Treatments For Fertility

The Pregnancy Miracle Program

Created by Lisa Olson, a former infertility sufferer, Chinese Medicine Researcher and one of the big names for Infertility treatments, the Pregnancy Miracle is a 250 page eBook that contains proven methods to cure infertility naturally without any harmful drugs or dangerous surgery. Lisa provides information on how the foods you eat can significantly affect how quickly you will conceive. She says that it is important to eat for two prior to ever conceiving a child. There is simply too much information to summarize in this brief review but she discusses fatty acids, acidic foods, cruciferous vegetables, organic and hormone free meats, refined carbohydrates, dairy products, and the need to avoid caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. The content of this fertility book is very user-friendly. Meaning you dont have to be a doctor to understand what is presented to you. The guide is made for an average person it is not a scientific work. Honestly, I think there could be a little bit more graphic support to the text itself. its much easier to understand if you are presented with the photos. Continue reading...

Pregnancy Miracle Summary


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Contents: Ebook
Author: Lisa Olson
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My Pregnancy Miracle Review

Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

R Could fertility treatments cause malignant melanoma

Concern that the drug treatment of female infertility might predispose the user to malignant melanoma was first engendered by a US study published in 1995 (2C). Among women who had used clomiphene citrate for infertility the incidence of melanoma was higher (RR 1.8 95 CI 0.8, 3.5) than among American women in general. However, in a case-cohort study of nearly 4000 infertile women there was a similar increase in the incidence of melanoma among those who had been treated with human chorionic gonadotrophin compared with the rest there was no association with the use of clomiphene. Quite apart from the inherent discrepancy in these findings, several pieces of evidence have confused the debate. In the first place, the cohort of melanoma cases was small barely a handful. In the second place, some earlier papers had suggested that infertility in women might of itself have an association with melanoma. The same impression came from various studies, in which the incidences of cancers in...

Effects and manifestations

A wide variety of responses characterizes developmental toxicity. Infertility, chromosomal and genetic disorders, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, prematurity, low birth weight, birth defects and functional disorders arc the effects of such drug interference with the developmental and reproductive processes. The manifestation of a developmental or reproductive toxicant can either be seen immediately after exposure, or will be expressed at a much later date. Interfering with male or female germ cell development might result in infertility, decreased sperm activity and or libido, and impaired gamctogcnesis. The effects on the pre-implantation stage will cause early embryonic death, extra-uterine implantation, or delayed transport of the fertilized zygote. Fetal tissues are intrinsically highly vulnerable to carcinogens because of their high rate of cellular proliferation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and monkeys. About 25...

Second Generation Effects Fertility

Oligospermia, with reduced motility and a high frequency of abnormal forms, and male infertility are well documented in patients taking sulfasalazine. Oral and rectal treatments have the same effects, which reverse on withdrawal. Male infertility caused by sulfasalazine can be reversed by switching to mesalazine.

Endocrine and Sexual Effects

All standard antipsychotic drugs elevate serum prolactin levels by blocking the tonic inhibitory actions of dopamine on lactotrophic cells in the pituitary. Among second-generation antipsychotics, risperidone and amisulpride can produce dose-dependent hyperprolactinemia to a greater extent than firstgeneration antipsychotics, whereas clozapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and quetiapine do not cause a sustained elevation of prolactin above normal levels. Aripiprazole, being a partial DA agonist, produces no elevation of prolactin and even suppresses prolactin levels slightly. Hyperprolactinemia in women can lead to menstrual disturbances, including anovu-latory cycles and infertility, menses with abnormal luteal phases, or frank amenorrhea and hypoestrogenemia. Women have also reported decreased libido and anorgasmia, and there are reports of increased long-term risk of osteoporosis although this is controversial. Antipsychotic-induced gyneco-mastia has been reported in 3 of women and 6...

Drugs for chronic inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (1BD) often affects young adults, and young women with IBD may become pregnant. Several earlier retrospective studies suggest that the rates of prematurity, fetal loss, and congenital malformations in IBD approximate the incidence of these findings in the normal population (review by Katz 2001). Recent population-based studies, however, have demonstrated an increased risk of preterm delivery and have documented neonates born to mothers with IBD to have lower birth weight and to be small for gestational age (Dominitz 2002, Norg rd 2000, Fonager 1998, Kornfeld 1997). Two studies also reported an increased risk of malformations, contradicting earlier findings (Norg rd 2003, Dominitz 2002). Disease symptoms and activity play a dominant role in determining pregnancy outcome. Active inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy has been associated with low birth weight, higher rates of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and perinatal complications. Therefore, optimal...

General Information

Bovine serum albumin is often used as protein supplement in cell culture media, and residual bovine serum albumin in some formulations has occasionally caused adverse effects. Symptoms are usually mild, such as itching and urticaria. An anaphylactic reaction has been described in a patient undergoing bone marrow transplantation after the bone marrow cells had been kept in bovine serum albumin. As a component of sperm processing media, bovine serum albumin has caused adverse effects after intrauterine insemination (1). The risk of transmission of nvCJD by recombinant proteins is unknown, as cell cultures used for manufacturing them often contain bovine serum albumin (2).

Susceptibility Factors

If bromocriptine is to be used to treat infertility, the presence of a pituitary adenoma must be excluded, since this can otherwise undergo suprasellar extension during pregnancy. Because of its adverse reactions profile, bro-mocriptine is better avoided in patients with cardiac disease or peripheral vascular disease. Acromegaly in patients with a history of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding should not be treated with bromocriptine generally, however, it seems to be rather better tolerated by patients with acromegaly, as well as by postmenopausal women and patients with a raised serum prolactin concentration than by other patients.

Second Generation Effects Pregnancy

Pregnancies in women who took ciclosporin resulted in live neonates in 68 half were premature while the other half were of low birth weights (197). Reduced renal graft function during pregnancy was associated with greater risks of neonates of lower birth weights and graft loss. In another study, a ciclosporin-based regimen was associated with more frequent miscarriage, preterm birth and intrau-terine growth retardation, compared with previous experience (198). Maternal azathioprine treatment during pregnancy is clearly teratogenic in animals, but the mechanisms are not known. A large number of reports have described the outcome of pregnancies following the use of immuno-suppressant drugs, in particular in renal transplant patients, and hundreds of pregnancies have been analysed (199). The largest experience is that derived from the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry which has been built up in the USA since 1991 (200). This registry has accumulated data on more than 900...

Reproductive system

Many reproductive processes (ovulation, fertilization, implantation, decidualization, and parturition) depend on prostaglandin ligand-receptor interactions. It is therefore not surprising that selective COX-2 inhibition has a negative local effect on ovulation, resulting in delayed follicular rupture and infertility, without affecting peripheral hormonal cyclicity (122,123). There have been several case reports that non-selective NSAIDs (diclofenac, naproxen, piroxicam) can cause infertility, attributed to luteinized unruptured ovarian follicles'' syndrome (124-126). Now the syndrome has been documented in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, in which women were assessed over two menstrual cycles while taking rofe-coxib (123). Women who are trying to become pregnant should avoid taking any NSAIDs if possible, and those who need one for a chronic rheumatic disorder should be aware of possible infertility in such cases further investigation is not required, as...

Epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy

It lias been known for several decades tbat infants of epileptic mothers are at an increased risk of major and minor malformations. This is mainly attributable to the teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AED), the disease in itself increasing the risk mildly, if at all (Morrow 2006, Artama 2005, Fried 2004, Holmes 2001), No epidemiological technique, though, is ideal to separate the effects of the disease from those of the drugs on the fetus. Few epileptic patients can live without treatment, and it might be questioned whether those who can are indeed actually epileptic. Lindhout and Omtzigt (1992) described a marked increase in malformations amongst infants exposed to first-trimester seizures. However, most investigators have found that maternal seizures during pregnancy had no impact on the frequency of malformations (Canger 1999, Kaneko 1999, Dansky 1991), or on the development of infant epilepsy or febrile convulsions (Dansky 1991). There have been reports of maternal seizures...

Susceptibility Factors Age

Estrogen treatment of girls in whom growth in height tends to be excessive is progressively losing favor. In 2002, after reviewing the possible risks, which in its view could include miscarriage, endometriosis, and ovarian cysts as well as infertility, the USA Physicians' Committee for Responsible Medicine petitioned the FDA to issue appropriate warnings (178).

Ethnoveterinary Research

Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. The root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases, and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these eth-nobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark, and root bark were extracted with etha-nol, acetone, dichloromethane, and hexane.

The Reproductive System

Previous studies have claimed that THC delays sexual development in adolescents, interferes with male and female sex hormones, causes infertility, and produces feminine characteristics in males and masculine characteristics in females. Again, much of this research was conducted on animals using very high doses of THC some of these conclusions were also drawn on the basis of very small-scale studies. Thus, many researchers feel that this uncertainty plus a lack of scientific data in humans suggest that there is no clear correlation between marijuana smoking and reproductive effects in humans.

Overall level of evidence of adverse effects B

Infertility Infertility Infertility Infertility Semen Infertility Semen Infertility Semen Disease treated Infertility Infertility Semen 2191 Madsen H, Andersen O, Hansen P. Bromocriptine treatment for male infertility. Andrologia. 1980 Jul Aug 12(4) 379-80. English Infertility Semen 2190 Laufer N, Yaffe H, Margalioth EJ, Livshin J, Ben-David M, Schenker JG. Effect of bromocriptine treatment on male infertility associated with hyperprolactinemia. Arch Androl. 1981 Jun 6(4) 343-6. English Infertility Semen 2185 Okada H, Iwamoto T, Fujioka H, Shirakawa T, Tatsumi N, Kanzaki M, Minayoshi K, Ohya K, Fujisawa M, Arakawa S, Kamidono S, Ishigami J. Hyperprolactinaemia among infertile patients and its effect on sperm functions. Andrologia. 1996 Jul-Aug 28(4) 197-202. English

Comparative studies

When recombinant and urinary versions of follicle-stimulating hormone were compared under double-blind conditions in an in vitro fertilization program in a randomized, multicenter study (12), the former was more potent. There were no clinically relevant differences in safety between the two products and no cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The efficacy and safety of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) has been compared with that of highly purified urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (u-hFSH HP) in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization, including intracyto-plasmic sperm injection, in a prospective, randomized study in 278 patients, who were treated with gonadotro-pin-releasing hormone and then received one of the two formulations in doses of 150 IU day subcutaneously for

General adverse effects

Recombinant human luteinizing hormone has now very largely replaced the product prepared from the urine of pregnant women (uhCG). In an open, randomized trial in 297 ovulatory infertile women in 20 US infertility centers, recombinant hCG 250 micrograms and 500 micrograms was compared with urinary hCG 10 000 U USP in assisted reproduction (14). The women were treated for a single cycle with one or the other. The mean numbers of oocytes retrieved per treatment group were equivalent (13-14). Although the numbers of fertilized oocytes on day 1 after oocyte retrieval and of cleaved embryos on the day of embryo transfer were significantly higher with 500 micrograms of recombinant hCG than with 250 micrograms, the incidence of the anticipated adverse events also tended to be higher. More exact data on the adverse effects and relative safety of the recombinant and urinary formulations have been provided in a similar investigation in 259 women (15). In terms of safety, rhCG was well tolerated...

Long Term Effects Tumorigenicity

In a prospective study of 1200 infertile women in Israel, including a subgroup of women who developed breast cancer, there was no statistical association with the use of fertility-inducing drugs (27). Concern that the drug treatment of female infertility might predispose the user to malignant melanoma was first engendered by a US study published in 1995 (29). Among women who had used clomiphene citrate for infertility the incidence of melanoma was higher (RR 1.8 95 CI 0.8, 3.5) than among American women in general. However, in a case-cohort study of nearly 4000 infertile women there was a similar increase in the incidence of melanoma among those who had been treated with human chorionic gonadotropin compared with the rest there was no association with the use of clomiphene. Quite apart from the inherent discrepancy in these findings, several pieces of evidence have confused the debate. In the first place, the cohort of melanoma cases was small barely a handful. In the second place,...

Spermicide contraceptives

The over-the-counter (OTC) available spermicides, sold as cream, gel, tablets or foam, contain nonoxinol-9. This form of contraception had always been considered harmless. However, in one study of more than 700 children born to mothers who became pregnant in spite of the use of vagina contraceptives, a slight increase in rate of malformations was observed (Jick 1981). A meta-analysis did not confirm this finding (Einarson 1990). Several publications suggest that by damaging the vaginal mucosa and disturbing the vaginal flora, the use of these spermicides may facilitate HIV infection (Rosenstein 1998, Stafford 1998).

Hypothalamic releasing hormones

Releasing hormones are responsible for regulating the synthesis and secretion of FSH and LH. Many synthetic human GnRH agonists are marketed, including buserelin, gonadorelin, goserelin, leuprore-lirt, nafarelin, and triptorelin. Cetrorelix and ganirelix are inhibitors of GnRH. In women, GnRH agonists have been used to treat estrogen-dependent breast cancer, endometriosis, hirsutism, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, but the widespread use of protocols using GnRH agonists antagonists in assisted reproductive technologies has led to an increasing number of pregnant women being exposed to these types of drugs. Most of the data concerning the safety of the GnRH analogs have not demonstrated serious side effects, such as increase in the incidence of miscarriage, birth defects, or fetal growth restriction, in human pregnancies exposed to GnRH (Tarlatzis 2004, The available information concerning children exposed to GnRH antagonist is still rare. In a study carried out on the perinatal...

Prolactin antagonists

Infertility resulting from hyperprolactinemia is reversible after treatment with centrally acting dopamine agonists. Among these, bromocriptine, cabergoline, lisuride, metergoline, and quinagolide are the more frequently used in the clinic. In a study of 2587 pregnancies in which bromocriptine was administered during the first weeks of pregnancy, there was a slight increase in the rate of early miscarriage but no increase in the rate of birth defects (Krupp 1987). Because most women stop therapy as soon as pregnancy is confirmed, this study also suggests that continuing hyperprolactinemia has no adverse effects on the fetus. A more recent report concerning 27 pregnancies also demonstrated effectiveness and apparent lack of adverse effect of continuing therapy for micro- or macroprolaetinoma with bromocriptine or lisuride through early pregnancy. If, during the course of the pregnancy, ophthalmologic problems occur in connection with macro-prolactinoma, restarting medication therapy is...

Long Term Effects Drug abuse

Although it was originally believed that women who stopped taking oral contraceptives, particularly after a long period of use, were more likely to have amenorrhea, careful analysis has shown that that is not the case. The likelihood of conception is reduced during the first 1-2 months after discontinuation, but cumulative conception rates after several months are not affected.

Menotropins and Urofollitropin

Menotropins (Pergonal) and urofollitropin (Metrodin) are purified preparations of the gonadotropins (FSH and LH) extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. Menotropins are used to induce ovulation and pregnancy in anovulatory (failure to produce an ovum or failure to ovulate) women. Menotropins are also used with human chorionic gonadotropin in women to stimulate multiple follicles for in vitro fertilization. In men, menotropins are used to induce the production of sperm (spermatogenesis). Urofollitropin is used to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian disease and to stimulate multiple follicular development in ovulatory women for in vitro fertilization. See the Summary Drug Table Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones for additional information on the gonadotropins.

Drug administration route

The usefulness of devices for constant subcutaneous, intravenous, or intraperitoneal insulin administration is well established. To establish feedback systems reliable, constantly functioning insulin sensors are essential, but they have been in a developmental phase for more than 25 years, and no long-acting glucose sensors for non-experimental use are yet available (157). Experience with pumps in large groups of patients has been reported (158-160). When starting intensive therapy, temporary worsening of secondary complications, mostly retino-pathy, but sometimes nephropathy, has been reported (SEDA-14, 374). Weight gain is also a complication. The major candidates for insulin pump therapy include patients with type 1 diabetes, pregnant women, some types of brittle diabetics, patients wanting to become pregnant, and children.

Critical Thinking Exercises

Judy Cowan, age 28 years, has been prescribed domiphene to induce ovulation and pregnancy. Judy is very anxious and wants desperately to become pregnant. Her husband, Jim, has come to the clinic with her. Discuss assessments the nurse would consider important before initiating treatment with clomiphene. Discuss information the nurse would include in a teaching plan for Jim and Judy.

Vaccines and Toxoids

Immunologic agents are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the agent or any component of it. The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines are contraindicated in patients who have ever had an allergic reaction to gelatin, neomycin, or a previous dose of one of the vaccines. The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, because of the danger of birth defects. Women are instructed to wait at least 3 months before getting pregnant after receiving these vaccines. Vaccines and toxoids are contraindicated during acute febrile illnesses, leukemia, lymphoma, immunosuppressive illness or drug therapy, and non-localized cancer. See Display 54-6 for additional infor-

Phenoxyacetic acid derivatives and chlorinated dibenzodioxins

Organic lead is much more rapidly absorbed than inorganic salts, by all routes, and is highly lipid-soluble, rapidly passing the blood-placenta barrier from 12 weeks onwards, and the fetal blood-brain barrier (Rabinowitz 1988). The effects on human reproduction are not unique. There have many unsubstantiated reports that women who worked in occupations with high lead exposure (white lead industries, potteries) had high miscarriage and stillbirth rates and gave birth to stunted, abnormal babies, but there are no epidemiological studies or case reports specifically on organic lead. It was a commonly held belief that lead was an abortifacient however, as lead is a cumulative poison and is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, it is potentially a reproductive hazard for men and women (Schardein 2000, Miller 1993, Manton 1992, Bornschein 1984, Barlow 1982, Scanlon 1975). There is no conclusive evidence to suggest that maternal exposure to lead is associated with an increased risk of...

Pregnancy Category X

Women are advised to avoid the drug during pregnancy because the substance may masculinize a female fetus, a discovery made in the 1950s when methyltestosterone was a standard medication for reducing the likelihood of miscarriage. Nursing mothers are advised to avoid the drug because it might pass into milk and masculinize a female infant. These effects of the drug are powerful enough that methyltestosterone is used in tilapia farming to change females of this fish into males. The drug has also been used to change female flounder into male fish. Research on rats has demonstrated that masculinizing effects on females can persist into a subsequent generation that did not receive the drug. Human males who use the substance may produce more male offspring than usual. Simon, J.A. Safety of Estrogen Androgen Regimens. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 46 (2001 Supp. 3) 281-90.

Electric shocks and lightning strikes

In 1997, the results were published of a small case-control study of 31 women who received electrical shocks during pregnancy, matched with control subjects (Einarson 1997). Of these women, 26 had been exposed to 110 V, 2 to 220 V, 2 to high voltage (from electrified fences), and 1 to 12 V (from a telephone wire). In the exposed group there were 28 normal infants, 1 infant with ventricular septal defect, and 2 miscarriages. In the unexposed control, there were 30 normal infants and 1 miscarriage. The authors reported that in this study the pathway of electric current was only likely to have passed through the uterus in 3 of the 31 women, in contrast with previously published case reports. Adverse effects on the fetus seem more likely to occur when the current is reported to have passed from hand to foot, or electrical burn marks suggest such a route.

The Endocannabinoid System and Male Reproductive Function

We found that Sertoli cells have the biochemical machinery to degrade AEA and express functional CB2 receptors on their surface (Maccarrone et al. 2003b). In addition, FSH dose-dependently inhibited apoptosis induced by AEA in these cells through a remarkable (four- to fivefold) increase in FAAH activity (Maccarrone et al. 2003b). Taken together, these data extend to male fertility the potential for FAAH to regulate the activity of AEA. Additionally, the finding that Sertoli cells belong to the peripheral endocannabinoid system opens new perspectives to the understanding and treatment of male fertility problems.

Leukaemia Inhibiting Factor and Endocannabinoids

Human reproductive fluids, such as seminal plasma, mid-cycle oviductal fluid, follicular fluid, amniotic fluid, as well as human amniotic fluid and human milk have been reported to contain AEA, N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) in the low nanomolar range, i.e. from 3 nM of AEA in the follicular fluid to 67 nM of OEA in human milk (Schuel et al. 2002b). This suggests that endocannabinoids might regulate multiple physiological and pathological reproductive functions in humans, implying that exogenous cannabinoids delivered by marijuana smoke could impact these processes. Consistent with the hypothesis that endocannabinoids adversely affect human fertility, we have recently found a fall in FAAH activity and expression in the T lymphocytes of women experiencing miscarriage (Maccarrone et al. 2000) and a rise ( 4-fold) in blood AEA levels of the same subjects, compared to women with normal gestation (Maccarrone et al. 2002). The other components of the...

Miscellaneous Compounds

Rossing MA, Daling JR, Weis NS, Moore DE, Self SG. Risk of cutaneous melanoma in a cohort of infertile women. Melanoma Res 1995 5 123-7. 3. Ron E, Lunenfeld B, Menczer J, Blumstein T, Katz L. Oelsner G, Serr D. Cancer incidence in a cohort of infertile women. Am J Epidemiol 1987 125 780-90. 4. Brinton L, Melton IJ III, Malkasian G Jr, Bond A, Hoover R. Cancer risk after evaluation for infertility. Am J Epidemiol 1989 129 712-22. 5. Modan B, Ron E, Lerner-Geva L, Blumstein T, Menczer J, Rabinovici J, Oelsner G, Freedman L, Mashiach D, Lunenfed B. Cancer incidence in a cohort of infertile women. Am J Epidemiol 1998 147 1038-42. 6. Venn A, Watson L, Lumley J, Giles G, King C, Healy D. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence after infertility and in-vitro fertilization. Lancet 1995 346 995-1000. 7. Young P, Purdle D, Jackman L, Molloy D, Green A. A study of infertility treatment and melanoma. Melanoma Res 2001 11 535-41. 11. Chang P, Kenley S, Burns T, Denton G, Currie K, DeVane G, O'Dea L....

Safety Issues of Phytomedicines in Pregnancy and Paediatrics

From an analysis of the literature some interesting aspects emerge (1) herbal consumption during pregnancy ranges from 7 to 45 , depending on the geographical area (2) the use of herbal products during pregnancy could be due to pre-existing conditions, to symptoms problems related to the new physiological state (nausea, vomiting, etc.), to prevent miscarriage or to prepare for childbirth (3) the important aspect of safe use should take into account that some plants are contraindicated (oxy-tocic and uterine-stimulating herbs, teratogenicity, effect on neonatal birth weight), may affect concurrent conditions such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia and may be dangerous for the newborn (some case reports of adverse reactions are reported) (4) herbal use in children is relatively common and on the rise (5) few data exist about the clinical evidence for effectiveness (6) most herbal products have not been subjected to rigorous clinical trials in children and a number of case reports...

Special Considerations

Longitudinal studies have shown that in utero exposure to methadone is not associated with abnormal development. Methadone maintenance should therefore be continued by women who become pregnant, though the dose may need to be reduced during the third trimester. The neonate may develop abstinence symptoms and this should be expected and treated after birth.

Progestins gestagens Pharmacology and toxicology

For about 40 years, progesterone and its partially or completely synthesized derivatives (i.e. 17-hydroxyprogesterone) have been used to treat threatened or habitual miscarriage, although there is still no proof of the effectiveness of this therapy. A WHO Symposium on Drug Treatment during Pregnancy established the ineffectiveness of this sort of therapeutic effort, which was widespread in Gennany. France and Italy, but not in Scandinavia (WHO Report 1984). The only indication for hormonal prevention of miscarriage which is currently discussed is hCG therapy for the rare corpus luteum insufficiency. However, therapy with progestins continues to be recommended, nowadays mostly with natural progesterone. In addition, it is common to use a progestin to support corpus luteum function after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. A possible association between hormone therapy and hypospadias has been previously debated (Kallen L992). More recently, a statistically significant risk for...

Recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin RhCG

Recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin is now well on the way to replacing the product prepared from the urine of pregnant women, and it is necessary that sound comparisons between the two be made if the recombinant product is to be used optimally. In an open randomized trial in 297 ovulatory infertile women in 20 US infertility centers, recombinant hCG 250 g and 500 g was compared with urinary hCG 10 000 U USP in assisted reproduction (11C). The women were treated for a single cycle with one or the other. The mean numbers of oocytes retrieved per treatment group were equivalent (13-14). Although the numbers of fertilized oocytes on day 1 after oocyte retrieval and of cleaved embryos on the day of embryo transfer were significantly higher with 500 g of recombinant hCG than with 250 g, the incidence of the anticipated adverse events also tended to be higher. More exact data on the adverse effects and relative safety of the recombinant and urinary formulations have been provided in a...

Introduction To Experimental Pharmacology

In some studies, carried out in rats subjected to prenatal exposure to cannabi-noids, specific congenital malformations were not produced, even by high doses. However, other studies have reported an increase in embryotoxicity and fetal toxicity at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, resembling the adverse effects of 49-THC on human reproduction. Thus, in rhesus monkeys, 49-THC exposure during early pregnancy produced miscarriage (Asch and Smith 1986). In mice cannabinoids impaired pregnancy and embryo development (Harbison and Mantilla-Plata 1972 Yang et al. 1996).

Estrogens gestagens and hormonal contraceptives

Up to 6 months postpartum and in the presence of ongoing amenorrhea, the contraceptive protection from exclusive breastfeeding should be similar to that of an intrauterine pessary (IUP) or hormonal contraception (Kennedy 1992). In the so-called developing world, much more birth control is attributed to breastfeeding than to the other family planning measures (Hanson 1994).

Vinca alkaloids and structural analogs

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the periwinkle plant. Like the related vincristine, it inhibits cell division by interfering with the mitotic spindle. There are more than 15 case reports concerning the use of vinblastine during the first trimester, mostly in combination with other cytostatic drugs. In most cases, the coursc of pregnancy was apparently norma (Aviles 1991). However, there are also reports of children with malformations a child with hydrocephalus after intrauterine exposure to vinblastine alone in week 3 a second with cleft palate whose mother had received vincristine and other cytostatic drugs from week 9 until delivery, following treatment with vinblastine until week 6 and a spontaneous miscarriage shortly after injection of vinblastine in week 6 (Mulvihill 1987). There is also a report of a spontaneous miscarriage of a male fetus with only four toes on each foot and syndactyly in week 24 of pregnancy (Garrett 1974), as well as a male infant delivered at 37...

Contraception misconception

Preventing pregnancy is one of the most bizarre issues in America today. The rhetoric is full of ridiculous hypocrisy and religion-based stupidity about human reproduction. It is common to hear people say that poor people should stop having children that they can't afford to pay for and also say that they are against the distribution of birth control products or the teaching of sex education in school. This is a The other argument against allowing emergency contraception to be sold over the counter is that it will encourage risky sexual behavior. However, there is no evidence to indicate that. What is really the issue here is the lack of availability of regular contraceptives and a failure to teach young adults about the benefits of their use. Condoms in particular are the best protection against pregnancy and contracting a sexually transmitted disease if you are having sex. I can't believe I have to point out that not having sex is an effective means of not getting pregnant, but that...

Selective cyclooxygenase2 COX2 inhibitors

In animal studies, COX-2 regulates the tone of the fetal ductus arteriosus and was present in the fetal kidney. As with classic NSAIDs, exposure during the third trimester may result in adverse cardiovascular and renal effects (Cuzzolin 2001, 0stensen 2001) and treatment around the time of conception may lead to fertility problems (Pall 2001). A recent study comparing valdecoxib and placebo could not demonstrate an advantage with respect to total analgesic consumption when used during cesarean section. The authors concluded that adding valdecoxib after cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine is not supported at this time (Carvalho 2006).

Progesterone Antagonists

Particularly in rural areas in developing countries, the risks of surgical and nonprofessional abortion are high, whereas, as has been shown in a study in rural India, a regimen of mifepristone plus misoprostol can be used as effectively and safely, through family planning clinics and country hospitals, as in a European environment (92C).

Reproductive Effects Of Cannabis

Studies of the effects of cannabis on human male reproductive function have produced mixed results (Brown & Dobs, 2002). An early study that reported reduced testosterone, sperm production, and sperm motility and increased abnormalities in sperm (Kolodny et al., 1974) was not replicated in later studies (Brown & Dobs, 2002). The latter included a larger, well-controlled study of the effects of three weeks of daily cannabis use on plasma testosterone (Mendelson et al., 1974). Other studies have produced both positive and negative evidence of an effect of cannabinoids on testosterone for reasons that are not well understood (Brown & Dobs, 2002). If there are effects of cannabis on male reproductive functioning, their clinical significance in humans is uncertain because testosterone levels have generally been within the normal range in studies that found effects (Hollister, 1986). A recent study of outcomes of invito fertilisation (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)...

Endocannabinoids and regulation of fertility


FAAH and human reproduction Human reproductive fluids, such as seminal plasma, mid-cycle oviductal fluid, follicular fluid, amniotic fluid and milk have been reported to contain AEA, N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) in the low nanomolar range, from 3 nM for AEA in the follicular fluid to 67 nM for OEA in human milk 26 . This suggests that endocannabinoids might regulate multiple physiological and pathological reproductive functions in humans, implying that exogenous cannabinoids delivered by marijuana smoke could threaten these processes. Consistently, Table 1 shows that blood AEA levels in women experiencing miscarriage are approximately 4-fold higher than the levels found in women with normal gestation 4 . Since the human reproductive tissues are only sparsely accessible to experimenters, we took advantage of the critical role of peripheral lymphocytes in embryo implantation and successful pregnancy 27 to investigate in these cells how the endocannabinoid...

Drug Drug Interactions General

There are sporadic, but well documented, reports of women using oral contraceptive steroids who became pregnant while taking a variety of antibiotics (323). However, there is much interindividual variation, which may explain the fact that some studies have shown no interference between oral contraceptives and antibiotics. Current suspicion focuses primarily on the broad-spectrum antibiotics (324), including ampicillin and the tetracyclines. The purported mechanism is apparently not enzyme induction but interference with the enterohepatic circulation of ethinylestradiol. Ethinylestradiol can be conjugated with both sulfate and glucuronic acid sulfation occurs primarily in the small intestinal mucosa, while glucuronidation occurs mainly in the liver. These conjugates are excreted in the bile and then reach the colon, where they may be hydrolysed by gut bacteria to liberate unchanged ethinylestradiol, which can be reabsorbed (304). Broad-spectrum antibiotics may suppress this bacterial...

Folate antagonistic antimetabolites

Ten articles describe pregnant women who had received methotrexate as part of cancer therapy during the first trimester. It is notewor thy that 16 healthy children were bom in this high-risk group (Zemlickis 1992, Aviles 1991, Fellu 1988, Dara 1981, Pizzuto 1980) 1 child had inguinal hernia (Giannakopoulou 2000), there was I spontaneous miscarriage (Giacalone 1999), and 1 stillbirth without malformations (Peres 2001). Only 1 child had characteristic malformations (Bawlc 1998) this child's mother had been treated for breast cancer with a weekly dose of 80 mg MTX from weeks 8-29. Moreover, she had received irradiation treatment from weeks 16-25, with the fetal dose estimated at 14 rad. In contrast to these publications, there are case reports of 14 healthy children whose mothers had a dosage of between 7.5 and 15 mg per week (Ostensen 2000, Donnenfeld 1994, Feldkamp 1993, Kozlowski 1990), 4 spontaneous miscarriages (Ostensen 2000, Kozlowski 1990), and 2 induced abortions without...

Chapter One Initiation into Infinity

I yearned to apply to Sidney Cohen, M.D., the author of that request, but I couldn't I had almost completed the work for my own infertility studies, and the time loss was much too great for my own dissertation on infertility. Next best was to send a friend, and one was handy, Lionel Fishman. He hadn't seen the notice, but was very interested. However, before telling him the details, I extracted his promise that I be the first subject if indeed the research were on LSD. Lionel, or Fish, as we called I remember my intense interest in their study, but I didn't have much time to kibitz, as I was dragging myself out of bed at 4 30 a.m., trying to finish my dissertation. I had passed the write doctoral exams at UCLA the spring of 1955, the same year that my son arrived to join his three-year old sister. (I figured that gave me an M.A. at least twice over - at school and at home.) I was pretty far along on my dissertation, too, as I remember, at the point of getting judges to categorize the...

Occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics

Over the past three decades, research exploring the effects of inhalation anesthetics on pregnancy has focuscd on fertility problems and the rate of congenital anomalies. Research findings regarding the effects of anesthetics on the developing fetus have been inconclusive (Tannenbaum 1985, Pharoah 1977). An increased rate of spontaneous abortion has been reported among OR personnel exposed in the course of their work, which has been attributed to chronic exposure to inhalation anesthetics, particularly nitrous oxide (Hemminki 1985, Vessey 1980). In a retrospective study by Rowland (1995), female dental assistants who worked more than 3 hours a week with nitrous oxide, and not using scavenging equipment, had a higher rate of spontaneous abortion. It is, however, difficult to eliminate the possibility that these effects may be a result of confounding factors such as stress, coffee consumption, smoking, and body position, as well as a tendency to miscarriage (Rowland 1995, 1992)....

Corticorelin corticotropinreleasing hormone CRH 905

Bathija H, Lei ZW, Cheng XQ, Xie L, Wang Y, Rugpao S, Lipisam S, Suwanarach C, Akhter H, Ahmed Y, Islam Z, Sen A, Bahman S, Khan SA, Rabbani A, Khan T, Sued EM, Lumbiganon P, Weerawattrakul Y, Pinitsoontorn P, Bierschwale H, Silva P, Bravo C, Gajardo R, Meta N, Lavin F, Tuane R, Chong E, Hajri S, Siala N, Bessioud M, Boukhris R. Effects of contraceptives on hemoglobin and ferritin. Task Force for Epidemiological Research on Reproductive Health, United Nations Development Programme United Nations Population Fund World Health Organization World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Contraception 1998 58(5) 262-73.

Mommy Whats a stem cell

This brings up a question that is really not discussed - Why did it take so long for scientists to isolate embryonic stem cells After all, if they have so much potential, wouldn't the scientists of the world have found them earlier The truth is, you need human embryos to isolate embryonic stem cells, and human embryo research has always been a touchy matter. Where do you get the embryos Well, the best source for these embryos is frozen spare in vitro fertilized embryos -those that are not going to be implanted in a woman to make a baby. In vitro fertilization only became a viable way for infertile couples to have a child in 1980, and the federal government has never funded research on these spare embryos. They are to remain frozen until such time that the parents or owners of them say that they do not want to keep them any more, at which point they are destroyed. The destruction of these embryos is not well regulated and can happen in a number of ways just leave them out at room...

Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

During pregnancy, women with all types of diabetes, as well as their infants, are at increased risk for a number of different complications the miscarriage rate is increased, the perinatal morbidity is above average, and the rate of prematurity is almost 20 (Arbeitsgemeinschaft 2004, Gamson 2004). Characteristics of

Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction

A number of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels have been described, but the contribution of each of them to sperm physiology is not clear. The knowledge would be a prerequisite for a pharmacological alteration of sperm function via specific ion channels. Ca2+ channel blockers, which are used, for example, in hypertension, indeed influence sperm function, but they do not induce infertility. For other ion channels, some insights into their role in sperm function are present (e.g. K+ channels are relevant for volume regulation), but only compounds applicable in vitro are known to be effective up to now, and side effects of systemically applied drugs have never been observed (Fig. 1.1.3 Zhang and Go-palakrishnan 2005).

Herbs Commonly Used during Pregnancy

Chamomile is traditionally used as a mild sedative and against digestive problems, but excessive use in pregnancy should be avoided 31 . Echinacea is often used prophylactically against the common cold for its antiviral and antibacterial properties 34 . The majority of the available studies report positive results, but there is not enough evidence to recommend its use during pregnancy 35 . Cranberry is used to prevent and treat urinary tract infections, even if there is no conclusive evidence to recommend its use 36 . In addition, specific herbs are traditionally used to prevent miscarriage or to prepare for childbirth at the end of pregnancy due to their potential uterine-stimulating properties. Wild yam and lobelia are reputed to prevent miscarriage 28 . Blue cohosh is thought to increase efficiency of contractions in labour 18 attributable to caulosaponin. Raspberry leaf is frequently ingested by women in the third trimester as it is thought to tone the uterus in preparation for...

Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

For a number of years from about 1950 onwards, proges-togens were used in cases of threatened and habitual abortion. They were largely abandoned for this purpose because of the general conclusion that they were ineffective. There was no general conclusion as to any adverse effects that might have resulted, although some of the progestogens were suspected of having virilizing effects on the fetus. Subsequently, progestogens (usually natural progesterone) were used to provide luteal support'' for some 4 weeks after in vitro fertilization. In 283 women treated for this reason with injectable progesterone 300 mg day, oral micronized progesterone 90 mg day, or a sustained-release transvaginal gel, among the offspring there were incidental cases of facial teratoma associated with a cleft palate, a respiratory distress syndrome, and Pierre-Robin syndrome there was no clear indication that in this respect one formulation was safer than another or that the effects observed were other than...

Cytotoxic anthracydine antibiotics

Re-examination of 13 children of this group when aged between 6 months and 9 years demonstrated that their development was normal. Zuazu (1991) describes two other pregnancies exposed during the first trimester one ended in a spontaneous miscarriage 20 days after the end of multi-agent chemotherapy, and the other proceeded to delivery of a healthy premature baby in week 34. Artlich (1994) describes a patient who underwent treatment with daunorubicin and cytarabine at the time of conception, and received cytarabine and thioguanine 5 weeks later. The child had craniosynostosis and radial aplasia. When administered during the second third trimester, daunorubicin may occasionally elicit myelo-suppression. There are at least 20 case reports on epirubicin in combination therapy, including two exposures during the first trimester which ended in spontaneous miscarriage. Regarding the other pregnancies, there was 1 abortion, 1 stillbirth and 1 child who died shortly after...

Vitamin K antagonists

The largest controlled, prospective study until now includes 666 pregnancies with 670 exposures to different vitamin K antagonists. In this multieenter study, pregnancies were compared, with respect to their outcome, with 1049 controls. In most cases, treatment occurred from the beginning. This study confirmed the teratogenicity of coumarins, and revealed a three-fold miscarriage rate after firsttrimester treatment. The rate of elective terminations was also higher. Live births occurred in only 53 . Prematurity was more frequent. The rate of major birth defects was significantly increased (OR 3.86 95 CI 1.86-8.00). There were only two coumarin embryopathies observed among 356 live births (0.6 ), and exposure to a vitamin K antagonist in these cases was later than 6 weeks postconception. The risk for coumarin embryopathy seems to be small, however, and the outcomes of this study confirmed that when exposure was limited to the first 6 (postconceptional) weeks, the risk of major...

Radiation associated with the nuclear industry

Among the pregnancies in female workers, the risk of early miscarriage before 13 weeks' gestation was higher if the mother had been monitored before conception, but this was not dose-related. The risk of stillbirth was also higher if the mother had been monitored before conception, but this finding was based on a small number of cases, of which 13 of 29 were exposed. The risk of any major malformation or of specific groups of malformations was not associated with maternal monitoring, the dose received during pregnancy, or the dose received before conception. Overall, no evidence of a link between exposure to low-level ionizing radiation before conception and an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcome in men working in the nuclear industry was found. Similarly, there was no evidence of an association for women between monitoring before conception and malformations in the babies. The findings relating maternal preconceptual monitoring to increased risk of fetal death remain...

Herbs during pregnancy

Plants and plant extracts have been used for medicinal purposes since before recorded time. Many pharmaceutical agents have their origins in plant-based compounds. In a trend towards returning to the natural, and believing that such agents are safer, patients worldwide are more and more frequently consulting natural therapists and taking herbs to enhance their nutrition, slay healthy, and treat their illnesses. Women taking herbs can and do get pregnant. They take herbal therapies to ensure that they are healthy prior to and during their pregnancy, and also to treat medical conditions during their pregnancy. A 2003 study of 578 pregnant women in the United States showed that 45 percent of respondents used herbal medicines (Glover 2003).

Injectable anesthetics

Propofol is a general anesthetic administered intravenously. It crosses the human placenta with cord blood levels at term approximately 70 those of maternal blood (Dailland 1990). Similar findings have also been reported for samples taken during gestational weeks 12-18 (Jauniaux 1998). All studies except one on pregnancy rates in ova collection for in vitro fertilization following propofol anesthesia demonstrated no adverse effects on the rate of pregnancy (Beilin 1999, Christiaens 1998). Recommendation. Propofol may be used in obstetrics to initiate anesthesia for operations during pregnancy and labor, or for ova transfer and IVF, Newborns should be observed for a depressive effect on the breathing if used in labor.

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

Obesity has repeatedly been shown to play a role, and its relevance to particular types of complication has been demonstrated. The Oxford Family Planning Association's 1987 data showed that the risk of myocardial infarction or angina increased significantly with weight (52). However, a fatal flaw of most such studies was their failure to provide an adequate analysis of co-existent risk factors other than oral contraception. In fact, there is not a great deal of evidence of appreciable risks of this type among oral contraceptive users, unless other risk factors are present. The 1989 case-control analysis of the Royal College of General Practitioners cohort study showed that current oral contraception increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction, but only among smokers. The large cohort study from the Oxford Family Planning Association (OFPA) similarly found no significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction or angina pectoris among either current or former use of oral...

Other alkylating agents

In four of 12 case reports regarding therapy with mechloretamine during the first trimester (in conjunction with other cytotoxic substances), the following anomalies were described oligodactyly, cerebral haemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and renal anomalies (Zcmlickis 1992, Mennuti 1975). There were four cases of miscarriage and two induced abortions the other pregnancies proceeded normally (Aviles 1991).

Male Sexual Health

Male sexual health was defined by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. The conferences expanded the right to family planning to include the right to better sexual and reproductive health. On the basis of the World Health Organization's definition of health, the Cairo Programme defines reproductive health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as...


In some organs, testosterone is reduced to 5-a-dihy-drotestosterone by the 5-a-reductase prior to the binding to the receptor. The enzyme 5-a-reductase is of relevance mainly in the skin and the prostate. There are two isoenzymes they show poor homology, and they have different chromosomal localization and different expression patterns in the prostate and skin. Substances which inhibit both types of the enzyme are known and clinically used in diseases of the prostate and skin (Occhiato et al. 2004). Men with 5-a-re-ductase-2 deficiency have ambiguous genitalia, but normal male libido with normal spermatogenesis, and may be able to father children by assisted reproduction (Imperato-Mc-Ginley 2002).

And Drugs

The descriptions of the effects of ADEs on male sexual function are generally scarce and restricted to few topics. Any intervention which influences the sexual hormone system obviously also influences male sexual functions, e.g. antian-drogenic compounds, which depress sexual libido and other sexual functions. In some circumstances, it may be questionable as to whether the effect of a drug on male sexual functions is a desired therapeutic effect, or whether it is an untoward effect. For example, the depression of pituitary hormone secretion by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues in the treatment of prostate carcinoma is important in order to achieve androgen deprivation and prolong the remission of the disease. On the other hand, the depression of gonadotropin secretion in these men by GnRH leads to impotence and infertility, which is definitely an untoward effect.


A study of 430 couples in Denmark found fertility to decline among women as their alcohol consumption increased, but no effect was observed on male fertility. In contrast, a study of farm couples in Canada found no difference in fertility between women who did or did not drink alcohol. Still another study, in the Netherlands, found male alcohol consumers to have higher fertility as consumption increased, with no difference in fertility rate between women who drank different amounts. Such findings of sometimes yes, sometimes no, are a classic sign of an invalid variable, which in this case would mean that no difference in fertility can be attributed to alcohol (although more studies would be needed to reach a firm conclusion, and some authorities say the trend of research indicates that alcohol does reduce female fertility).

Currency exchange

Leading up to her birthday is her biological clock telling her that she really wants kids now She and her husband have discussed it over and over again, ending each conversation with the same rational conclusion that they will start a family when things 'settle down.' Her career has kept her from having kids up until now, and reality has finally set in. She has been all too aware that, as she gets older, the chance of her getting pregnant and having an uneventful pregnancy decreases. She has students, post-docs and technicians who rely on her to run the show every day. There is no good time to have a child. There is no real maternity leave for scientists either. While officially universities will allow professors to take leave, the reality of it is that you are more likely to find an infant in a professor's office than a professor out on full maternity leave. Either way, she will work even if it is from home.


Effects Sarsaparilla is said to increase energy, regulate hormonal activity and protect against radiation. Herbalists have used it for catarrhal problems, colds, fever, flatulence, frigidity, gout, hives, impotence, infertility, nervous system disorders, PMS, rheumatism, and certain blood disorders.


Tribulus (Tribulus terrestris) is also called puncturevine and has traditionally been used in China and India for infertility and ED. Recently its use has increased as a way of improving sports performance. Prior claims that Tribulus increases serum testosterone has not been substantiated by recent studies. One group found that after 4 weeks of Tribulus supplements at 10 to 20 mg kg body weight daily, testosterone was unaffected 52 .

Rubella vaccine

Rubella immunization uses attenuated live virus vaccine. Antibody levels of 10-15 international units IgG ml are considered protective. Naturally acquired rubella generally confers a lifelong and usually high degree of immunity against the disease for the majority of individuals. Rubella immunization is contraindicated shortly before and during pregnancy (Tookey 2001), despite the fact that in all surveillance studies to date (including more then 700 pregnancies) no child has been born with congenital rubella syndrome after vaccination of its seronegative mother during pregnancy (see, for example, Hamkar 2006, Enders 2005, Best 1991. Tookey 1991). A study led by the Motherisk Program of Toronto in Canada, quoted by Josefson (2001), compared the rates of fetal malformations in the infants of 94 women who mistakenly received rubella vaccinations while pregnant with 94 pregnant women who were not vaccinated during pregnancy. The rate of fetal anomalies was similar in both groups. In...

Makin babies

Personally, I find the concerns to be correct, but completely hypocritical. As a society we are OK with people going to the plastic surgeon in record numbers to give us looks that we were biologically never meant to have, but we draw the line at choosing characteristics for our children. Both attitudes seem to be steeped in vanity and both are dangerous precedents because they deny natural processes. I think the line is arbitrary in a society that encourages the indiscriminate use of fertility drugs for couples, resulting in quadruplets and even septuplets, but which does not hold doctors accountable for the negligent use of these drugs. Multiple births of this size are dangerous for the mother and children, but we call them miracles and give the families free minivans and home makeovers rather than look critically at how such a screw-up could have happened. Society does not have a problem with an infertile couple using IVF, but does have a problem with them deciding that they want a...

Folic Acid

Deficiency symptoms include bleeding gums, forgetfulness, graying hair, irritability, sore tongue and throat, occasional diarrhea and constipation, gas and abdominal discomfort, weight loss, lack of development of red blood cells, and infertility. A chronic deficiency may lead to a condition called megaloblastic folic-acid-deficiency anemia. A deficiency of both B-6 and folic acid is correlated with a high level of the amino acid homocysteine, which plays a role in heart disease.

Birds vs bees

1977 that women should not be included in clinical trials for new medications when men could be used. This was basically a precautionary backlash policy resulting from the controversy stirred by Thalidomide, a drug prescribed to women starting in the mid-1950s to battle morning sickness. It was later found that Thalidomide caused severe birth defects of the limbs, ears and internal organs. The logic was well-intentioned - women should not be involved in clinical trials because of unknown risks to a fetus in women who are unaware that they had become pregnant. It was assumed that men and women would react the same to drugs, effectively ignoring the possibility that genetic and physiological differences between men and women could affect the comparative safety and effectiveness of medications. As it turns out, this logic was largely correct and the great majority of medications work equally well in men and women and dosage has been easy to adjust to women's physiology.


Lamotrigine seems to increase the probability of getting pregnant compared to valproate in a study by Isojarvi (1998), lamotrigine was substituted for valproate because of frequent occurrence of polycystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism associated with weight gain and hyperinsulinemia in women taking valproate. Twelve such patients were observed for 12 months, and the total number of polycystic ovaries in these women decreased from 20 during valproate medication to 11, 1 year after replacing valproate with lamotrigine. Lamotrigine also seems to interact with hormonal contraception Sabers (2001) reported seven cases in which the plasma levels of lamotrigine were significantly decreased by oral contraceptives (mean 49 , range 41-64 o). The interaction was of clinical relevance in most of the patients, who either experienced increased seizure frequency recurrence of seizures after oral contraceptives had been added, or adverse effects following withdrawal of oral contraceptives. Becausc...

How low can you go

Now, it doesn't always work that way, but you get the idea. A genetic test can be used for people at high risk for a disease to try to prevent the birth of children who will inevitably suffer and die. Those opposed to prenatal genetic testing claim that this is taking a step on to a slippery slope. In a way, they are right. While their reasoning is that it causes people to have abortions, in actuality, genetic testing brings up a host of ethical issues. For example, we now have the ability to select sperm and increase the chance of having a child of a chosen sex by combining the technique with artificial insemination. What if we could select for children with perfect teeth It would save thousands of dollars on orthodontics, cavity filling and root canals, and children would not have to wear braces, thus lowering healthcare costs for families. The slippery slope discussion is worth having, but in the end we will have all sorts of selection and society will probably shun frivolous...


Calcareous soils that are based on either chalk or limestone bedrock are alkaline, free draining, and sometimes prone to drought. Due to their distinctive character and natural fertility these soils were cultivated by early agriculturists. Large quantities of organic matter are however required in order to keep these soils in good condition.


Now fast forward fifteen years A boyfriend, no he's not coming over. No arguments. You're too young to have a boyfriend. What if you get pregnant what will you do then, eh I won't be looking after it, I can tell you. You'll have to leave school and you won't be able to get a job No, is my final answer. Just go upstairs and do your homework.


Several studies have analyzed the relationship between oral contraceptives and Down syndrome, some of them with negative results (Kallen 1989, Harlap 1985B, Ericson 1983), but others have suggested that women who take oral contraceptives during the month just before conception (Mikkelsen 1991) or who fall pregnant following oral contraceptive failure (Harlap 1980) have an increased risk for Down syndrome. A more recent case-control study has demonstrated an increased risk of 2.8-fold for infants with Down syndrome in women younger than 35 years of age if the mother became pregnant while she was taking oral contraceptives (Martincz-Frias 2001).


Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogenic drug that was used therapeutically in the USA in the 1970s for threatened miscarriage and for maternal diabetes mellitus. The discovery of increased rates of vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma in adolescence among daughters whose mothers had received DES during pregnancy produced an international sensation (Herbst 1975). This drug provides the only proven example in human beings of prenatally-caused cancer (transplacental carcinogenesis). At least 25 of those young women who had prenatal exposure in the first trimester were born with vaginal, uterine, or fallopian tube anomalies. With male offspring, there appears to be an increased risk for ciyptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia, and abnormal semen cell morphology (Bibbo 1981).


Several interesting lines of research suggest that the cannabinoids play an important role in the function of sex hormones and sperm. This work has led to growing concerns about marijuana's impact on fertility and birth defects. Unfortunately, some enthusiastic efforts to prevent drug use have overstated the data, implying that consumption can lead to permanent infertility or drastic birth defects. (My junior high school health teacher suggested that the children of marijuana smokers would be born with one eye in the center of their foreheads.) Extremely large doses of cannabis could, in theory, decrease fertility in humans. Nevertheless, research has yet to show a definitive decrease in reproductive function in people who smoke marijuana. The drug also has not been linked to human birth defects. Research on marijuana's impact on fertility in human women offers mixed results. One study showed increased rates of marijuana use in women who are infertile. In the infertile group, 61 of...


As is evident from the name, antiestrogens are compounds that suppress the effects of estrogens. These are synthetic, nonsteroid substances that likely act by blocking estrogenic receptors, thus suppressing them and the effects of estrogen. By binding with these same receptors in small doses, they exhibit a moderate estrogenic effect, and only in large doses do they exhibit antiestrogenic action. They are used as drugs that enhance functional activity of ovaries typically in female infertility, but also for treating estrogen-receptors positive breast cancer. They are also used for androgenic insufficiency and oligospermia in men.

General Conclusions

The endocannabinoid system contributes to the control of hypothalamic regulatory mechanisms. We do not know (yet) in which part of the hypothalamus the endocannabinoids are synthesized, but it is possible that cannabinoid receptors, present in the hypothalamus, are activated by AEA or other endocannabinoids released synthesized quite far away. There is also the possibility that endocannabi-noids act on presynaptic membranes to modulate the release of various neuro-transmitters. Also of interest is the hypothesis that endocannabinoids may participate in hormone-cytokine networks that regulate reproduction, as this opens new perspectives for the development of novel medicines for human infertility.

Uterine Leiomyomas

Uterine leiomyomas are the most frequent benign disease of the female reproductive apparatus. At least 20-25 of women of fertile age and 50 of women studied in postmortem have uterine leiomyomas (Stewart 2001 Palomba et al. 2005a). In between 20 and 50 of cases, the uterine leiomyomas cause a clinically relevant symptomatology (such as menorrhagia, infertility, recurrent abortion, pelvic pain, and so on) and treatment is required (Stewart 2001 Palomba et al. 2006a). Thus, this disease is one of the main causes of health expense in the field of gynecology (Stewart 2001 Palomba et al. 2006a). In fact,


The severity of pelvic pain and the incidence of infertility are not related to the localization of the lesions or to the stage of the disease (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dell'Endometriosi 2001), as categorized according to the revised American Fertility Society (r-AFS) guidelines (American Fertility Society 1985). In fact, the r-AFS classification system is inadequate to express the severity of the symptomatology because it does not reflect the disease in terms of cellular mass or activity.


Uterine physiology and pregnancy appear to be regulated by cross-talk between signaling by hormones and endocannabinoids. FAAH levels in the mouse uterus are modulated by progesterone and estrogen (Maccarrone et al., 2000a, 2002a). Consistent with these findings, levels of AEA, 2-AG, and N-arachidonoylglycine in the rat uterus change as a function of hormonal status during the estrous cycle (Bradshaw and Walker, 2003). In women, low FAAH levels and high AEA levels are associated with failure to achieve an ongoing pregnancy after IVF and embryo transfer and increased incidence of miscarriage (Maccarrone et al., 2000a 2002b). Leptin knockout (ob ob) mice are obese and infertile (Cunningham et al., 1999 Ahima and Flier, 2000). These mice show elevated levels of uterine AEA and 2-AG, the former resulting lower FAAH activity and the latter resulting from elevated synthesis via higher diacylglycerol lipase activity and lower removal via monoacyl glycerol lipase activity (Maccarrone et al.,...

Vitex agnuscastus

Vitex agnus-castus can cause ovarian hyperstimulation and increase the risk of miscarriage. A woman took V. agnus-castus during an unstimulated cycle while undergoing in vitro fertilization (2). She had considerable derangements of gonadotrophin and ovarian hormone concentrations.


Testosterone (esters) are used medicinally for maturation arrest, functional problems in the reproductive system, hypertrophy of the prostate gland, climacteric disorders in men, a few forms of infertility caused by abnormal spermatogenesis, post-castration syndrome, and endocrine impotence. Testosterone is sometimes used to treat women with reproductive organ and breast tumors, climacteric disorders, and when estrogen drugs are counterproductive. When taken orally, testosterone itself is inactive, and therefore it is generally used in the form of carboxylic acid esters (propionate, enantate, cypionate, and a few forms of testosterone esters). Synonyms of this drug are histerone, malogen, menopax, testoral, and others, while synonyms of testosterone esters include andronate, depotest, everon, and many others.


Documented consequences of cocaine use itself - independent from other drugs - are placenta abruptio and premature rupture of the membranes (Addis 2001). An increased rate of miscarriage, prematurity, stillbirths, intrauterine growth restriction, and microcephaly could not be specifically attributed to cocaine. In addition, there have been reports of cerebral seizures, necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns, birth defects of the urogenital and skeletal systems, as well as intestinal atresia and infarction (Eyler 1998A, Hoyme 1990. Schaefer 1990, Mercado 1989, Chasnoff 1988). A typical cocaine syndrome cannot be defined (Little 1996). Furthermore, a meta-analysis covering 33 studies did not find higher risks of major malformations compared with children exposed to poly-drug use but no cocaine (Addis 2001). The wide spectrum of morphological changes that have been attributed to cocaine have been explained as a result of vasoconstriction with reduced circulation both in the area of the...

Alcohol ethanol

Based on three studies on female fertility (Eggert 2004, Tolstrup 2003, Jensen 1998), it is concluded that there is a dose-effect relationship between alcohol consumption effects and female fertility. There are indications that consumption of less than lOg d ethanol might decrease female fertility (e.g. time to pregnancy). For effects on male fertility, only one published study (Hassan 2004) is available in which effects on fertility are described. Earlier, Rouquette (1957), in Paris, wrote an unpublished thesis on this topic. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there are indications that consumption of less than 10 g d of ethanol might also decrease male fertility.

None 4 review

Infertility Infertility Infertility Infertility Semen Infertility Semen Infertility Semen Infertility Semen Infertility Infertility Infertility Semen Infertility Infertility Infertility Infertility Birth rate Infertility Fertility Infertility Progeny outcome Infertility Infertility Semen Infertility Conceptions Infertility Abortion rate after IVF 2146 Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Ernst E, Lindenberg S, Andersen AN, Olsen J. Spontaneous abortion in IVF couples a role of male welding exposure. Hum Reprod. 2005 Jul 20(7) 1 793-7. Infertility Infertility

Vitamin E tocopherol

Among 82 prospectively ascertained pregnancies exposed to high doses of vitamin E during the first trimester (400-1200 IU daily), the birth weight was significantly lower than among non-exposed controls. However, it was not clear whether the authors adjusted for gestational age at birth. There were no increased rates of prematurity, miscarriage, or birth defects (Boskovic 2004A, 2004B).


Effects Chemically related to choline, ALC has many of the same effects. It acts as an anti-oxidant increases the levels of choline acetyl-transferase in the brain transports fats into the mitochondria, the part of the cell which creates energy enhances communication between the brain's hemispheres reduces triglyceride levels and removes ketones (fat waste products) from the blood helps control hypoglycemia alleviates angina attacks and has been used in the treatment of diabetes, infertility, liver disease, and kidney disease. It may help fight cancer by boosting the effect of lymphocytes, white blood cells that serve the immune system. It also slows down the cell damage caused by age-related conditions and may accelerate the repair of damaged DNA in cells ravaged by free radicals. It may help protect the brain from the effects of aging by preventing the accumulation of lipofuscin in the brain. Studies have shown that doses of anywhere from 2000 to 3500 mg a day can slow the onset of...

Mifepristone RU486

The suspicion that ovulation induction with clomiphene increases the risk of birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTD) continues (van Loon 1992). A large population-based study found no increased risk of NTD after fertility treatments, where clomiphene citrate was the most commonly used drug (Whiteman 2000). One case report of iniencephaly, a rare type of NTD. has been described from a mother Hypospadias has been also investigated in relation to clomiphene exposure. A population-based case-control study on a sample of 319 cases of hypospadias showed no increased risk of this defect in women exposed to clomiphene during the first trimester and 90 days before conception (Sorensen 2005). Nevertheless, a retrospective case-control study found a significantly increased risk for penoscrotal hypospadias (OR 6.08 95 CI 1.40-26.33), but not for the mild or moderate forms of this defect. The authors stress the importance of a detailed clinical definition in birth-defect studies (Meijer...

Radioactive isotopes

According to larger studies covering in total several hundred women exposed to I131 for thyroid carcinoma or hyperthyroidism before becoming pregnant, the results have revealed no evidence thai exposure to radioiodine affects the outcome of subsequent pregnancies and offspring (Bal 2005, Chow 2004, Read 2004, Schlumberger 1996). Several children were observed until adulthood without indications for an increased risk of carcinogenesis or mutagenic insults. The observed increase of miscarriages in those women who were treated within 1 year before the index pregnancy could be related to gonadal irradiation or to insufficient control of the hormonal thyroid status (Schlumberger 1996). Read (2004) found no birth defects among 36 infants fathered by men with an I131 treatment history.

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The Getting Pregnant Plan
Simple Fertility Secrets
Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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