Bridelia penangiana Hook f

[After SE Bridel, 1761-1828, a botanist; and from Latin, penangiana = from Penang]

Physical description: It is a tree which grows to a height of 18 m and has a diameter of 90 cm. It is found in Malaysia, Burma, Vietnam, and Thailand. Leaves: simple, 12 cm x 6.2 cm, spiral and very shortly pediceled. The blade is scurfy below. The inflorescences form clusters with very small bracts. The flowers are 1 mm long.The stamens are joined into a small column. The fruits are ellipsoid, pointed, small, succulent and indehiscent drupes.

Pharmaceutical interest: The pharmacological potential of Bridelia penangiana Hook. f. is unexplored, although anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and smooth-muscle activities are observed in a number of plants classified within the genus Bridelia.

Anti-inflammatory properties: Rats fed with an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea at doses ranging from 10 mg/Kg-80 mg/Kg are protected against paw edema induced by carrageenan, with an ID50 value of 36 mg/Kg. This extract suppresses the formation of granulomatous tissue (Olajide OA etal., 1999).

Antimicrobial and antiplasmodial properties : Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bridelia ferruginea inhibit the proliferation of hospital strains of Staphylococ-cus aureus, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Irobi ON etal., 1994). Ethanolic extract of Bridelia cathartica causes 50% inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro at 0.05 ^g/mL (Jung A etal., 1991). Extracts of the stem bark of Bridelia retusa contains bisabolane sesquiterpenes, such

Common names: Mata landak, kenidai (Malay).

Uses: In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is used to soothe inflamed parts.

as (E)-4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-1-hexenyl) benzoic acid, which inhibit the growth of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Jayasinghe L et al., 2003).

(E)-4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-1-hexenyl) benzoic acid

(E)-4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-1-hexenyl) benzoic acid

Cardiovascular properties: An extract of Bridelia ferruginea inhibits experimentally-induced thrombosis in mice (OlajideOA etal., 1999a). An aqueous extract of the leaves of Bridelia atroviridis contracts portions of rat uterus (Corallo MA etal., 1991). A lyophilized decoction (10%) of the leaves of Bridelia atroviridis Muell. Arg. given at 15mg/Kg and 30mg/Kg to rats reduces the arterial pressure and the heart rate. This decoction acts directly on the heart through calcium channels (Corallo A et al., 1997). An ethanol extract of the leaves of Bridelia ferruginea depresses the purinergic nerve mediated contraction of rat bladder smooth muscles dose-dependently, by possible blockade of the purinergic neurotransmission (Onoruwe O etal., 2001).

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