Pangium edule Reinw

[From Indonesian, pangi = a name and from Latin, edule = edible]

Physical description: It is a tree which grows to a height of 25 m and a girth of 45 cm. It is found wild or

Common name: Kepayang (Malay); penace (Indonesian).

Uses: In Indonesia, a cold water infusion of fresh leaves or seeds is applied externally to counteract putrefaction and expel parasites. In Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea, the seeds are eaten after careful preparation to remove cyanides. The plant is also used in Malaysia to preserve meat and the oil expressed from the seeds is used for food. It will be interesting to learn whether more intensive future research on this family will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest.

Fig. 106. Pangium edule Reinw. From: KLU Herbarium 043112. Herb. Lugd. Batav. Field collector & botanical identification: Ave 23.1.83. Geographical localization: Kampung Sekam, Northeast of Tapah, Perak, West Malaysia, 4°20' North-101°20' East, altitude 600 m. From: KLU Herbarium 039560. Flora of Sulawesi Selatan. Field collector & botanical identification: SC Chin, 13 June 1986. Geographical localization: Karaenta Park, near the 56 km milestone from Ujung Pandang.

Fig. 106. Pangium edule Reinw. From: KLU Herbarium 043112. Herb. Lugd. Batav. Field collector & botanical identification: Ave 23.1.83. Geographical localization: Kampung Sekam, Northeast of Tapah, Perak, West Malaysia, 4°20' North-101°20' East, altitude 600 m. From: KLU Herbarium 039560. Flora of Sulawesi Selatan. Field collector & botanical identification: SC Chin, 13 June 1986. Geographical localization: Karaenta Park, near the 56 km milestone from Ujung Pandang.

cultivated throughout the Asia-Pacific where it has manifold uses. The bark is brown and smooth; the inner bark is orange-yellow. The stems are velvety when young. Leaves: simple, spiral, without stipules, crowded at the apex of the stems. The petiole is 9 cm-16 cm long and thin. The blade is 15.7 cm x 16.3 cm-24.1 cmx26.3cm, papery, glabrous, and cordate or somewhat 3-lobed, andthe margin is recurved.The blade shows 6-9 pairs of secondary nerves and tertiary nerves which are scalariform. The flowers are 1.5cm-2.5cm long and green. The fruits are 9cm-14cm in diameter, scurfy, brownish, bluntly tipped at both ends, hanging from long pedicels of 8cm-15cm long, in groups and contain several 5.8cm x 4.4cm x 2 cm warty seeds (Fig. 106).

Warning: All parts of this plant and especially the seeds are poisonous because of hydrocyanic acid which is released from gynocardin. The bark and the leaves are used to poison fish, so that they rise to the surface to be harvested.

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