Pharmaceutical interest

Anti-metastatic properties: Ardisia crispa A. DC produces 2-methoxy-6-tride-cyl-1,4-benzoquinone which blocks

Uses: The roots of Ardisia crispa A. DC. are used in China to treat fever and to stop excessive salivation. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is used to treat scurvy, and an infusion of the roots is drunk to treat fever and cough, and to stop dysentery. In Taiwan, Ardisia crispa A. DC. is used to promote urination.

Fig. 137. Ardisia crispa A. DC.

platelet aggregation, B16-F10 melanoma cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and B16-F10 melanoma cell invasion, and inhibits pulmonary metastasis and tumor growth by blocking integrin receptor (Fig. 138) (Kang HY et al, 2001) Integrin receptors are transmembrane protein receptors which monitor platelet adhesion within the vasculature during clotting, apop-tosis, proliferation, migration, spreading, and adhesion of tumor cells.

Ardisiaquinones: An interesting feature of the Ardisia species and Myrsinaceae in general is the production of a very unusual series of dimeric benzoquinones known as ardisiaquinones. Ardisiaquinone D, E and F characterized from Ardisia sieboldii inhibit the enzymatic activity 5-lipo-oxygenase, a key enzyme of pyrogenesis, hence the antifebrile properties mentioned above (FukuyamaY et al., 1995; Fukuyama Y et al., 1993) Ardisiaquinones G, H and I from Ardisia teysmannia inhibit in vitro the first step of bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis with IC50 of 5 ^M, 26 ^M and 16 ^M respectively (Yang KL et al., 2001). It will be interesting to learn whether more intensive future research on ardisiaquinones will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest.

Fig. 138. Integrin 2-Methoxy-6-tridecyl-1, 4-benzoquinone blocks integrin receptors and hampers therefore platelet adhesion (PA), apoptosis, proliferation, migration, spreading, and adhesion of tumor cells (M). OMS: outer membrane surface, CMS cytoplasmic membrane surface.

OCH3

Saponins: Note that Ardisia crispa A. DC. is known to contain ardisiacrispin A and B which contract isolated portions of uterus (Jansakul C et al., 1987).

Ardisiaquinone G (n= 11)

Ardisiaquinone E (R= H)

Ardisiaquinone G (n= 11)

Ardisiaquinone E (R= H)

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