References

Kashman Y, etal. (1992) J Med Chem 35(15): 2735-2743. Patil AD, etal. (1993) J Med Chem 36(26): 4131-4138. Spino C, etal. (1998) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 8(24): 3475-3478.

Warning: Caution must be taken as the toxic effects of this plant are unknown. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Bl.

[From Greek, kratos = strength and xylon = wood and from Latin, cochinchinense = from cochinchina]

Fig. 92. Calanolide inhibits the enzymatic activity of reverse-transcriptase (R) and as a result the synthesis of the DNA (DNA v) from the RNA (RNA v) of the human immunodeficiency virus is abrogated. Capside (C), DNA of the host-cell (DNAc).

Synonymy: Cratoxylon polyanthum Korth., Cratoxylon ligustrinum Bl.

Common names: Derum seluchor, mampat (Malay).

Fig. 93. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Bl. From: KLU Herbarium 34511. Flora of Malaya. Field collectors: Benjamin C Stone, SC Chin etal., 2 June 1982. Altitude 100 m-500m. Geographical localization: Kelantan, Bukit Baka Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Botanical identification: Benjamin C Stone, 1983.

Physical description: It is a tree which grows to a height of 33 m and a girth of 1.80 m. It is found in the lowland forest from sea level to 500 m in the geographical area covering Malaysia, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, South China, and Indonesia. The wood is very hard and durable. The bark is smooth, light buff, and peels off in angular pieces or in long strips. The inner bark is pale cream and the sapwood is yellowish-brown. The stems are greyish, glabrous, and cracked lengthwise. Leaves: simple, decussate and without stipules. The petiole is 2 mm-3 mm long, glabrous, flat above and somewhat very thinly edged. The blade is thin, elliptic to spathulate measuring 4.7 cm x 1.5 cm-8.4 cm x 3 cm. The apex of the blade is acute, the base is tapered, and the margin is entire and recurved. The blade shows

8-11 pairs of secondary nerves, which are indistinct, and a midrib sunken above and raised below. The flowers are dark red to pink and ephemeral. The fruits are solitary, axillary, green, fusiform, 7 mm x 1.2 cm capsules which beaked at the apex with the rest of the stigmas. The 4 sepals are persistent, fleshy, measuring 7 mm x 4 mm and covering two-thirds of the fruit's length. The fruits contain 6-8 seeds per locules (Fig. 93).

Pharmacological potential: The pharmacological potential of Cratoxy/um cochinchinense (Lour.) Bl is to date unknown. Note however that this plant produces lupeol, (13E,17E)-polypoda-7,13,17,21-tetraen-3^-ol, /?-mangostin, 2-geranyl-1,3,7-trihydroxy-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone and 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (Lien HD et a/., 1999). It

Fig. 93. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Bl. From: KLU Herbarium 34511. Flora of Malaya. Field collectors: Benjamin C Stone, SC Chin etal., 2 June 1982. Altitude 100 m-500m. Geographical localization: Kelantan, Bukit Baka Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Botanical identification: Benjamin C Stone, 1983.

Uses: Malays and Indonesians use the leaves and the bark to treat skin diseases. A decoction of the bark is drunk to treat colic, and the resin is used to control itchiness.

will be interesting to learn whether more intensive future research on this family will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest.

1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (R = Geranyl)

(13E,17E)-Polypoda-7,13,17,21-tetraen-3ß-ol (R =ß OH)

(13E,17E)-Polypoda-7,13,17,21-tetraen-3ß-ol (R =ß OH)

Baby Sleeping

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