Family Icacinaceae Miers 1851 nom conserv the Icacina Family
Physical description: The family Icacinaceae consists of about 50 genera and 400 species of trees, shrubs and woody climbers of tropical distribution which are known to produce purine and monoterpenoid isoquinoline alkaloids, iridoids, saponins and proanthocyanins. The leaves are simple, alternate and without stipules. The flowers are hypogynous, actinomorphic, and perfect. The calyx is small, 4-5-lobed, and the lobes are imbricate or rarely valvate. The corolla is tubular or dialypetalous, and valvate. The stamens are as numerous as the petals and alternate with them. The anthers are tetrasporangiate and dithecal, with free filaments which are hairy and borne on the corolla. The gynecium consists of 2-5 carpels united to form a compound, mostly single-locular ovary, containing a pair of pendulous ovules from near the top of the ovary. The style is short. The fruits are berries.
Pharmaceutical interest: A very interesting feature of Icacinaceae is the presence of monoter-penoid alkaloids, such as emetine, which are well-known for their emetic, amebicidal, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on the family Icacinaceae will disclose any monoterpenoid alkaloids of chemotherapeutic interest. Gonocaryum subro-stratum Pierre, Gonocaryum gracile Miq., Gonocaryum calleryanum (Baill.) Becc., Gomphandra quadrifida (Bl.) Sleum. var. angustifolia (King) Sleum., Gomphandra quadrifida (Bl.) Sleum. var. ovalifolia (Ridl.) Sleum., and Rhyticarium sp. are used for medicinal purposes in the Asia-Pacific.
Continue reading here: Gomphandra quadrifida Bl Sleum var angustifolia King Sleum
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