References

De Stefani E, etal. (1996) Canc EpidBiom Prev 5(7): 515-519.

Guggliucci A, et al. (1995) Biochem Mol Biol Int 35(1): 47-56.

Guggliucci A, etal. (1996) Biochem Biophys Res Com 224(2): 338-344.

Haraguchi H, etal. (1999) PhytotherRes 13(2): 151-156.

KashiwadaY, etal. (1993) J Nat Prod 56(12): 2077-2082.

Leitao AC, etal. (1994) Braz J Med Biol Res 27(7): 1517-1525.

Mucillo-Baisch AL, etal. (1998) J Ethnopharmacol 60(2): 133-139.

Nishimura K, etal. (1999) J Nat Prod 62(8): 1128-1133.

Xu C, etal. (2004) J Ethnopharmacol 91(2-3): 345-349.

Warning: Caution must be taken as the toxic effects of this plant are unknown. Note that Mate solutions, which have become popular for their antioxi-dant/antiradical properties, are however mutagen in the Ames test (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 strains, 20mg/plates to 50mg/plates) and genotoxic (WP2s strain; Leitao AC et al., 1994) showing that antioxidant/antiradical natural products can be noxious. Furthermore, a case-control study which includes 497 cases of lung cancer and the same number of controls, reveals that mate is associated with risks of upperaerodigestive tract cancer (De Stefani E etal., 1996). A case-control study involving interviews with 111 incident cases and 222 controls shows a high mortality rate for bladder cancer, on account of black tobacco smoking and mate ingestion (De Stefani E et al., 1991). The case of a young woman who developed a veino-occlusive disease after drinking mate over a number of years is reported by Mc Gee et al. (1976).

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