Order Lamiales Bromhead 1838

The order Lamiales consists of 4 families and about 7800 species of herbaceous plants, which are thought to have originated from the Solanales during the Post Eocene period, from an ancestry near to or in the Gentianales. The chemical weapons used here are iridoid glycosides and lignans (Appendix I), inherited from the Gentianales. Note that Lamiales differ from Solanales by producing iridoids, but seldom by using alkaloid weapons, and by the zygomorphic specialization for pollination by specific insects or birds. Boraginaceae have appeared during the Oligocene and is the oldest family in Lamiales. It stands somewhat apart, both chemically and physically, from the Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae.

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