Pharmaceutical interest

Antiplatelet aggregating and analgesic properties : Clausine D and F, 2, 4-prenylcarbazole alkaloids, characterized from the stem bark of Clausena excavata Burm. f., inhibit significantly the aggregation of platelets (Wu TS et al., 1992). Further studies have resulted in the characterization of a series of 4-prenylcarbazole alkaloids, which inhibit the aggregation of platelets and causing vasoconstriction (Wu TS et al., 1996). The ethanolic extract of Clausena excavata Burm. f., leaves, given orally at doses of

125 ^g/Kg, 250 ^g/Kg and 500 ^g/Kg body weights, respectively protect mice against the pain caused by acetic acid (Rahman MT etal., 2002). One might set the hypothesis that the antifebrile and anti-inflammatory properties are due to

Uses: In Indonesia, the leaves are used to expel worms and to combat fever. In Malaysia, this plant is applied externally to treat skin diseases. In Taiwan, a decoction of the roots is used to combat fever. In Vietnam, Clausena excavata Burm. f. is used to promote menses, and to invigorate the body. In Cambodia, the stems are bitter, taken as a tonic and or used as an astringent. In India, Clausena excavata Burm. f. is used to promote urination and to treat flatulence.

the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of cyclo-oxygenases by alkaloids. Note that an extract of wood exhibits immunomodulatory properties (Manosroi A etal., 2004).

Antitumor properties: A number of clauslactones, furanone-coumarins, characterized from the leaves and stems of Clausena excavata Burm. f. inhibit the early expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigen induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the surface of Raji cells, indicating an antitumor potential (TakemuraY etal., 2000; Ho C etal, 2000). Clausemine A, isolated from the stem and root bark of Clausena excavata Burm. f., is cytotoxic against a variety of human cancer cell-lines cultured in vitro. (Zhang A et al., 2000). Note that carbazole alkaloids are planar and therefore possibly intercalating agents.

Antimicrobial properties: Dentatin, nor-dentatin, clausenidin, 3-formyl-carbazole, mukonal, 3-methoxycarbonylcarbazole, 2-hydroxy-3-formyl-7-methoxycarbazole and clauszoline J, characterized from Clausena excavata, exhibit antimycobacterial activity at minimum inhibiting concentrations values of 50 ^g/mL, 100 ^g/mL, and 200 ^g/mL, respectively. 3-Formyl-carbazole, mukonal, 3-methoxycarbonylcarbazole, and 2-hydroxy-3-formyl-7-methoxycarbazole show antifungal activity at IC50 values of 13.6^g/mL, 29.3 ^g/mL, 9.5 ^g/mL and 2.8 ^g/mL, respectively (Sunthitikawinsakul A et al, 2003). It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study of the antiviral properties of carbazoles of Clausena species and Rutaceae in general wil reveal any molecules of therapeutic usefulness.

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