) A non-pollinated female (sinsemilla) plant will produce more flowering buds with no seeds and will produce higher quantities of THC than the male plant or a seeded female plant. The buds produce resin, which contain THC, and can drip down onto the leaves. When she is fully mature she should produce a very pleasing high depending on the grow method, the strain of plant and when it is harvested.

To put it plainly, males can be smoked but are not very good and are considered vastly inferior to the female plant. The female plant when pollinated produces seeds and can be smoked but is vastly inferior to a non-pollinated female plant (sinsemilla) that produces more bud. It should be the goal of every Cannabis user to grow non-pollinated female plants with big buds. The goal of a cannabis breeder is too produce quality seeds and plants. How both these things are done is what this book will help you to understand.

At the end of the Cannabis plant's life cycle the plant is harvested. This means one of two things. The plant can be completely uprooted and treated (called a complete harvest) or the plant can be harvested a small bit and used again for a second flowering term (this is called re-veging (Figure 1.3.) and re-flowering).

Figure 1.3 - A plant that is being re-veged. Picture by Vic High.

Figure 1.3 - A plant that is being re-veged. Picture by Vic High.

When Cannabis is harvested the harvester concentrates on the best part of the plant, namely the top cola and the buds. The leaves are the last thing to worry about and the stem and roots are normally thrown away. There are many ways to harvest a plant and we will explain it in detail, later. Once the grower has selected the parts they want, they then set about curing their harvest (Figure 1.4). Curing your harvest is important. It helps one to produce a finer product. After the curing has been done the grower can then choose how he/she wants to finally produce their smokable mix (figure 1.5). They can use the cured plant as it is and smoke it dry or they can produce hash or oils from the curing process.

Figure 1.4 - This is a picture of some cured buds.

Figure 1.5 - This is the result of a good indoor harvest. Both Pictures by Kryptonite.

Figure 1.5 - This is the result of a good indoor harvest. Both Pictures by Kryptonite.

Figure 1.6 - This is a picture of an indoor garden from Kryptonite.

Figure 1.6 - This is a picture of an indoor garden from Kryptonite.

SPECIES

The next thing one should know about are the different types of Cannabis species. There are 3 main species of Cannabis plants. These are Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis. Each species has its own group of strains which are many. Each species has different characteristics and each strain of each species has it's own special identity.

Figure 1.7 - Picture of Sativa leaf by Slowhand.

SATIVA:

Height - Can grow tall. Averages anywhere between, 4 - 15 feet. Nodes - Has long internodes between branches, 3

inches to 6. Leaf - Pointy leaves with no markings or patterns.

Figure 1.8 - Indica Leaf picture by Kryptonite.

INDICA:

Height - Small plants. Averages anywhere between 6 inches - 4 feet. Nodes - Short internodes between branches. 3

inches and less. Leaf - Rounded leaves with marble like patterns.

Figure 1.9 - This is a picture of some Ruderalis from

Sensi Seeds.

Figure 1.9 - This is a picture of some Ruderalis from

Sensi Seeds.

RUDERERALIS:

Height - Small plants. Averages anywhere between 6 inches and 4 feet. Nodes - very short internodes with much branching. Leaf - Small and thick.

Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids. The main ingredient of the cannabinoids that gives the high effect is called - delta 9 THC. All strains vary in THC levels that come in different percentages. Some plants may contain 100% THC but the "levels" of THC may be low. Other plants have only 60% THC, but the "levels" of THC may be very high. A good potent plant will have both levels and quantities very high. Plants produce something called - delta 8 THC. This ingredient is in low levels but does contribute to the high. When we mention THC levels, we are talking about both delta 8 and 9.

There are also other ingredients that add to the high such as CBD, CBN, THCV, CBDV, CDC and CBL, but are only very minor compared to THC.

The difference between THC levels and THC quantities is that THC levels are genetic. They are not under the influence of the grower. THC quantities on the other hand are. This is to do with bud mass and how much resin can be generated in that bud mass. Some bud may only contain 20% THC, with a THC level of 5. The same plant grown under better conditions and light will produce 70% THC, with a THC level of 5. The A5' is genetic. The quantities of 20% and 70% are under the grower's control.

When examining a strain in a seed-bank catalogue one is guided to check for the THC levels of that plant to understand how potent the plant is. Many seed sellers and breeders measure their plants THC levels and give accounts on how much THC their plants have. Of course many breeders like to exaggerate on how much THC their plants produce, but some do not. If you wish to know more about THC levels it is best to consult your seed-bank or breeder for details.

No complete study of cannabinoids has been made public since this book's publication. This is because cross breeding produces so many different results that it is hard to keep track on what is happening. Some 'old timer' strains are still around and have been tested. This information can be obtained from the larger seed production companies in Holland. THC testing is also an expensive process that requires heavy amounts of research. The other interesting factor is that some plants do not produce any THC at all. These plants have been genetically engineered (GM) to produce very low levels of THC and are mainly used by farmers in some countries who have permission to grow cannabis for hemp production ONLY. It is best to keep away from these seeds and strains. They will not get you high. There is project called the PMP (potency monitoring project) that is carried out by some government-funded agencies, but the results are questionable.

ZERO ZERO

The other thing that may interest you is that Cannabis can be cured in various forms and one of these popular forms is HASHISH (Figure 1.10).

Figure 1.10 - This is some raw hash extraction by Kryptonite. This hash should be pure without any additives.

Hashish can also be graded and one of the most famous grades of Hashish is called Zero Zero. Hashish making (Figure 1.11) can improve (but sometimes degrade) the overall potency of marijuana. The grades of Hashish are as follows. 00(zero zero), 0, 1, 2, 3. Zero Zero is by far the most purest form of Hashish on the market today and comes from plants that have high levels of THC in conjunction with a good Hash making technique. Sometimes the technique may be good but the levels of THC in the plant are low. This may produce a grade such as a 2 or a 3.

It is wise to note that the Potency of a plant depends on a number of factors. It should be the goal of every grower to produce a potent, high grade, product. Zero Zero is also a 'western' concept derived from hash types that come from Morocco.

Figure 1.11 - This picture shows some hash being made. The powder-like substance is the collection of trichomes from the plant. This powder will eventually be solidified to make a bar of hash. Photograph by

Chimera.

Figure 1.11 - This picture shows some hash being made. The powder-like substance is the collection of trichomes from the plant. This powder will eventually be solidified to make a bar of hash. Photograph by

Chimera.

RESIN

Female plants produce resin glands (Figure 1.12 and 1.14). Some of these glands may have lots of resin but are not very potent. Other plants may have little resin but are very potent. Optimal growth, is a plant that has lots of resin and is very potent. Resin glands are produced all over the female flower and new leaves. They can be seen clearly with the use of a magnifying aid. These resin glands are correctly called Trichomes.

Figure 1.12 - This picture is a macro shot of some trichomes as they look on the plant. Notice the tip shape ball. This contains cannabinoids. Photograph by

Joop Jumas.

Figure 1.12 - This picture is a macro shot of some trichomes as they look on the plant. Notice the tip shape ball. This contains cannabinoids. Photograph by

Joop Jumas.

- '■-■- -
Figure 1.13 - This flowering female is covered in Trichomes. That is what gives this bud her frosty look. Picture by Chimera.

Resin can be rubbed off the bud using the fingers and then rolled into the palms to create small balls of hand rubbed hashish. It is within these glands that one is to find the main concentration of produced cannabinoids and THC. When a plant is in full flowering the resin gland can explode or break dropping resin down onto the leaves below. This can also give the leaves their shiny frosty potent look during flowering. Towards the bottom of the plant are located the fan leaves. These leaves are generally large and collect most of the light for plant growth. Because these leaves are far away from the top of the plant, which produce the most amount of resin glands and buds, they collect the least amount of resin and are not very potent. It is best to consider separating these fan leaves from the rest of the plant during harvest because these leaves will not give you the best quality high.

Figure 1.14 - Trichomes Photograph by Joop Jumas.

THE HIGH

We should now have an idea as to what we are looking for in terms of a good quality smoke. We are looking for non-pollinated female plants that are flowering and producing lots of buds with resin glands that contain high levels and amounts of THC. We are also looking for plants that have been well cured and processed in a way that allows us to sample the full flavour, smell and taste of the plant. One must also be aware that some plants are very potent and can literally knock one's socks off. This is where taste comes into play. Some people like plants that give a head high but do not cause one to fall asleep. Other people like plants that give a down effect and cause the body to become less responsive to stimuli. The body down is called AThe couch-lock effect'. The head high is simply called AThe head high.'

Now another thing must be considered here. Remember that we talked about Species of Cannabis - Sativa, Indica and rudereralis? Well rudereralis is hardly used much today. Sativa and Indica are extremely common and these 2 species will be the main focus of this book. Also both species have two different forms of high. The high of each species can be controlled depending on the time at which you harvest. Not only this but the species can be crossed to produce Indica/Sativa type plants or Sativa/Indica type plants. This may sound all very confusing at first, but it is in fact all quite simple. We will explain more about this in our next chapter.

Chapter 2 SEEDS

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