Drugs for the Future

Citrus grandis L Osbeck

From Latin, citrus citron and grandis large Synonymy Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr., Citrus decumana L. Common names Shaddock, Thai grapefruit limau bali, limau besar, limau betawi, limau serdadu (Malay) pamplemousse doux des Antilles (French) you, youzi (Chinese) riesenorange (German) pampaleone (Italian) jerukbali (Indonesian) bhogate (Nepalese). Fig. 238. Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck. Fig. 238. Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck. Physical description It is a fruit tree native to Malaysia which is...

Erythrina subumbrans Hassk Merr

Physical description It is a tree grown in Burma, Malaysia and the Philippines. The crown is upright. Leaves trifoliate and stipulate. The folioles are as long as they are broad, each with a pair of glands at the base. The flowers are conspicuous, scarlet with whitish stripes, 2.5cm-5cm long and arranged in racemes. The standard is large, and the wings and the Synonymy Erythrina lithosperma Miq. keel are short. The andrecium consists of 10 stamens which project beyond the keel. A single stamen...

Weinmannia blumei Planch

After JW Weinmann, a German herbalist of the 17th century and after Carl Ludwig von Blumen, early 18th century taxonomist Synonymy Weinmannia ledermannii Schlechter, Weinmannia papuana Schlechter, Weinmannia sundana Miq. Common names Malayan mountain ash, ki ringgit Indonesian sumusilan Malay . Uses Indonesians use the bark of Weinmannia blumei Planch. as an astringent remedy. The pharmacological potential of this plant is unexplored. Note that honeys of Weinmannia racemosa contain unusual...

Synedrella nodiflora L Gaertn

Synedrella Nodiflora Description

From Latin, nodus node and flos Common names Cinderella node weed, porter bush, pig grass rumput babi Malay ngaroiarui Cook Islands cerbatana Spanish . Uses In Malaysia, Synedrella nodiflora L. Gaertn. is applied externally to soothe inflammation and to assuage headache. The juice, expressed from the leaves mixed with the seeds of Nigella sativa, is used to assuage earache. In India, the leaves are used to treat rheumatism. Fig. 379. Synedrella nodiflora L. Gaertn. Fig. 379. Synedrella...

Alysicarpus vaginalis L DC

From Greek, halusis chain and karpos fruit and from Latin, vagina sheath Synonymy Hedysarum nummularifolius L., Alysicarpus nummularifolius (L.) DC.). Common names Akar seleguri (Malay). Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of 10 g of Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. is drunk to relieve cough, treat mumps, stimulate appetite and protect against encephalitis. In Taiwan, a decoction of Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. is used to promote digestion. Not much is known about the therapeutic potential of...

Acalypha indica L

Cika Flowers

Common names Common acalypha cika mas, cika emas Malay kuppaimeni Tamil hierbal del cancer Spanish . From Greek, a without, kalyphos a cover and from Latin, indica from India Physical description It is a light green and smelly herb found in shady vacant plots in the tropical regions which grows to a height of 90 cm. lt is slightly hairy and branched, and its odour is adored by cats. The stems are woody at the base. Leaves simple and alternate.The petiole is 5 cm long.The blade is broadly ovate,...

Cynanchum caudatum Miq Maxim

From Greek, kyon dog and ancho to strangle, and from Latin, cauda tail Physical description It is a climber native to Japan and China. The plant is ornamental. The stems are smooth, glabrous and end into tendrils. Leaves simple, opposite and without stipules. The petiole is 7cm-4cm long, channeled and sheathing at the base. The blade is 7.5 cm x 4.5cm-13.5cm x 9.5 cm, cordate, caudate, papery, glaucous below and dark green above and shows 5 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are...

Chrysopogon aciculatus Retz Trin

Andropogon Aciculatus Seeds Pic

From Greek, khrusos gold and pogon herb from Latin, aciculatus needle-like Synonymy Andropogon aciculatus Retz. Common names Love grass, rumput jarum, kemuncup Malay . Uses In China and Taiwan, Chrysopogon aciculatus Retz. Trin. is used to counteract snake's poisoning. In Indonesia, an infusion of the plant is used to counteract poisoning. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the seeds are eaten to expel intestinal worms. In Malaysia, the plant is used to treat rheumatism. In the Philippines, the...

Family Caesalpiniaceae R Brown in Flinders 1814 nom conserv the Caesalpinia Family

Caesalpiniaceae Family Characteristics

Physical description The family Caesalpini-aceae consists of about 150 genera and 2200 species of trees, shrubs and herbs, often producing anthraquinone glycosides and tannins. This family is the oldest family in the Fabales and is thought to have originated from the family Mimosaceae.The leaves of Caesalpiniaceae are pinnate, bipinnate or less frequently simple, and stipulate. The flowers are conspicuous, racemose, and zygomorphic. The calyx consists of 5 sepals which are imbricate and free....

Cardamine hirsuta L

From Greek, name kardamon an Indian spice and from Latin, hirsutus hairy Physical description It is an invasive herb which grows to a height of 30 cm. It grows in vacant lots of land in several temperate countries. The stems are glabrous and erect from a rosette of leaves. Leaves numerous, pinnately lobed, 2 cm-5 cm long, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is channeled and sheathing at the base, and sub-glabrous. The blade is glabrous or subglabrous and shows a few pairs of indistinct...

Eupatorium odoratum L

Eupotarium Odoratum

After Mithridates Eupator, King of Pontus about 115 BC and from Latin, odoratum fragrant Common names Jack-in-the-bush pokokgerman (Malay) co lao (Vietnamese). Uses Eupatorium odoratum L. is used in Vietnam to heal wounds and burns. Physical description It is a shrubby tropical herb native to America, which grows to a height of 1.5 m on roadsides and open places of Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, opposite, fragrant and exstipulate. The petiole is indistinct.The blade is...

Crateva magna Lour DC

Crateva Magna

After kratevas, a Greek root gatherer of antiquity and from Latin, magnus great Physical description It is a small and handsome riverside tree found in India, South China, Burma, and Malaysia. The bark is smooth the inner bark mottled with yellow and white. The wood is white and hard. Leaves deciduous with 3 folioles. The folioles are large elliptic, entire, glabrous, slightly bluish beneath, reticulately veined and 8cm-17cm x 4cm-8cm. The petiolules are 3mm-6mm long and the petiole...

Emilia sonchifolia L DC

Emilia Sonchifolia

From Latin, sonchifolia having leaves like Sonchus Synonymy Cacalia sonchifolia L., Senecio sonchifolius Moench, Emilia javanica (Burm. f.) C. B. Rob. Common names Cupiol's shaving brush hongpei ts'ao (Chinese) petit lastron (French) ketumbit, katumbit jantan, satunbakmerah (Malay) chua le, la matgioi (Vietnamese) fua lele, fua lele lili'i (Samoa). Physical description It is a herb which grows to a height of 30 cm by the roadsides and vacant plots of lands in Southeast Asia and Pacific...

Peristrophe roxburghiana Schult Bremek

From Greek, peri around and strephein to turn and After William Roxburgh, 18th century Scottish botanist Synonymy Peristrophe tinctoria Nees, Peritrophe bivalvis Merr. Common names Malapudak (Malay) noja (Javanese). Uses In Malaysia, the pounded leaves of Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek are used to soothe swollen parts, painful sprain and to treat skin diseases. The plant is used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis, hepatitis and to stop haemoptysis. The therapeutic potential of...

Apama corymbosa Griff Willd

Willd Drug

Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 3 m. The plant is a common sight along the jungle tracks of Malaysia and Sumatra. The stems are glaucous, soft, zig-zag-shaped and articulate. Leaves simple, 15 cm x 6 cm, glabrous, alternate and without stipules. The blade is lanceolate and pubescent and shows 3-5 pairs of secondary nerves. The petiole is 5 mm long. The inflorescences are terminal, pubescent, panicles of small yellowish-green flowers. The perianth comprises of 3...

Buddleja asiatica Lour

Adam Buddle 17th century English botanist, and from Latin, asiatica from Asia Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 4 m. The plant is found in the wet pastures, mountain forests, roadsides and waste areas of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, India to South China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Micronesia. The stems are smooth, quadrangular, and velvety when young. Leaves simple and decussate. The petiole is 6 mm-8 mm long, thin, channeled and...

Class Magnoliopsida Cronquist Takhtajan Zimmermann 1966

Subclass MAGNOLIIDAETakhtajan 1966 1 A. Order MAGNOLIALES Bromhead 1838 2 1. Family HIMANTANDRACEAE Diels 1917 nom. conserv., Galbulimima belgraveana F. Muell. Sprague 2 2. Family ANNONACEAE A. L.de Jussieu 1789 nom. conserv., Anaxagorea javanica Bl. Annona muricata Artabotrys suaveolens Cananga odorata Lamk. Hook. f. amp Thoms 11 Cyathostemma argenteum Bl. J. Sinclair 13 Desmos chinensis Fissistigma Goniothalamus macrophyllus Bl. Hook. f. amp Thoms. 17 Mitrella kentii Bl. Orophea polycarpa...

References

Asuzu I, etal. (1996) Fitoter67(3) 220-222. Baliga MS, etal. (2004) Toxicol Lett 151(2) 317-326. Battacharya SK, etal. (1979) IndJExpBiol 17(6) 598-600. Biswas D, etal. (1994) Int Vet J 71(7) 662-665. Keawpradub N, etal. (1997) Planta Med 63(2) 97-101. Lin S, etal. (1996) Am J Chin Med24(2) 153-164. Gandhi M, etal. (1990) J Ethnopharmacol29(1) 51-57. Said IM, etal. (1992) J Nat Prod 55(9) 1323-1324. Saraswathi V, etal. (1998) Fitoter69(1) 73-75. Saraswathi V, etal. (1999) CancerBiochem Biophys...

Carpesium abrotanoides L

From Greek, habrotonon Artemisia abrotanum Physical description It is a wild herb which grows to a height of 80 cm in Asia. The stems are terete, ribbed and velvety. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is very short, channeled and velvety. The blade is lanceolate, serrate, papery, velvety Uses The plant is a source of an aromatic resin known as ngai camphor. In China, Taiwan and Japan, ngai camphor is used to combat fever, treat flatulence, promote expectoration and to...

Rauvolfia serpentina Benth

Rauvolf, 1540-1596, a traveler in the Middle East, introduced coffee in Europe from French, serpent snake Common names Rauwolfia, rauvolfia, snakeroot bongmaiza Burmese ahibhuka among 30 other Sanskrit names sovannamilbori Tamil . Fig. 272. Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Physical description It is a little shrub which grows in India, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra and Java. The bark is pale grey. Leaves simple, few, without stipules and arranged in whorls of 3. The petiole is 8 mm long. The...

World Scientific

NEW JERSEY LONDON SINGAPORE BEIJING SHANGHAI HONGKONG TAIPEI CH EN N Al World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC Drugs for the Future Copyright 2006 by World Scientific Publishing...

Achyranthes bidentata Bl

Pots Syndrome

Common names Ox knee niuxi (Chinese). From Greek, achyr barb, anthe flower and from Latin, bi two and dentatus with teeth Physical description It is a slender and perennial herb which grows to a height of 1 m. It is found in moist and shady grounds in India, Southeast Asia, China and Japan. The stems are quadrangular and pubescent, and develop regular large knee-shaped nodes, hence the common name of the plant. Leaves simple, without stipules, opposite, 5cm-12cm x 3cm-5cm, acuminate, and...

Panax ginseng C A Meyer

From Greek, panakeia universal remedy and Chinese, jen shen Human plant Common names Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer or ginseng, Korean ginseng jen shen, shen ts'ao, t'u-ching (Chinese). Physical description It is a small rhizomatous herb which grows in the mountain zone, ranging from Nepal to Manchuria, and from eastern Siberia to Korea. The stems are pitted. Leaves palmately lobed and consisting of 5 folioles which are slightly crenate. The flowers are white, small and arranged in an umbel. The...

Atalantia monophylla DC

From Greek, atalanta atalanta of the golden apples, monos alone and phullon leaf Common names Wild lime merlimau (Malay) manawphee (Thai). Uses In Vietnam, the leaves of Atalantia monophylla DC. are used to treat diseases of the respiratory tract. In India, the oil expressed from the fruit is used to treat chronic rheumatism and paralysis. The juice expressed from the leaves is applied externally to treat hemiplagia. Physical description It is a prickly treelet of Southeast Asia. Leaves...

Dendrophthoe pentandra L

From Greek, pente five and andro Uses In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the leaves of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. are used to make a tea-like drink used to treat cough. In Malaysia, Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is used as a remedy to and recovery from childbirth, and to heal sores, wounds and ulcers. The pharmacological potential of this plant is yet to be discovered. Fig. 181. Macrosolen cochichinensis (Lour.) van Tieghem. From KLU 355111. Flora of Singapore. Comm. Ex. Herb. Hort. Bot....

Anaxagorea javanica Bl

Anaxagoras Greek philosopher Latin javanica from Java Physical description It is a treelet of the lowland rainforest of Malaysia, Borneo and Java. The bark is slightly fissured and yellowish. Leaves simple, alternate and exstipulate. The petiole is 5 mm-1 cm long, transversally fissured and channeled above. The blade is leathery, 7cm-18cm x 4cm-6cm, and oblong-lanceolate. The apex of the blade is acute or slightly acuminate and the base is tapering. The margin is slightly recurved and wavy....

Evolvulus alsinoides L

Common names Slender dwarf morning glory vishnukranta (Sanskrit) shankhpushpi (Indian) tu ding dui yuan bian zhong (Chinese). Uses In India, Evolvulus alsinoides L. is used to strengthen the brain, improve memory, combat fever, promote hair growth, treat dysentery and asthma, improve complexion, rejuvenate the skin, and to expel intestinal worms. In the Philippines, the plant is used to expel intestinal worms, combat fever, and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. Fig. 293. Erycibe rheedii Bl....

Asclepias curassavica L

Structure Flowering Plants

From Greek, Asklepios God of healing and from Latin, curassavica from Curacao Physical description It is a bushy herb native to Tropical America, which grows to a height of 1 m. The plant is ornamental. Leaves simple, opposite, without stipules. The blade is 6cm-15cm x 1.2cm-2.5cm, very thin, lanceolate, acuminate at the apex and tapering at the base. The flowers are arranged in axillary or terminal 12-flowered umbels which are 5 cm long. The flower pedicels are 1.3 cm long. The calyx is...

Family Ericaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Heath Family

Physical description The family Ericaceae consists of 125 genera and 3500 species of shrubs and treelets known to contain iridoid, phenolic glycosides and tannins. Ericaceae are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions and in tropical mountains. Note that the presence of iridoids in Ericaceae suggests that the family should be classified in the Asteridae rather than Dilleni-idae. In this family the leaves are simple, small, firm and without stipules. The flowers are perfect, regular,...

Aglaonema oblongifolium Roxb Kunth

From Greek, aglaonema spear and from leaf Physical description It is an erect herb which grows to a height of 1 m tall in shady and wet spots of the Asia-Pacific. Leaves the petiole is channeled and 8 cm-12 cm long. The blade is 40cm-60cm x 6cm-9.5cm, soft and shows 6-10 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are axillary pediceled heads each head consists of 10 glossy berries which are bright-orange when ripe. The berries are 1.8 cm x 5 mm, marked at the apex by a tiny disk. The...

Family Solanaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom Conserv the Potato Family

Physical description The family Solanaceae consists of about 85 genera and 2800 species of prickly herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees, well represented in South America. Solanaceae are known to elaborate tropane alkaloids derived from ornithine, pyridine and steroidal alkaloids. The leaves of Solanaceae are alternate, simple, often soft, dull green and without stipules. The flowers are hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. The calyx is 4-6-lobed and persistent in fruit. The corolla is tubular,...

Family Convolvulaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Morning glory Family

Physical description The family Convolvu-laceae consists of 50 genera and 1500 species of tuberous climbers, known to elaborate glu-coresins, lignans, indole and tropane alkaloids and polyhydroxytropanes, derived from ornithine. The leaves of Convolvulaceae are simple, often cordate at the base, without stipules, entire and lobed. Convolvulaceae are easily recognizable by their flowers which are infundibuliform. The sepals are free, imbricate and persistent in fruits. The andrecium consists of...

Pharmaceutical interest

Chemotherapeuticproperties The antiseptic property of Argemone mexicana L. is very likely to be attributed to iso-quinoline alkaloids such as sanguinar-ine, berberine and protopine, which abound in the plant (Santos AC etal, 1932). Sanguinarine exhibits a broad Fig. 43. Argemone mexicana L. From Delhi University Herbarium 004344. Flora of India. Geographical localization Delhi ridge, Delhi, India, altitude 720ft., Feb 1961. Field Collector SK Avova. Botanical identification CS Venktast. Fig....

Family Boraginaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Borage Family

Physical description The family Boraginaceae consists of about 100 genera and 2000 species of trees, shrubs or herbs well represented in Southern Europe, Asia and North America. Boraginaceae are known to elaborate silicic acid, allantoin, hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from ornithine, prenylated naphthoquinones (alkannin), inulin-type fructans and tannins but lack of iridoids. The stems are terete and covered with bristly calcified or silified hairs. The leaves of Boraginaceae are...

Family Asteraceae Dumortier 1822 nom conserv the Aster Family

Physical description The family Asteraceae or Compositae consists of approximately 1100 genera and 20000 species of herbs which are cosmopolitan. The chemical weapons used here are a series of sesquiterpene lactones, poly-acetylenic fatty acids, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids and flavonoids. The leaves are simple, without stipules, alternate or opposite. The most characteristic botanical feature of Asteraceae is a flower-like inflorescence known as capitulum.The capitulum consists of a receptacle...

Family Cactaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Cactus Family

Physical description The family Cactaceae consists of 100 genera and about 2000 species of xerophytic plants native to South America which are thought to have originated from the family Phytolaccaceae. Cactaceae produce triterpenoid saponins, mucilages, simple tetrahydroisoquinoline and phenethy-lamine alkaloids. The stems are succulent with scarcely developed leaves. The flowers are solitary, hermaphrodite, large, and showy, and comprise of several sepals and stamens initiated in a centrifugal...

Family Celastraceae R Brown in Flinders 1814 nom conserv the Bittersweet Family

Physical description The family Celastraceae consists of about 50 genera and 800 species of trees, shrubs and climbers, which are principally tropical, and often containing phenethylamines, pyridine, and purine alkaloids, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignans, and cardenolides (Euonymus).The leaves of Celastraceae are simple, often glossy and serrate, alternate or opposite, and with or without stipules. The inflorescences are terminal or axillary cymes. The flowers are hermaphrodite, small,...

Phyllanthus emblica L

From Greek, phullon leaf and anthos flower and from Bengalese amlaki Phyllanthus emblica L. Synonymy Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Emblicapectinata Ridl. Common names Emblic myrobalan emblic officinal (French) amlaj (Arabic) amala (Persian) pokok melaka (Malay) alma khushk (Indian). Physical description It is a medium-sized lowland rainforest tree which grows in a geographical zone ranging from India to South China. The bark is greyish-red. The inner bark is sappy and pink, and the heart wood...

Cleome viscosa L

From Greek, kleome Ancient name for a mustard-like plant and from Latin, viscum birdlime Physical description It is a tropical, annual, upright, smelly and bitter herb which grows to a height of 30cm-90cm. The stems are grooved, and densely clothed in glandular and simple hairs. Leaves 3-5 foliate. The petiole of the lower leaves is 2.5cm-5cm long and becomes shorter upward. The folioles are elliptic, oblong or obovate, acute or obtuse, and the terminal the largest (4.3cm x 2.5cm). The...

Ilexpubescens Hook

From Latin, ilex Quercus ilex and from Physical description It is a small and evergreen rainforest shrub found in China and Taiwan. Leaves 4 cm-5.5 cm x 1.5cm-2cm and simple. The blade is oblong or lanceolate, and the apex of the blade acute. The margin is subentire or remotely serrate. The secondary nerves are indistinct. The flowers are arranged in axillary cymes. The fruits are globose, 4mm-5mm berries containing 4-5 pyrenes. Uses In China and Taiwan, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to...

Caulophyllum robustum Maxim

Herbarium Drugs

From Latin, caulis stem from Greek, phullon leaf and from Latin, robustus robust Physical description It is a small woody shrub native to Japan. The plant is ornamental in temperate gardens. The stems are terete and glabrous. Leaves consist of 2 pairs of folioles and a terminal one. Some folioles are pinnate, and the terminal one is 3-lobed at the apex. The folioles are 5cm-10cm long, very thin, sessile, asymmetric and acute at the apex. Each foliole shows 2-3 pairs of secondary nerves. The...

Ruellia repens L

After Jean Ruel, 16th century French botanist and From Latin, repere creep Common names Ruellia daun patok tuau, akar keremak Malay . Uses In China, Ruellia repens L. is used to treat cough, heal wounds, ulcers, assuage toothache and stomachache. In Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia and Vietnam, the plant is used as above and for cooling purposes. Fig. 329. Ruellia repens L. From KLU Herbarium 18289. Flora of Malaya. Field collector Chin See Chung. 12 Nov 1970. Geographical localization Langkawi, Ayer...

Hydnophytum formicarum Jack

Hydnophytum Formicarum

From Greek, hudnon truffle, phyton plant and from Latin, formica ants Common names Baboon's head dedalu api laut, kepala berok Malay hua roi ru Thai . Uses In the Philippines, a decoction of the tubers is drunk to assuage liver and intestinal discomfort. The therapeutic potential of this plant remains unexplored. Physical description It is an epiphytic coastal herb which grows in a geographical zone, spanning Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. The plant grows from a...

Croton tiglium L

From Greek, kroton thornberry, Palma - Christi and tilos diarrhea Physical description It is a shrub or small tree native to Indo-Malaysia and cultivated for medicinal use in the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, very thin, ovate, and 5 cm-14 cm x 2 cm-7cm. The petiole is 4 cm long and thin. The apex of the blade is acute, and the base obtuse. The male flowers are stellate hairy. The fruits are oblong or ellipsoid, 3-lobed, and 1 cm-1.5 cm x 2 cm. The seeds are oblong-ovoid (Fig. 204). Common names...

Diospyros argentea Griff

From Greek, diospyros persimmon fruit and from Latin, argentum silver Common name Silver-leaved ebony bedil lalat Malay . Physical description It is a lowland timber of Malaysia and Indonesia. The whole tree is covered in a golden irritating silky tomentum, except the upper side of the leaves and the bark. Leaves simple, oblong, leathery, and 7 cm x 30 cm. The petiole is stout and up to 1.5 cm long. The base is round and the apex pointed. The midrib is deeply sunken above and conspicuously...

Family Styracaceae Dumortier 1829 nom conserv the Storax Family

Physical description The family Styracaceae consists of 10 genera and 150 species of tropical timber. The leaves of Styracaceae are simple, alternate, and without stipules. The flowers are perfect, regular, and hypogynous. The calyx is tubular and of 4-5-lobed. The corolla consists of 2-5 petals forming a tube. The andrecium comprises of 4-10 stamens in a single row, and the anthers are linear, tetrasporangiate, dithecal and open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium consists of 3-5 carpels...

Galbulimima belgraveana F Muell Sprague

Flora Sulawesi

Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 35 m and which has a girth of 60 cm. The plant is common in the mountain rainforests of Papua New Guinea, Australia and Indonesia. The buttresses can reach up to 3 m, with a width of 1 m and a thickness of 5cm-20cm. The bark is greenish brown, bitter, and has a resinous smell. The inner bark is cream-colored and rapidly turns red-brown when exposed to light. The wood is white or pale yellow and very soft. The sap-wood and heart-wood...

Mitragyna speciosa Korth Havil

From Latin, mitragyna mitriform female organ and speciosus beautiful Physical description It is a timber tree which grows to a height of 25 m in the lowland forests of Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Guinea, by the streams and swamps.The bark is smooth and grey. The inner bark is pinkish. Leaves simple, 3cm-20cm x 2cm-12cm, decussate and stipulate. The stipules are lanceolate and 1cm x 4 cm. The blade is thick, elliptic, ovate or obovate, slightly hairy below, shows...

Justicia procumbens L

After James Justice, 18th century Scottish botanist From Latin, cumbere lie Physical description It is a procumbent herb which grows to a height of 60 cm. The plant is native to tropical America and widespread in India, Ceylon, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and China. The stems are quadrangular, and articulate. The internodes are 2 cm long. Leaves simple, decussate, and Common names Trailing water willow, chueh ch'uang (Chinese) pitpapada (Tamil). without stipules. The...

Carmona microphylla Lamk

Carmona a Spanish botanical artist of the 18th century and from Greek, mikros small and phullon leaf Synonymy Ehretia buxifolia Roxb., Ehretia macrophylla Lamk., Carmona retusa (Vahl), Masam. Cordia retusa Vahl, Ehretia dentata Courchet. Common names Fukien tea, Ceylon boxwood pala (Hindi) kuruvingi (Tamil). Fig. 299. Carmona macrophylla (Lamk.) Don. Fig. 299. Carmona macrophylla (Lamk.) Don. Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 2 m. The stems are terete,...

Commelina nudiflora L

After two 17th century Dutch botanists Johan and Caspar Commelin and from Latin, nudus naked and flos flower Physical description It is a herb which grows to a length of 90 cm. The plant is found in India, Ceylon and Synonymy Murdannia nudiflora L. Brenan, Aneilema nudiflorum L. Wall., Aneilema malabaricum L. Merr. Common names Pulau aur, rumput kukupu, tapak eti Malay katsapriya Sanskrit . Uses Commelina nudiflora L. is used to soothe inflammation. In Malaysia, a poultice of this herb is used...

Blumea balsamifera L DC

Blumea Balsamifera

From Latin, balsamum balsam and ferre bear Synonymy Blumea grandis DC., Baccharis salvia Lour. Common names ngai camphor ponmathei (Burmese) baimat (Cambodian) ai na hsiang (Chinese) capa, sembong, sapu (Malay) camphr e (French) dai bi, tu bi (Vietnamese). Fig. 367. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 3 m. The plant is found in a geographical zone, ranging from India to Southern China. Leaves simple, without stipules and alternate. The...

Lobelia chinensis Lour

After Mathias de LObel, 16th century Belgian botanist and from Latin, chinensis from China Synonymy Lobelia radicans Thunb., Pratia radicans G. Don. Common names Chinese cardinal flower, Chinese lobelia. Physical description It is a herb which grows perennially in China, North Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and Taiwan. The stems are decumbent and creeping. Leaves simple and alternate. The blade is narrowly elliptical or lanceolate, and 1 cm-2 cm x 2 cm-5 mm. The apex of the blade is acute. The...

Family Pittosporaceae R Brown in Flinders 1814 nom conserv the Pittosporum Family

Physical description The family Pittosporaceae consists of 9 genera and 200 species of shrubs and small trees that are widely distributed in the tropical and warm temperate parts of the world, especially in Australia. The array of chemical repellents in Pittosporaceae is broad and includes triter-penoid saponins, essential oils, polyacetylenic fatty acids, and proantho-cyanins. About 150 species of Pittosoraceae belong to the single genus Pittosporum. The leaves of Pittosporaceae are simple,...

Pittosporum tobira Thunb

From Greek, pitta resin and spora seed and from Japanese, tobira Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. Common names Australian laurel, mock orange, Japanese Pittosporum hai tong (Chinese). Fig. 147. Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. From KLU Herbarium 037870. Ex. Herbarium of University of the Ryukyus. Geographical Localization Okinawa Yona Experim. Plantation of the Univ., Kunigami along woodland path. 7 June 1984. Field Collector and Botanical Identification Shimabuku. From KLU 10418. Chiba, 30...

Dolichandrone spathacea L f K Schum

Dolichandrone Spathacea

From Greek, dolichos long, andro male and spathe broad blade Synonymy Dolichandrone rheediii Seem., Spathodea rheediii Spreng. Common names Thakutma Burmese vilpadri Ceylonese pokok kulo Malay . Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Dolichandrone spathacea L. f. K. Schum. are used to treat thrush. In the Philippines, Dolichandrone spathacea L. f. K. Schum. is used to treat nervous diseases and flatulence. The pharmacological potentials of this interesting plant remain unexplored. Physical...

Family Menispermaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Moonseed Family

Physical description The family Menispermaceae consists of 70 genera and about 400 species of tropical climbers so far known to elaborate bitter sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and benzylisoquinoline and aporphine alkaloids. In a field collection, Menispermaceae can be recognized by cross sections of the stems showing broad medullary rays, a bright yellow wood and seeds which are shaped like horseshoes. The leaves are simple, alternate, simple and without stipules. The petiole is often long and thin...

Warning The plant is toxic Rauvolfia verticillata Lour Baillon

Rauvolf, 1540-1596, a traveler to the Middle East, introduced coffee into Europe from Latin, verticillus whorl of spindle Synonymy Rauvolfia chinense Hance Hesml. Physical description It is a laticif-erous shrub which grows to a height of 2 m in open areas and pathways in Ceylon, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan and China. The stems are green with brown lenticels. Leaves simple, decussate and without stipules. The petiole is sheathing at the base, 1 cm -2 cm long and channeled. The blade...

Alocasia macrorrhiza L G

Alocasia Indica Parts

From Greek, kolokasia lotus root, macros long and rhiza root Physical description It is a robust, succulent, herbaceous plant, native to Ceylon but spreaded to the entire Asia-Pacific. The petioles are long, stout and upright. Common names Giant taro keladi, birah, sebaring Malay sente Javanese . Uses Alocasia macrorrhiza L. G. Don is a counter irritant remedy. In Indonesia, the leaves and tubers are used to assuage pain on the joints and to heal wounds. In Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, the...

Hedyotis capitellata Wall ex G

From Greek, hedys sweet and otos small heads Physical description It is a climber common to the jungle paths of Asia-Pacific. The stems are long, brittle, quadrangular or terete. Leaves 5cm-6cm x 2cm-2.5cm, simple, decussate. The stipules are interpetiolar, lobed and triangular. The petiole is indistinct. The blade is oblong, lanceolate and shows 3-4 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are axillary, long and globose heads of flowers. The flowers are very small and yellowish-green to...

Urophyllum glabrum Wall

Gambar Urophyllum Glabrum

From Greek, oura tail and phullon leaf and from Latin, glaber free from hair Synonymy Urophyllum arboreum Reinw. ex Bl. Korth. Common names Common urophyllum pokok kekaran, merembong jantan Malay kichengkeh Indonesian . Uses In Malaysia, a maceration of the leaves is used to combat fever. In Indonesia, the leaves are used to flavor food and to treat a number of diseases. The therapeutic potential of Urophyllum glabrum Wall. remains unexplored. Fig. 360. Urophyllum glabrum Wall. From KLU...

Physical description It is a herb native

To Tropical America, which grows to a height of 30 cm in shady and wet open , , , .x r Fig. 336. Laurentia longiflora L. Peterm. lands of the Asia-Pacific. The stems are pubescent and exude a milky sap when cut. Leaves simple, spiral, sessile and without stipules. The blade is glabrous above and subglabrous beneath, lanceolate, dentate, 13.4 cm x 1.4cm-2.2cm, dark green, tapering and sheathing. The inflorescences are axillary and solitary. The calyx is tubular, 5 mm-7 mm long, hairy and...

Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc

Scorodocarpus Borneensis

From Greek, scorodocarpos smelly fruit, and Latin, borneensis from Borneo Physical description It is a massive timber which grows to a height of 25 m and a girth of 2 m. It is found in the rainforests of Malaysia and Indonesia. The forested areas where this tree grows, smell of garlic. The bark is brown and scaly, and the inner bark is pinkish-red, juicy and very smelly. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is 1.5cm-1.8cm long, curved at the apex and woody. The blade is...

Asystasia gangetica L T Anders

From Greek, gagges of the Ganges Synonymy Asystasia coromandeliana, Justicia gangetica, Asystasia bojeriana. Common names Chinese violet coromandel, Ganges primrose, Philippine violet peypatchotti Ceylon . Physical description It is a perennial creeping herb native to India. The plant is invasive and found in crops, vacant plots of land, roadsides, riversides and the gardens of tropical Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.The stems are squarish, glabrous and somehow articulate. Leaves...

Gynura procumbens Lour Merr

From Greek, gyne femelle, uro tail and from Latin, cumbere lay oneself Synonymy Gynura sarmentosa DC., Calacia procumbens Lour., Cacaliaprocumbens Lour., Cacalia sarmentosa Bl., Cacalia sarrac nica Blanco, Gynura affinis. Common names Purple passion vine akar sebiak Malay sabungai Filipino . Uses In Indonesia, Gynura procumbens Lour. Merr. is used to assuage kidneys discomfort. In Vietnam, the plant is used to combat fever. In Thailand, the plant is used to soothe inflammation, rheumatism and...

Psychotria curviflora Wall

From Greek, psyche soul, trope food and from Latin, curves curved and floris flower Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 3 m in the lowland and the rain forests of the hills in the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, 6cm-20cm x 2.5cm-7cm and dark green, dull, decussate and stipulate. The stipules are short, broad and inter-petiolar. The petiole is 3 cm long. The blade is purplish below, glossy above, broadest above the middle, soft, tapering at the base, and acuminate at the...

Family Fabaceae Lindley 1836 nom conserv the Pea or Bean Family

Physical description The family Fabaceae consists of 400 genera and 10000 species of herbs, shrubs and trees. Fabaceae are known to contain tannins, mucilages, anthraquinones, isoflavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, cyanogen glycosides, quinolizidine, pyrrolizidine, indole and simple tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. The family Fabaceae is thought to have originated from the family Caesalpiniaceae and it is the most advanced family of the order Fabales. In this family, the leaves are simple or...

Family Euphorbiaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Spurge Family

Croton Elutaria

Physical description The family Euphorbiaceae consists of 300 genera and about 7500 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers and even cactus-shaped plants, often exuding a milky poisonous latex, and known to produce hydrolysable tannins, aporphine, pyridine, indole, and tropane types alkaloids, lignans, phloroglucinol derivatives, various sorts of terpenes, ellagitannins, proanthocyanins and, cyanogen glycosides, anthraquinones and fatty acid epoxides. The leaves of Euphorbiaceae are simple or...

Family Geraniaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Geranium Family

Physical description The family Geraniaceae consists of 11 genera and about 700 species of herbs or shrubs known to produce hydrolysable tannins, and essential oils. Geraniaceae are widespread in temperate and warm-temperate regions. The largest genera are Geranium (300 species) and Pelargonium (250 species). The leaves of Geraniaceae are alternate or opposite, mostly lobate, dissected or compound, and stipulate. The stipules are often paired. The flowers are hermaphrodite, actinomorphic,...

Prunella vulgaris L

From German, prunella quinsey and from Latin, vulgus common people Physical description It is a herb which grows to a height of approximately 25 cm tall. The plant is native to Europe, Asia and North America where it grows wild in temperate pastures, by the roadsides and in vacant plots of land. The stems are quadrangular, green, stoloniferous, succulent a glabrous except younger parts. Leaves simple, decussate and without stipules. The petiole is 2.2cm-9cm long, subglabrous, and channeled....

Cymbopogon citratus DC Stapf

Cymbopogon Citratus Stapf

From Greek, kymbe boat and pogon beard and from Latin, citrus citron Physical description It is a fragrant, aromatic herb which grows to a height of 1.6 m. Leaves the blade is lanceolate, linear and 15 cm-60 cm x 1 cm-2 cm. The plant has been cultivated for the production of Lemon Grass Oil in India, Ceylon, and Malaysia (Fig. 406). Synonymy Andropogon citratus DC., Andropogon nardus L. var. ceriferus Hack., Andropogon schoenanthus sensu Lour. Common names Lemon grass, ginger grass, citronella...

Euphorbia hirta L

From Latin, Euphorbus physician to King Juba II and from Latin, hirta hairy Common names Euphorbia pilulifera L., Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millspaugh. Common names Hairy spurge, euphorbia herb, Australian snake weed, cat's hair, asthma plant gelang susu (Malay) amumpatchai (Tamil). Physical description It is an annual herb which grows to a height of 40 cm in vacant plots of land, car parks by the roadsides. The plant produces an irritating milky latex. The stems are hirsute, reddish,...

Styrax benzoin Dryand

Eucalytpus Leaves Watercolour

From Greek, styrax Styrax officinalis and from Arabic, luban jawi frankinscence of Java Common name Styrax tree, benzoin tree kemenyan (Malay). Physical description It is a buttressed timber which grows to a height of 30 m in lowland rainforests up to 800 m in Malaysia and Indonesia. The bark is smooth, or finely cracked. The inner bark is soft and reddish and Uses Benzoin or the resin obtained by bruising then tapping the bark of Styraxbenzoin Dryand. has long been used in Asian medicine. It...

Family Papaveraceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Poppy Family

Physical description The family Papaveraceae consists of 25 genera and 200 species of laticiferous herbs or shrubs, occurring mainly in the temperate and tropical parts of the North Hemisphere. The leaves are simple, alternate, spiral and without stipules. The blade is often dissected. The flowers are showy, large, perfect, regular, and hypogynous.The calyx comprises of 2-4 caducous sepals and the corolla consists of 4-16 petals which are very thin, crumpled, brightly coloured, and imbricate....

Aristolochia tagala Cham

Aristolochia Roxburghiana

From Greek, aristo best and lochia delivery Physical description It is a climber which grows in the geographical zone Fig. 31. Aristolochia tagala Cham. From Ex. Herbario BC Stone. Field collector & botanical identification BC Stone, 4 Jul 1977. Geographical localization altitude 1000 ft, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, University of Malaya campus, Malaysia. Fig. 31. Aristolochia tagala Cham. From Ex. Herbario BC Stone. Field collector & botanical identification BC Stone, 4 Jul 1977....

Aganosma marginata Roxb G

Physical description It is a laticifer-ous, climbing shrub which grows on the rocks by the sea, found in a geographical zone spanning from India to the southern part of Southeast Asia and China. Leaves simples, 5 cm-12 cm x 2cm-4cm, and without stipules. The petiole is 3 mm-5 mm long. The blade is very thin, oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, and glabrous, showing 12-16 pairs of conspicuous secondary nerves arching in an intramarginal nerve. The inflorescences are puberulous, terminal and axillary,...

Excoecaria agallocha L

From Latin, excoecare to deprive of sight and agallochum a soft, resinous wood of highly aromatic smell, burnt in Asia as a perfume Common names Blinding tree, tiger's milk tree arbre aveuglant (French) kayau (Burma) tuku (Fiji) buta buta, bebuta (Malay) buta de Philippinas (Spanish) agaru (Sanskrit) tillai-cheddi (Tamil). Uses The sap of Excoecaria agal-locha L. is well-known throughout the Asia-Pacific as corrosive and is applied externally as a counter-irritant remedy. In Burma, the leaves...

Strophanthus caudatus Burm f Kurz

From Greek, strophes twisted cord, anthos flower and from Latin, cauda tail Synonymy Strophanthus dichotomus DC. Physical description It is a laticif-erous forest climber of Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia. The stems are lenticelled. Leaves simple, decussate and without stipules. The petiole is 5 mm long and channeled. The blade is obovate-spathulate, 6.5 cm x 4.3cm-9.8cm x 5 cm and leathery. The midrib is flat above and raised below. The apex is shortly acuminate and the...

Thevetia peruviana Pers K Schum

After Andre Thevet, a 16th century French monk and plant collector and from Latin, peruviana from Peru Synonymy Thevetia neriifolia Juss., Thevetia peruviana K. Schum. Common names Bastard oleander, exile oleander, yellow oleander guinnyeh (Malay) noix de serpent (French) hpayoungban, molamiyapan (Burmese). Fig.277. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Fig.277. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Physical description It is a tree which grows to height of 6 m.The plant is native to South...

Family Asclepiadaceae R Brown 1810 nom conserv the Milkweed Family

Physical description The family Asclepi-adaceae consists of about 250 genera and 2000 species of laticiferous tropical shrubs, herbs and climbers known to elaborate cardiotonic glycosides, indole, piperidine and phenanthroin-dolizidine. The leaves of Asclepiadaceae are simple, without stipules, opposite, whorled or alternate. The inflorescences are solitary or terminal or axillary umbels, umbellate cymes, or racemes. The flowers are very characteristic as they comprise of a unique type of...

Sarcolobus Globulosus

Mustafa MR, etal. (1990) Toxicon 28(10) 1237-1239. Mustafa MR, (1993) Toxicon 31(1) 67-74. Warning Caution must be taken as the toxic effects of this plant are unknown. Tylophora tenuis Bl. From Greek, tulos knob and phero bear and from Latin, tenuis thin Physical description It is a climber of the tidal rivers of India, Malaysia, Borneo and Java. Leaves simple, Uses Sarcolobus globulus Wall. is principally used in Malaysia where the leaves are mixed with the nuts, Aleurite moluccana, to treat...

Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn

Dryobalanops Aromatica

From Greek, drys oak, balanos nut, and aromatikos aroma Physical description It is large timber tree which is recognized miles away by its greyish looking foliage and the shape of its crown, which is best described as being like an umbrella. It is found in primary rainforests up to 800 feet above sea level, in Malaysia and Indonesia. This tree grows to a height of 50 m. Leaves simple, spiral, up to 10 cm long, leathery, ovate and acuminate.The inflorescences consist of terminal 5 cm long...

Family Berberidaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Barberry Family

Physical description The family Berberidaceae consists of about 13 genera and 650 species of woody herbs, shrubs and treelets which are widespread in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The genus Berberis is by far the largest genus with some 500 species. The chemical weapons used here are mainly isoquinoline berberine alkaloids, occasionally quinolizidine alkaloids, and lignans and triterpenoid saponins. The stems are often woody and show typical broad medullary rays in...

Cyrtandra cupulata Ridl

From Greek, kyrtos arched, andros male and from Latin, cupa cask Common names Meroyan kabut bebangun (Malay). Fig. 313. Aeschynanthusradicans Jack. From KLU Herbarium 003107. Field collectors J Carrick& IC Enoch. 24 Apr 1959. Geographical localization altitude0'- 100', Bako National Park, Tg. Paku Cliff, Malaysia. Fig. 313. Aeschynanthusradicans Jack. From KLU Herbarium 003107. Field collectors J Carrick& IC Enoch. 24 Apr 1959. Geographical localization altitude0'- 100', Bako National...

Cyrtandra pendula Ridl

From Greek, kyrtos arched, andros male Latin, pendulus pendulous Common names Creeping sausage -berry asam batu, meroyan panas (Malay). Physical description It is a common creeping rainforest herb of Malaysia. Leaves simple, opposite, dark green above and often barred with white and scurfy when young. The petiole is 7cm-20cm long. The blade is 10 cm-25cmx5cm-10 cm.The margin is lobed or not, broadly ovate to nearly round and pointed at the apex. The flowers are pendulous, whitish-creamy, and...

Order Myrtales Lindley 1833

The order Myrtales consists of 12 families and more than 9000 species of tropical trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs thought to have originated from the order Rosales (Appendix I). About three-fourths of the species belong to the family Melas-tomataceae (4000) and to the family Myrtaceae (3000). The medicinal properties of Myrtales are often attributed to tannins or essential oils. Tannins are astringent, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial but may cause neoplasia. Essential oils of several...

Family Bombacaceae Kunth 1822 nom conserv the Kapoktree Family

Physical description The family Bombacaceae consists of about 25 genera and 200 species of soft-wooded trees widespread in tropical countries, especially in tropical America. The leaves are simple or palmate, alternate and stipulate the stipules are deciduous. The flowers are large, hypogynous, and regular. The calyx comprises of 5 sepals which are free or connate at the base and valvate. The corolla consists of 5 petals which are free and convolute. The andrecium comprises of 5 to many stamens...

Dioscorea hispida Dennst

Dioscorea Hispida

After Dioskurides, 1st century Greek physicist and from Latin, hispidus bristly Physical description It is a climber of Southeast Asia. The stems are subglabrous, smooth and covered with a few small prickles. The tubers are large and lobed. Leaves simple, alternate and without stipules. The petiole is long and thin with a few prickles and 7.5 cm-30 cm. The blade is trifoliolate, hairy to subglabrous on the below and extremely thin. The folioles are 10.5cm-25cm x 5.4cm-17cm, the petiolules are...

Family Olacaceae Mirbel ex A P de Candolle 1824 nom conserv the Olax Family

Physical description The family Olacaceae consists of about 30 genera and 250 species of plants which are widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions, producing tannins, cyanogenetic glycosides, acetylenic acids and flavonoids. The leaves are simple, alternate and without stipules. The flowers are small, regular, perfect, and hypogynous. The calyx is small, cupular, and lobed. The corolla consists of 3-6 petals which alternate with the calyx lobes, and are mostly valvate. The andrecium...

Family Myrsinaceae R Brown 1810 nom conserv the Myrsine family

Physical description The family Myrsinaceae consists of 30 genera and approximately 1000 species of tropical trees, shrubs and herbs abounding with 1, 4-benzoquinones and saponins. The bark is smooth or lenticelled. The leaves in Myrsinaceae are simple, alternate, crenate, fleshy, glossy, and characteristically gland-dotted beneath the blade. The flowers are small, perfect, hypogynous or half epigynous sympetalous, and 5-merous. The calyx consists of 4-5 sepals which are free or connate at the...

Labisia pumila BI Benth Hook

From Greek, labis holder and from Latin, pumilus darwf Physical description It is an under-storey herb found in the lowlands and hilly rainforests of the Asia-Pacific, which grows to a height of about 30 cm. Leaves simple, spiral and exstipu-late. The petiole is short and thick. The blade is lanceolate, fleshy, light green on the surface and purplish underneath, and slightly toothed. The inflorescences are 12cm-20cm long racemes of small and white campanu-late flowers. The fruits are black...

Connarus monocarpus L

From Greek, konaros a spring tree, monos alone and karpos fruit Physical description It is a small shrub found in the South Asian rainforest. Leaves pinnate, consists of 3-5. The petiolules are 3 mm-5 mm long. The folioles are glabrous, 7.5cm-10cm x 3.2cm-4.5cm, and show 3-5 pairs of secondary nerves. The blade is glossy, and elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, round or acute at the base and the apex is obtusely acuminate. The flowers are 5 mm long and crowded in upright pyramidal densely...

Sapium sebiferum L Roxb

From Latin, sapium a plant name, sebum fat and fer producing Synonymy Croton sebiferus L., Triadica sebifera (L.), Stillingia sebifera Michx. Common name Chinese tallowtree. Physical description It is an invasive treelet of Southern China and Taiwan. The latex is abundant and poisonous. The stems are glabrous, slender and terete. Leaves very thin, rhomboid-ovate, and 5cm-9cm. The petiole is 2cm-5cm long. The blade is shortly acuminate at the apex. The base is acute and shows a pair of glands....

Deeringia amaranthoides Lamk Merr

Chickenpox Antiviral Philippines

After Georg Karl Deering, an English doctor, and from Latin, amaranthoides amaranth-like Uses In Indonesia, the juice squeezed from the roots is used as an ingredient of a mixture which is sniffed to clear congested nasal cavities. The leaves are used to treat inflamed sores and chicken pox maturations. In the Philippines, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat dysentery. In the Solomon Islands, the sap expressed from the plant is used to counteract skin putrefaction in pigs. The...

Peperomia pellucida L HBK

From Greek, peperi pepper and homoios resembling and from Latin, pellucidus transparent Common names Shiny bush pansit pansitan (Filipino). Uses In Indonesia, Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. is used to assuage headaches and to treat colic. In the Philippines, Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. is used to heal abscesses and boils. Physical description It is a dwarfy herb which grows to a height of 20 cm. The plant is native to South Amer- Fig. 26. Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. Fig. 26. Peperomia...

Mallotus philippensis Lamk Muell

Common name Kamala tree balek (Malay). Physical description It is a small, bushy tree which grows to a height of 9 m, in a geographical zone spanning the West Himalayas, Ceylon, Formosa, Southern China, New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Australia. The plant is found in forest fringes and open places or limestone. The stems, young leaves and inflorescences are covered with scarlet glands. Leaves simple, spiral, and stipulate. The petiole is 5 cm long and slender. The blade is ovate, trinerved, and...

Family Gentianaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Gentian Family

Physical description The family Gentianaceae consists of about 75 genera and about 1000 species of annual or perennial herbs, often mycorhizal, related to the Loganiaceae but more recent, and cosmopolitan in distribution, and known to produce xanthones and iridoid glycosides. The largest genus is the genus Gentiana which includes about 400 species. The leaves of Gentianaceae are simple, opposite, without stipules, often connate at the base or connected by a transverse line. The flowers are...

Physical description It is a laticif

Erous shrub which grows to a height Fig. 276. Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) of 2.5 m, and is native to India. It is Burk. The bark is whitish-grey. Leaves simple, soft, without stipules, opposite and 7cm-16cm x 2cm-5cm.The petiole is small. The blade is elliptic-lanceolate and glossy. The apex is acuminate and the margin is wavy. The flowers are showy, pure white and arranged in cymes at branch bifurcation. The flower pedicels are 5 cm long. The calyx is 3mm-4mm long. The corolla develops 5...

Family Droseraceae Salisbury 1808 nom conserv the Sundew Family

Physical description The family Droseraceae consists of 4 genera and about 100 species of discrete perennial herbs forming rosettes of leaves, which are often circinate in buds and usually covered with sticky stipitate glands or marginal bristles which entrap insects. Naphthoquinones and flavonoids are known to occur in this family. The inflorescences are simple and circinate cymes of bisexual flowers. The calyx comprises of 4-5 sepals which are imbricate and persistent. The corolla consists of...

Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl

From Greek, ophis snake, rhiza root and Latin, communis common Synonymy Ophiorrhiza singaporen-sis, Ophiorrhiza discolor, Ophiorrhiza major Ridl. Common name Snakeroot pokok peparu (Malaysia). Uses In Malaysia, a paste of Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl. is used to heal wounds, treat enlarged spleen and to alleviate cough. Fig. 354. Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl. From KLU Herbarium 20567. Flora of Malaya. Field collector CS Chung. 25 Sep 1970. Geographical localization Selangor, Gua Batu limestone hill,...