References

Fesen HR, etal. (1994) Biochem Pharmacol 48: 595-608. Jiang JY, et al. (1993) Zhong Yaok D X 23: 283-286. Ju CQ, et al. (1994) J Nat Prod 57: 42-51. Kim YS, etal. (1995) Han'guk Nonghwa Hak 37:115-123. Martin ML, etal. (1988) J Ethnopharmacol 23: 285-290. Tan RX, etal. (1998) Planta Med 48: 595-608.

Warning: Caution must be taken as the toxic effects of this plant are unknown. Bidens pilosa L.

[From Latin, bis = twice and dens = tooth and pilus = hair]

Synonymy: Bidens odorata Cav., Bidens pilosa L. var. bimucronata (Turcz.) Schultz-Bip., Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff.

Common names: Hairy beggarticks, Spanish needle; kuei chen ts'ao (Chinese); rumput juala, kanching baju (Malay); cue ao, quaycham thao (Vietnamese).

Physical description: It is a herb which grows to a height of 60 cm. The stems are glabrous or pilose. Leaves: trifid or tripartite, opposite, without stipules, and 7.5 cm long. The petiole is 1.2cm-7.5cm long. The blade is ovate to lanceolate and serrate. The inflorescences consist of a capitula of 8 mm-1 cm in diameter. The flowers are yellowish white. The bracts are

Fig. 366. Bidens pilosa L. From: KLU Herbarium 040585. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Herbarium of Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Geographical localization: Oahu, Waianae Mts., Central Lualualei, below Kanehoa, foot of cliffs, Hawaii. Herb of valley 2, altitude: 450 m. Field collector: 1 June 1932. E Christophersen. Botanical Identification: FR Ganders, 8 Jan 1985.

Fig. 366. Bidens pilosa L. From: KLU Herbarium 040585. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Herbarium of Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Geographical localization: Oahu, Waianae Mts., Central Lualualei, below Kanehoa, foot of cliffs, Hawaii. Herb of valley 2, altitude: 450 m. Field collector: 1 June 1932. E Christophersen. Botanical Identification: FR Ganders, 8 Jan 1985.

oblong with scarious edges. The fruits consist of black, long, narrow, ribbed and 5 mm long achenes. The pappus consists of retrorsely-bearded prickles (Fig. 366).

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