Glochidion littorale Bl

[From Greek, glochin = a point and litoralis = shore]

Common name: Ubah (Malay).

Glochidion Littorale
Fig. 208. Glochidion littorale Bl. From: KLU Herbarium 003089. Flora of Sarawak. Field collectors & botanical identification: J Car-rick and IC Enoch. Geographical localization: Bako National Park, Tg. Paku Cliff, altitude: 0-100 feet, 24 Apr 1959.

Physical description: It is a shrub which grows up to 6 m high along the shores of India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. The bark is dark brown and smooth. Leaves: simple, alternate and stipulate. The stipules are triangular, 1.3mm-1.8mm x 0.7mm-2mm and caducous. The petiole is woody, fissured horizontally, 3 mm-

5 mm long and glabrous. The blade is dark green and glossy above, lighter green beneath, thick, elliptic to obovate, 2.2cm-9.2cm x 1.9cm-5cm; the base is rounded to shortly attenuate, slightly asymmetric. The margin is flat, and the apex is emarginate to rounded. The midrib is sunken above and raised below. The blade shows 4-6 pairs of secondary nerves raised beneath. The inflorescences are axillary. The calyx comprises of

6 sepals basally united, and the margin of which is usually hyaline. The male flowers are 4.5mm-5.5mm in diameter, on 5.5mm-6mm long pedicels; the calyx is light green, forming a tube of 0.8 mm-1 mm long; the lobes of which are elliptic to obovate, where the outer lobe is 3.6 mm-4.2 mm x 1.8 mm-1.9 mm, and the inner lobe is 3.2mm-3.4mm x 1.5mm-1.6mm, usually folded, and apically somewhat hooded. The andrecium consists of 5-6 stamens which are 1.1 mm long, with connective teeth that are 0.2mm-0.3mm long. The female flowers are 3 mm-3.5 mm in diameter, attached to 2 mm-6.5 mm long pedicels. The calyx consists of triangular to elliptic lobes of 1.3 mm-2.3 mm x 1.4 mm-2 mm; the inner lobes are elliptic of 1.3 mm-2.7 mm x 0.6 mm-2.7 mm. The ovary is 10-14-locular, 2.7 mm x 2.3 mm high, and longitudinally ribbed. The stigmas form a 2 mm long cone which is 11-14-dentate. The fruits are round, apically flattened and depressed in the center, and sometimes basally flattened. They are 1.4cm-1.8cm x 8mm-1.3cm, lobed, and pinkish-whitish to dark pink. The seeds are 6 mm x 4.5 mm and red in color (Fig. 208).

Pharmaceutical interest: It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study of the Glochidion species will disclose any molecules

Uses: In Malaysia, Glochidion littorale Bl. is used to stop dysentery and to assuage stomachache.

(tannins?) of therapeutic interest. Note that an extract of Glochidion sp. immobilizes brine shrimp at 100 mg/mL (Horgen FD etal., 2001). Lignans and triter-penes are known to occur in Glochidion species (Otsuka H etal., 2000; Otsuka H etal, 2000a; Hui WH etal., 1969).

Continue reading here: Glochidion rubrum Bl

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