Heliotropium indicum L

From Greek, helios sun and trope turning and from Latin, indicum from India Synonymy Tiaridium indicum (L.) Lehm Common names Indian heliotrope Indian turnsole rumpus ekor kunching, seribumi, jinkin kala (Malay). Physical description It is a herb which grows annually to a height of 50 cm. It grows by coastlines, drains and in vacant plots. Leaves simple, 3 cm-5 cmx 1.5 cm-5 cm, and alternate.The petiole is 1.25 cm long. The blade is ovate or ovate-lanceolate. The apex is acute and the base is...

Pharmaceutical potential

Quassinoids and limonoids A classical example of ornamental Sima-roubaceae is Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree of heaven). Quassinoids and limonoids impart to Simaroubaceae an intense bitterness used in Western medicine to promote digestion and appetite. Quassia amara L. (Surinam quassia) has been used as a bitter tonic. The dried stem wood of Picrasma excelsa (Aeschrion Excelsa, Picraena excelsa) was used (infusion 1-20 in cold water) to promote digestion, stimulate appetite, expel...

Eupatorium odoratum L

After Mithridates Eupator, King of Pontus about 115 BC and from Latin, odoratum fragrant Common names Jack-in-the-bush pokokgerman (Malay) co lao (Vietnamese). Uses Eupatorium odoratum L. is used in Vietnam to heal wounds and burns. Physical description It is a shrubby tropical herb native to America, which grows to a height of 1.5 m on roadsides and open places of Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, opposite, fragrant and exstipulate. The petiole is indistinct.The blade is...

Pharmaceutical interest

Acetylcholine A curious feature of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. is that it contains acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, responsible for the parasympathetic neurotransmission in our organism. One might therefore set the hypothesis that the presence of acetylcholine could explain the diuretic property of the plant, by the activation of muscarinic Fig. 126. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. receptors resulting in the contraction of the ureter and the bladder. Acetylcholine...

Stixis scortechinii King Jacobs

After Father Scortechini, botanist in Perak, Malaysia during the end of the 19th century Synonymy Roydsia scortechinii King., Roydsia parviflora (non Griff.) King. Uses In Indonesia, the juice expressed from the roots is used to soothe sore eyes. It will be interesting to learn whether more intensive future research on Stixis scortechinii (King) Jacobs will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest. This species will probably disappear before being assessed for pharmacology. Physical...

Pittosporum tobira Thunb

From Greek, pitta resin and spora seed and from Japanese, tobira Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. Common names Australian laurel, mock orange, Japanese Pittosporum hai tong (Chinese). Fig. 147. Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. From KLU Herbarium 037870. Ex. Herbarium of University of the Ryukyus. Geographical Localization Okinawa Yona Experim. Plantation of the Univ., Kunigami along woodland path. 7 June 1984. Field Collector and Botanical Identification Shimabuku. From KLU 10418. Chiba, 30...

Coptis japonica Thunb

Physical description It is a herb which grows to a height of 30 cm. It is found in China and Japan. Leaves originate from a rhizome. The petiole is 12 cm-20 cm long and channeled. The petiolules are channeled and 1 cm-2.5 cm long. The blade consists of 3 folioles which are deeply incised, very thin and 6.7 cm x 5.5cm-4.7cm x 3.5 cm. The midrib is sunken above and raised below. The folioles show 4 to 5 pairs of secondary nerves. The flowers are small and white, and attached to reddish pedicels...

Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl

From Greek, ophis snake, rhiza root and Latin, communis common Synonymy Ophiorrhiza singaporen-sis, Ophiorrhiza discolor, Ophiorrhiza major Ridl. Common name Snakeroot pokok peparu (Malaysia). Uses In Malaysia, a paste of Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl. is used to heal wounds, treat enlarged spleen and to alleviate cough. Fig. 354. Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl. From KLU Herbarium 20567. Flora of Malaya. Field collector CS Chung. 25 Sep 1970. Geographical localization Selangor, Gua Batu limestone hill,...

Gynochthodes sublanceolata

From Latin, sub partially and lanceolata lance-shaped Common names Malayan lumpwort or akarsulong (Malay). Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and the roots of Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq. is drunk to assuage stomachache. The therapeutic potential of this plant remains unexplored. dark green, 5cm-10cm x1 cm-3cm and stipulate.The petiole is 5 mm long. The blade is elliptic, tapering at the base and pointed at the apex. The flowers are arranged into small axillary inflorescences. The...

Nepenthes ampullaria Jack

From Greek, nepenthes griefless and from Latin, ampulla Roman 2-handled flask Physical description It is a climber found in the rainforests of Malaysia and Indonesia. The stem is terete. Leaves simple, pitcher-shaped, alternate, sessile and without stipules. The blade is elliptic-spathulate, leathery, 7cm-20cm x 2.4cm-5.2cm, and rusty tomentose below. The margin is entire and recurved. The midrib sunken above and raised below the blade. The apex of the blade extends into a 2cm-7cm long velvety...

Castanopsis cuspidata Thunb Schottky

From Latin, castanopsis chestnutlike and from cuspis point Physical description It is a timber which grows wild in China and Japan. The wood is of commercial value. The stems are blackish, lenticelled, smooth and glabrous. The bark yields tannins. Leaves simple, spiral and stipulate. The stipules are dioecious. The petiole is 1.5 cm-1 cm long, obscurely channeled above, and swollen at the base. The blade is lanceolate, glossy, leathery, and 8.9cmx2.8cm-9cmx2.5cm.The margin is laxly toothed and...

Humulus scandens Lour Merr

From Latin, humus soil and scandere climb Physical description It is a climber native to East Asia. The stems are slender, terete and hairy. Leaves simple, opposite, without stipules. The petiole is 5cm-7cm long, hairy and grooved. The blade is papery, 3-lobed, 5.2 cm x 7.1 cm-2cm x 2.5 cm and hairy. The margin is serrate, and the midrib and secondary nerves are sunkely above and raised below. The inflorescences are tiny axillary racemes. The flowers are 3 mm long. The calyx consists of 5...

Kopsia fruticosa Ker DC

After J Kops, 1765-1849, the first editor of the Dutch Flora Batavia and fruticosum bush Fig. 265. Kopsia fruticosa (Ker.) DC. Physical description It is shrub which grows to a height of 3 m tall. The plant is native to Burma, being an ornamental plant in the Asia-Pacific. The stems are ash-colored to white and laticiferous. Leaves simple, few, without stipules, decussate, 8cm-20cm x 3cm-7cm, and yellowish green. The blade is elliptic, papery, and shows a distinct blunt apical tail marked at...

Caesalpinia sappan L

After A Caesalpini, 1519-1603, an Italian physician and a botanist and from Tamil, shappangam sappan wood Synonymy Caesalpinia minutiflora Elmer. Common names Sappan wood bakkum wood bois de sappan (French) sepang (Malay) to moc, cay vang (Vietnamese) tainniga (Burmese) sbeng (Cambodian) su fang mu (Chinese) palo de Brazil (Spanish) bakam (Arabic) pattanga (Sanskrit). Physical description It is a prickly treelet found in South China, Taiwan, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The wood is red....

Achyranthes bidentata Bl

Common names Ox knee niuxi (Chinese). From Greek, achyr barb, anthe flower and from Latin, bi two and dentatus with teeth Physical description It is a slender and perennial herb which grows to a height of 1 m. It is found in moist and shady grounds in India, Southeast Asia, China and Japan. The stems are quadrangular and pubescent, and develop regular large knee-shaped nodes, hence the common name of the plant. Leaves simple, without stipules, opposite, 5cm-12cm x 3cm-5cm, acuminate, and...

Galbulimima belgraveana F Muell Sprague

Flora Sulawesi

Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 35 m and which has a girth of 60 cm. The plant is common in the mountain rainforests of Papua New Guinea, Australia and Indonesia. The buttresses can reach up to 3 m, with a width of 1 m and a thickness of 5cm-20cm. The bark is greenish brown, bitter, and has a resinous smell. The inner bark is cream-colored and rapidly turns red-brown when exposed to light. The wood is white or pale yellow and very soft. The sap-wood and heart-wood...

Borreria articularis L F F N Williams

After William Borrer (1781-1862) a British botanist and from Latin, articulatus articulate Synonymy Borreria hispida K. Schum., Spermacoce flexuosa Lour., Spermacoce hispida L. Common names Harsh-leaved button weed rumput susur (Malay) kertas watu (Javanese). Physical description It is a common herb of sandy and waste lands or seashores of the tropical and sub-world. The stems are quadrangular and fleshy. Leaves simple, decussate and hairy. The stipules are interpetiolar and form a cup with...

Morinda citrifolia L

From Latin, morus mulberry, Indus from India, citrus citron and folium leaf Common names Indian mulberry gaiu (Vietnamese) tombongaso (Filipino) ashyuka (Sanskrit) mengkudu daun besar (Malay) nonu (Samoa), man-galwe (Caroline Island). Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 9 m in a geographical zone, ranging from India to Polynesia. The bark is greyish-brown and shal-lowly fissured. The inner bark is yellowish-red. Leaves simple, 10 cm-15 cm x 20cm-30cm, decussate and...

Calophyllum inophyllum L

From Greek, kalos beautiful and phullon leaf Physical description It is a magnificent coastal, large tree which grows wild in the geographical zone spanning India to Fiji. It is often cultivated to decorate parks and roadsides. The bark is grey to fawn, with wide, shallow, markedly boat-shaped fissures and exudes a clear golden yellow sticky gum-resin. Leaves simple, without stipules and decussate. The blade is broadly elliptic-oblong, large (8cm-16cm x 4cm-8cm), rigid, glossy, and leathery....

Family Fabaceae Lindley 1836 nom conserv the Pea or Bean Family

Physical description The family Fabaceae consists of 400 genera and 10000 species of herbs, shrubs and trees. Fabaceae are known to contain tannins, mucilages, anthraquinones, isoflavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, cyanogen glycosides, quinolizidine, pyrrolizidine, indole and simple tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. The family Fabaceae is thought to have originated from the family Caesalpiniaceae and it is the most advanced family of the order Fabales. In this family, the leaves are simple or...

Anaxagorea javanica Bl

Anaxagoras Greek philosopher Latin javanica from Java Physical description It is a treelet of the lowland rainforest of Malaysia, Borneo and Java. The bark is slightly fissured and yellowish. Leaves simple, alternate and exstipulate. The petiole is 5 mm-1 cm long, transversally fissured and channeled above. The blade is leathery, 7cm-18cm x 4cm-6cm, and oblong-lanceolate. The apex of the blade is acute or slightly acuminate and the base is tapering. The margin is slightly recurved and wavy....

Aristolochia tagala Cham

From Greek, aristo best and lochia delivery Physical description It is a climber which grows in the geographical zone Fig. 31. Aristolochia tagala Cham. From Ex. Herbario BC Stone. Field collector & botanical identification BC Stone, 4 Jul 1977. Geographical localization altitude 1000 ft, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, University of Malaya campus, Malaysia. Fig. 31. Aristolochia tagala Cham. From Ex. Herbario BC Stone. Field collector & botanical identification BC Stone, 4 Jul 1977....

Forrestia griffithii CB Clarke

After George Forrest, 20th century plant hunter. After Dr. William Griffith, 19th century botanist and curator of the Botanic Garden in Calcutta Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of roots is used to combat fever. The pharmacological potential of Forrestia griffithii C.B. Clarke and the genus Forrestia remains unexplored. stems are juicy, creeping articulated and regularly covered with 2cm-3cm long of tubular bracts. Leaves 27.5 cm x 5.3cm-25cm x 6.2cm-25cm, spiral, lanceolate, velvety and...

Pericampylus glaucus Lamk Merr

From Greek, kampulos curved and from Latin, glaucus glaucous Physical description It is a climber found in India, Southeast Asia and China which forms some kind of glaucous bunches in secondary growths and by the roadside. The stems are slender, terete and velvety. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is velvety, 2cm-4cm long. The blade is papery, cordate, velvety underneath, 2.9 cm x 3.1 cm-5.5cm x 6 cm, and glaucous or yellowish. The apex is round, the base is flat or...

Sapium sebiferum L Roxb

From Latin, sapium a plant name, sebum fat and fer producing Synonymy Croton sebiferus L., Triadica sebifera (L.), Stillingia sebifera Michx. Common name Chinese tallowtree. Physical description It is an invasive treelet of Southern China and Taiwan. The latex is abundant and poisonous. The stems are glabrous, slender and terete. Leaves very thin, rhomboid-ovate, and 5cm-9cm. The petiole is 2cm-5cm long. The blade is shortly acuminate at the apex. The base is acute and shows a pair of glands....

Ipomoea pes caprae L R Br

From Greek, ips worm and homoios and from Latin, pes foot and caprae goat Synonymy Ipomoea biloba Forssk., Ipomoea bilobata, Ipomoea turpenthum. Common names Goat's foot creeper tapakkuda (Malay & Javanese) pinlaikazum (Burmese) trakuon kantek (Cambodian) patate de mer (French) manmatha (Sanskrit) adambu (Tamil), Pak bung tale (Thai). Fig. 297. Ipomoea pes - caprae (L.) R. Br. Physical description It is a common tropical coastal creeping herb. The plant grows to a height of 3 m. Leaves 2.5...

Glechoma hederacea L

From the Greek, glechon a kind of mint and from Latin, hederacea pertaining to ivy Synonymy Nepeta glechoma Benth., Glechoma hederacea L. var. parviflora (Benth.) House, Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trevisan, Glechoma hederacea L. var. micrantha Moric. Common names Creeping charlie, ground ivy lierre terrestre (French). Fig. 306. Glechoma hederacea L. From KLU Herbarium 35606. Plants of Maryland. Field collector & botanical identification LM Mac Intosh, 21 Apr 1980, Montgomery Co. Takoma Park,...

Eriocaulon australe R Br

From Greek, erio woolly, caulon stem and Latin, australis austral Common names Hairy pipewort kai (Yapese). Uses In China, Eriocaulon australe R. Br. is used to treat eye inflammation, sore throat, toothache, to clam, to combat fever and to promote urination. The pharmacological potential of Eriocaulon australe R. Br. and of the large genus Eriocaulon remains unexplored. Note that flavonoids, known to occur in the genus, might be involved in the anti-inflammatory property of the plant. Fig....

Pluchea indica L Less

After Abbe Noel-Antoine Pluche, 18th century French naturalist and from Latin, indica from India Common names Indian fleabane, Indian pluchea, Indian camphorweed beluntas (Malay) luntas (Javanese) kayu (Burmese) pras anbok (Cambodian) cuctan, cayluc, tubi (Vietnamese) kalapini (Filipino) khlu (Thai). Physical description It is a shrub of the wetlands, mangroves, swamps, tidal flats and fishponds of India, South China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, Australia and Pacific Islands. It grows Fig. 378....

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Smith

From Greek, elaion oil and karpos grown and floris flower Physical description It is a rainforest tree found in Southeast Asia. Leaves simple, without stipules and alternate. The petiole is 6mm-3.5cm long and slightly curved at the base and the apex. The blade is obo-vate, thinly leathery, and 7 cm-14 cm x 2cm-5.5cm. The apex is acute, the base is pointed, and the margin lobed. The blade shows 7-11 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are axillary 3.5cm-10cm long racemes. The flowers...

Family Ixonanthaceae Exell Mendoca 1951 nom conserv the Ixonanthes Family

Physical description The family Ixonanthaceae consists of 5 genera and about 30 species of tropical trees or shrub known to produce saponins. The leaves are alternate, spiral, simple, entire or merely lobed, and the stipules small or wanting. The flowers are perfect, hypogynous, regular and 5-merous. The sepals are imbricate, and the petals, imbricate or convolute. The andrecium comprises of 5-20 stamens inserted around a well-developed nectary disc. The anthers are tetrasporangiate, dithecal...

Gymnosporia spinosa Blco Merr Rolfe

From Greek, gumnos naked, spora spore and from Latin, spina thorn Synonymy Catha spinosa Forsk., Gymnosporia montana (Roth.) Benth. Celastrus senegalensis Lam.). Common names Bahuphala (Sanskrit) valuluvai (Tamil). Gymnosporia spinosa (Blco.) Merr. & Gymnosporia spinosa (Blco.) Merr. & Physical description It is a shrub found in Southeast Asia. The stems when young are prickly. Leaves drying yellowish, thick, and 3cm-5cm x 2cm-3.8cm. The petiole is 3 mm-10 cm long. The blade is elliptic...

Acronychia laurifolia Bl

From Greek, akros apical and onux claw and from Latin, laurus laurel and folium leaf Synonymy Acronychia pedunculata Miq., Gela lanceolata Lour. Common names Claw flowered laurel, laka wood bai bai (Vietnamese) chiang chen hsiang (Chinese) gambadak, mentua (Malay) muttainari (Tamil). Physical description It is a tree of the lowland rainforest of Southeast Asia. Leaves opposite, simple and entire. The blade is elliptic to oblong-elliptic, obscurely dotted with oil cells, leathery, and...

Dillenia excelsa Jack Gilg

After J J Dillenius (1684-1747), a German botanist and from Latin, celsus lofty shows about 15 pairs of secondary nerves which are prominently raised above and below. The tertiary nerves are raised below the blade. The inflorescences are terminal cymes of fragrant flowers which are globose in buds, 1.5 cm in diameter and velvety. The calyx comprises of 5 ovate, 1 cm-2 cm x 9 mm-1 cm sepals which are velvety on the outside. The corolla consists of 5 petals which are very thin, nerved, yellow,...

Camellia sinensis L O Ktze

After Kamel, 17th century Jesuit and botanist and from Latin, sinensis from China Synonymy Thea sinensis L., Thea cochinchinensis Lour., Thea chinensis Sims Common names Tea the (French) letpet (Burmese) ming (Chinese) caolo (Vietnamese) cha (Portuguese) teylai (Tamil). Physical description It is a shrub native to Asia and has been cultivated for ages in China and Japan. The bark is dark grey and the stems glabrous and terete. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is 4 mm-7...

Citrullus lanatus Thunb Matsum

From Latin, citrullus diminutive of citrus, and lana wool Synonymy Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Common names Watermelon paye (Burma) hsi kua (Chinese) pasteque (French) au lek (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam) melao da India (Portuguese) chitra (Sanskrit) melon de agua (Spanish) cocomero (Italian). Physical description It is an annual, woolly climber native to Africa which is cultivated in several warm countries for its edible fruits. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is pilose,...

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk

From Greek, artos bread, karpos fruit and heteros different and phullon leaves Physical description It is a tropical fruit tree probably native to India. The bark is dark grey and exudes an abundant milky latex when incised. Common names Jack-fruit nangka (Malay) jaca (Portuguese) chakka (Malayalam). The stems are articulate. Leaves simple, spiral, and stipulate. The petiole is 1.25cm-4cm long. The blade is elliptic to obovate, leathery, glossy, deep green on the surface, and 5cm-23cm x 2cm-11...

Subclass Caryophyllidae Takhtajan 1966

The Caryophyllidae consists of 3 orders, 14 families and about 11 000 species of herbaceous plants. It developed some 70 million years ago from the subclass Magnoliidae, through the order Ranunculales and is considered quite a recent development, compared with the Magnoliidae, Hamamelidae, Dilleniidae and Rosidae (Appendix I). The gynecium of Caryophyllidae comprises of a finite number of carpels united to form an inferior ovary, where ovules are attached to free central or basal placentas. In...

Cymbopogon citratus DC Stapf

From Greek, kymbe boat and pogon beard and from Latin, citrus citron Physical description It is a fragrant, aromatic herb which grows to a height of 1.6 m. Leaves the blade is lanceolate, linear and 15 cm-60 cm x 1 cm-2 cm. The plant has been cultivated for the production of Lemon Grass Oil in India, Ceylon, and Malaysia (Fig. 406). Synonymy Andropogon citratus DC., Andropogon nardus L. var. ceriferus Hack., Andropogon schoenanthus sensu Lour. Common names Lemon grass, ginger grass, citronella...

Dendrophthoe pentandra L

From Greek, pente five and andro Uses In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the leaves of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. are used to make a tea-like drink used to treat cough. In Malaysia, Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is used as a remedy to and recovery from childbirth, and to heal sores, wounds and ulcers. The pharmacological potential of this plant is yet to be discovered. Fig. 181. Macrosolen cochichinensis (Lour.) van Tieghem. From KLU 355111. Flora of Singapore. Comm. Ex. Herb. Hort. Bot....

Styrax benzoin Dryand

From Greek, styrax Styrax officinalis and from Arabic, luban jawi frankinscence of Java Common name Styrax tree, benzoin tree kemenyan (Malay). Physical description It is a buttressed timber which grows to a height of 30 m in lowland rainforests up to 800 m in Malaysia and Indonesia. The bark is smooth, or finely cracked. The inner bark is soft and reddish and Uses Benzoin or the resin obtained by bruising then tapping the bark of Styraxbenzoin Dryand. has long been used in Asian medicine. It...

Family Dioscoreaceae R Brown 1810 nom conserv the Yam family

Physical description The family Dioscoreaceae consists of approximately 6 genera and 650 species of tropical climbers growing from rhizomes or tubers. It is known to produce raphides of calcium oxalate, steroidal saponins, some alkaloids, chelidonic acid and tannins. The family is dominated by the large genus Dioscorea consisting of 600 species of plants. The leaves are simple and alternate. The blade is often cordate and the petiole is twisted, long and thin. The inflorescences are racemes or...

Family Lecythidaceae Poiteau 1825 nom conserv the Brazilnut Family

Physical description The family Lecy-thidaceae consists of 20 genera and 400 species of soft-wooded tropical trees known to abound with tannins and saponins. In this family, the leaves are simple, alternate, commonly crowded at the tips of the stems, toothed, glossy, tapered at the base and without stipules. The flowers are ephemeral, epig-ynous, perfect, showy, and regular. The calyx consists of 2-12 valvate sepals. The corolla consists of 4-6 petals which are free, imbricate and thin. Note...

Carmona microphylla Lamk

Carmona a Spanish botanical artist of the 18th century and from Greek, mikros small and phullon leaf Synonymy Ehretia buxifolia Roxb., Ehretia macrophylla Lamk., Carmona retusa (Vahl), Masam. Cordia retusa Vahl, Ehretia dentata Courchet. Common names Fukien tea, Ceylon boxwood pala (Hindi) kuruvingi (Tamil). Fig. 299. Carmona macrophylla (Lamk.) Don. Fig. 299. Carmona macrophylla (Lamk.) Don. Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 2 m. The stems are terete,...

Chonemorpha fragrans Moon Alston

From Latin, fragrare smell sweet Uses Cerbera odollam Gaertn. has the typical pattern of medicinal uses of poisonous plants laxative, emetic and counter-irritant. In India, the seeds are eaten to induce drowsiness and to kill wild dogs. In Indonesia, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to soothe inflamed parts and rheumatism. In Malaysia, a paste of the fruit is used to treat rheumatism in the legs. In the Philippines, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to treat rheumatism. Synonymy...

Euphorbia hirta L

From Latin, Euphorbus physician to King Juba II and from Latin, hirta hairy Common names Euphorbia pilulifera L., Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millspaugh. Common names Hairy spurge, euphorbia herb, Australian snake weed, cat's hair, asthma plant gelang susu (Malay) amumpatchai (Tamil). Physical description It is an annual herb which grows to a height of 40 cm in vacant plots of land, car parks by the roadsides. The plant produces an irritating milky latex. The stems are hirsute, reddish,...

Begonia species

From Michel Begon, a French administrator of Louis XIV King of France Physical description The leaves of Begonia species are succulent, alternate, distichous, long-petiolate, stipulate, simple and cauline or from rhizomes. The blade is cordate at the base and very asymmetrical. The margin is toothed or lobed. The flowers are monoecious, in clusters of axillary cymes. The male flowers are actinomorphic or not, showy, pink, white or reddish. The perianth comprises of 4 tepals, the pair of outer...

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk

From Greek, ips worm and homoios like and from Latin, aqua water Synonymy Ipomoea reptans (Linn.) Poir. Common names Chinese water spinach, water spinach kankung (Indonesian, Malay), patate aquatique (French) vilucchio d'acqua (Italian) wasserspinat (German) cancon (Portuguese) wengcai, kongxin cai, tong cai, ong choi, yung ts'ai (Chinese) kalmua (Hindi) asagaona (Japanese) tr ku n, raumuong (Vietnamese) bongz, phakbung. (Laotian) trakuo (Cambodian) tangkong (Filipino) vallai kirai, koilanga...

Piper cubeba L f

From Greek, peperi pepper and from Arabic, kababah cubeb Physical description It is a climbing shrub which grows to a length of 1 m in tropical Asia. The plant is native to Indonesia and Malaysia. The stems are glabrous, articulate and succulent. Common names Java pepper, cubebs, or tailed pepper lada berekur (Malay) tieu that (Vietnamese) thippli (Tamil) poivre de Java (French). Leaves simple and alternate. The petiole is 1.5cm-1.7cm long, velvety, and channeled. The blade is broadly...

Adenanthera pavonina L

From Greek, aden acorn and from Latin, pavoninus peacok Common names Red wood tree Circassian seeds tree saga (Malay) bois noir rouge, crete de paon (French) kanduri batang (Malay) alalangat (Filipino), sem (Tamil). Physical description It is a tree native to tropical Asia and Africa. The wood is used in cabinetry and is a source of red dye. Leaves bipinnate, and stipulate and consist of 713 folioles. The folioles are oblong or ovate, 2.5 cm-4.5 cm x 1.5 cm-2.4cm, obtuse and glabrous. The...

Cyperus brevifolius Rottb Hassk

From Greek, kuperos sedge, and from Latin, brevis short and folium leaf Uses Ibn Sina and other Arabian and Persian physicians use this plant to promote urination, menses and to combat fever. Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. is the Kvnepoa of Dioskurides, the Juncuc Triangularis of Pliny and is mentioned in the Iliad (21, 355) and Odyssey (4, 603). In China, Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. is used to expel intestinal worms, counteract poisoning, treat dysentery, regulate menses and to...

Burmannia disticha L

Burmann, 18th century Dutch botanist and from Greek, di two and stikhos line Uses In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, Burmannia disticha L. is used to promote menses.The pharmacological potentials of Burmannia disticha L. and of the genus Burmannia remain unexplored. Physical description It is an erect herb which grows to height of 40 cm-50 cm on the dampy roadsides, banks, ditches, dry areas in heath formation and dampy moist ground of Southeast Asia. The scapes are erect from...

Emilia sonchifolia L DC

Emilia Sonchifolia

From Latin, sonchifolia having leaves like Sonchus Synonymy Cacalia sonchifolia L., Senecio sonchifolius Moench, Emilia javanica (Burm. f.) C. B. Rob. Common names Cupiol's shaving brush hongpei ts'ao (Chinese) petit lastron (French) ketumbit, katumbit jantan, satunbakmerah (Malay) chua le, la matgioi (Vietnamese) fua lele, fua lele lili'i (Samoa). Physical description It is a herb which grows to a height of 30 cm by the roadsides and vacant plots of lands in Southeast Asia and Pacific...

Family Campanulaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Bellflower Family

The family Campanulaceae consists of 70 genera and 2000 species of herbs, known to produce inulin, piperidine alkaloids (Lobelioideae subfamily), poly-acetylenic fatty acids, pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins and tannins. The leaves are simple, alternate or opposite and without stipules. The flowers are showy, actinomorphic, tubular and epigynous. The calyx comprises of 5 lobes which are imbricate or valvate. The corolla is tubular and bell-shaped, 5-lobed, the lobes being valvate. The...

Family Mimosaceae R Brown in Flinders 1814 nom conserv the Mimosa Family

Physical description The family Mimo-saceae consists of 40 genera and about 2000 species of trees and shrubs but rarely herbs, which are often prickly. Mimosaceae are known to abound with tannins, mucilages, gums, and an unusual series of amino acids. The leaves of Mimosaceae are bip-innate and stipulate. The flowers are hermaphrodite, small, spicate, racemose or capitate, and actinomorphic. The calyx is tubular, valvate, and 5-lobed. The petals are small, valvate, free or connate, and...

Apama corymbosa Griff Willd

Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 3 m. The plant is a common sight along the jungle tracks of Malaysia and Sumatra. The stems are glaucous, soft, zig-zag-shaped and articulate. Leaves simple, 15 cm x 6 cm, glabrous, alternate and without stipules. The blade is lanceolate and pubescent and shows 3-5 pairs of secondary nerves. The petiole is 5 mm long. The inflorescences are terminal, pubescent, panicles of small yellowish-green flowers. The perianth comprises of 3...

Ancistrocladus tectorius Lour Merr

From Greek, ancistr fish hook, klados forming a covering Physical description It is a climber found on the seashores of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia. The stems develop from the axil of hooks. Leaves simple, branch and from Latin, tectorius Synonymy Ancistrocladus pinangianus. Common names Akarjulong hitam lindah sapi (Malay). hard, lanceolate and 5cm-10cm x 15cm-30cm. The blade shows 7-10 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are axillary, long and thin...

Family Ericaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Heath Family

Physical description The family Ericaceae consists of 125 genera and 3500 species of shrubs and treelets known to contain iridoid, phenolic glycosides and tannins. Ericaceae are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions and in tropical mountains. Note that the presence of iridoids in Ericaceae suggests that the family should be classified in the Asteridae rather than Dilleni-idae. In this family the leaves are simple, small, firm and without stipules. The flowers are perfect, regular,...

Wahlenbergia marginata Thunb DC

After Georg Goran Wahlenberg, 19th century Swedish professor of botany and from Latin, margo margin Synonymy Wahlenbergia gracilis DC., Campanula gracilis G. Forst. Uses In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) DC. is used to treat pulmonary diseases. In Indonesia, the plant is used to treat skin eruption. Fig. 339. Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) DC. From KLU Herbarium 14125. Field collector & botanical identification Nakaike. 15 June 1969. Geographical localization...

Eleusine indica L Gaertn f

From Greek, Eleusinios Demeter, celebrated at Eleusis in Attica and from Latin, indica from India Physical description It is a tufted annual tropical grass which grows to a height of 60 cm common in sunny disturbed places in lawns and along dirty roads and tracks up to 900 m elevation. The plant is native to the Old World Tropics and is naturalized in the New World. The stems are flattened and glabrous. Leaves straight, flattened, keeled, slightly hairy along margin and at the base. The sheath...

Randia esculenta Lour Merr

After Isaac Rand, 18th century London apothecary and director of the Chelsea Physic Garden and from Latin, esculentus fit for food Physical description It is a treelet of the lowland and the rainforests of the hills of the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, decussate and stipulate. The stipules are interpetiolar, narrowly triangular, cuspidate and 2mm-4mm long. A pair of 1 cm long prickles is present on the leaf axil. The blade is elliptic to ovate, 3cm-12cm x 1 cm-5cm, pointed at the apex and hairy...

Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb

From Greek, dis two, pteron wing, karpos fruit and from Latin, alatus having wings Synonymy Dipterocarpus incanus Roxb., Dipterocarpus gonopterus Turcz. Common names Kanyin (Burmese) yang khao (Thai) chhoeuteal trach (Cambodian) chhoeu teal thom (Laos, Vietnamese). Physical description It is a resinous timber which grows to a height of 45 m and a girth of 4 m. It is found in the lowland tropical rainforest of Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam. The bark is pale grey and the...

Picrasma javanica Bl

From Greek, pikrasmos bitter plant and from Latin, javanica from Java Physical description It is a rainforest tree which grows to a height of 24m and has a girth of 150 cm. The plant is found spanning Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon islands. The bole is fluted, and the bark is dark, smooth, brittle with bitter, with the inner bark, yellowish with brownish sapwood. Leaves compound, stipulate and fragrant. The stipules are leafy. The blade comprises of 5-7 medium-sized and very...

Family Begoniaceae C A Agardh 1825 nom conserv the Begonia Family

Physical description The family Begoniaceae consists principally of the large tropical genus Begonia, which consists of about 1000 species of succulent, sappy herbs and soft-stemmed shrubs. Begoniaceae are known to produce cucurbitacins, and oxalic acid. The leaves in this family are simple, alternate, principally palmately veined and often palmately lobed, and toothed, and have large stipules. The flowers are unisexual and irregular, and arranged in axillary, cymose, occasionally...

Sarcolobus Globulosus

Mustafa MR, etal. (1990) Toxicon 28(10) 1237-1239. Mustafa MR, (1993) Toxicon 31(1) 67-74. Warning Caution must be taken as the toxic effects of this plant are unknown. Tylophora tenuis Bl. From Greek, tulos knob and phero bear and from Latin, tenuis thin Physical description It is a climber of the tidal rivers of India, Malaysia, Borneo and Java. Leaves simple, Uses Sarcolobus globulus Wall. is principally used in Malaysia where the leaves are mixed with the nuts, Aleurite moluccana, to treat...

Bauhinia purpurea L

After Gaspard and Jean Bauhin, 16th century Swiss physicians and botanist and from Greek, porphura shellfish yielding purple Physical description It is a deciduous treelet native to India. The plant is ornamental and grown as such in the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple and stipulate. The blade is shaped like a butterfly, coriaceous, and 7 cm-10 cm and shows 9-11 pairs of secondary nerves. arranged in axillary or terminal racemes. 1.5 cm x 15 cm and woody. Common names Butterfly tree kupu kupu...

Didymocarpus platypus C B Clarke

From Latin, didymocarpus pair of fruits and platypus broad footed Common names Julong rimba semboyen (Malay). Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of roots of Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke is used to treat cough. The medicinal property of Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke remains unexplored. Are the antitussive property owing to glycosides Fig. 318. Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke. Fig. 318. Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke. Physical description It is an understorey herb of the rainforest...

Family Aristolochiaceae A L deJussieu 1789 nom conserv the Birthwort Family

Physical description The family Aristolochiaceae consists of about 5 genera and 300 species of foetid climbers and herbs thought to have originated directly from the order Magnoliales from which is inherited the ability to produce toxic isoquinolines and their derivatives nitrophenanthrene alkaloids, and essential oils (Appendix I). Aristolochiaceae are usually bitter. The stems of woody species are articulate and show broad Menispermaceae-like medullary rays in cross-section. The leaves are...

Family Clusiaceae Lindley 1826 nom conserv the Mangosteen Family

Physical description The family Clusiaceae, or Guttiferae, consists of 50 genera and 1200 species of tropical plants which are thought to have originated from the family Theaceae. These are trees, climbers or herbs, exuding a sticky yellow gum resin and often contain proanthocyanidins, tannins, and various sorts of phenolic substances including xanthones. The leaves are simple, without stipules, decussate or whorled, principally entire, and often showing long, thin and parallel secondary...

Crateva magna Lour DC

After kratevas, a Greek root gatherer of antiquity and from Latin, magnus great Physical description It is a small and handsome riverside tree found in India, South China, Burma, and Malaysia. The bark is smooth the inner bark mottled with yellow and white. The wood is white and hard. Leaves deciduous with 3 folioles. The folioles are large elliptic, entire, glabrous, slightly bluish beneath, reticulately veined and 8cm-17cm x 4cm-8cm. The petiolules are 3mm-6mm long and the petiole...

Caesalpinia bonduc L Roxb

After A Caesalpini, 1519-1603, an Italian physician and a botanist and from Persian, finduk Synonymy Caesalpinia crista L., Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem. Common names Nicker tree gorek (Malay) yeux de bourique (French) putikaranja (Sanskrit) akitmakit (Arabic). Physical description It is a scandent, prickly, woody and tropical climber which grows to a length of 10 m. The stems are lenticelled. Leaves bipin-nate and 1 m long. The rachis is prickly and shows several pairs of folioles which...

Terminalia chebula Retz

Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 30 m. It is found in India, Vietnam, Burma and Thailand. The bark is dark brown, 6 mm thick and the wood is very thick. The leaf-buds, twigs and young leaves are rusty hairy. Leaves the petiole is 2cm-5cm long, pubescent Common names Myrobalan, chebulic myrobalan pangah (Burmese) he lip (Chinese) srama (Cambodian) mirabolanos (Portuguese) abhaya, jaya (Sanskrit) amagola (Tamil) hara, hirala (Indian) chieu lieu, kha li lac...

Family Euphorbiaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Spurge Family

Physical description The family Euphorbiaceae consists of 300 genera and about 7500 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers and even cactus-shaped plants, often exuding a milky poisonous latex, and known to produce hydrolysable tannins, aporphine, pyridine, indole, and tropane types alkaloids, lignans, phloroglucinol derivatives, various sorts of terpenes, ellagitannins, proanthocyanins and, cyanogen glycosides, anthraquinones and fatty acid epoxides. The leaves of Euphorbiaceae are simple or...

Aleurites moluccana L Willd

From Greek, Aleurites wheaten flour and from Latin, moluccana from the Moluccas Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 18 m and a girth of 50 cm. It grows in the geographic area spanning Malaysia and the Pacific Islands. When cut, the bark exudes a clear watery sap. The stems, petioles, and blades are covered with a whitish starry tomentum. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is 11.5cm-15cm and thin. The blade is lanceolate, rigid, 3-5-lobed, 7.8 cm x...

Codiaeum variegatum L Bl

From the Malaysian name for codebo and from Latin, varius various Uses In Indonesia, Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl. is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the plant is used to heal syphilitic sores. In Papua New Guinea and the Solomons Islands, the plant is used to facilitate abortion and to heal infected sores. The plant was first studied by Dutch naturalist Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1628-1702). Fig. 201. Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl. Fig. 201. Codiaeum variegatum (L.)...

Euphorbia antiquorum L

From Latin, Euphorbus physician to Juba II and from Latin, antiquorum antique Common names Pyathal (Burmese) chanlat (Cambodia) simhunda (Sanskrit), shadurak (Tamil). Uses In Burma, the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum L. is used to remove warts and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In China, the plant is used to resolve inflammation and treat cholera. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the latex is used to induce vomiting, promote urination and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia,...

Mallotus philippensis Lamk Muell

Common name Kamala tree balek (Malay). Physical description It is a small, bushy tree which grows to a height of 9 m, in a geographical zone spanning the West Himalayas, Ceylon, Formosa, Southern China, New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Australia. The plant is found in forest fringes and open places or limestone. The stems, young leaves and inflorescences are covered with scarlet glands. Leaves simple, spiral, and stipulate. The petiole is 5 cm long and slender. The blade is ovate, trinerved, and...

Swertia chirayita Roxb Lyons

After Emanual Sweert, 16th century Dutch botanist and from Sanskrit, chiratika Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons Physical description It is a herb native to India which grows to a height of 80 cm. The stems are somewhat quadrangular or obscurely winged and glabrous, and the internodes are 2.4cm-2.5cm long. Leaves bitter, simple, decussate, sessile and without stipules. The blade is linear, lanceolate, membranaceous, glabrous, Synonymy Swertia chirata Buch. - Ham., Agathotes cherayta D.Don,...

Allamanda cathartica L

Allamand who sent seeds of the plant to Linnaeus and from Greek, kathartikos purgative Physical description It is a common garden and street ornamental climbing shrub of the Asia-Pacific which is native to South America. It grows to a height of 4 m. The stems are terete, smooth and exude an abundant milky latex when incised. Leaves simple, verticillate by 3-5, sessile, without stipules, glabrous beneath, leathery, and glossy. The blade is 8 cm-15 cm x 4 cm-5 cm, Common names Yellow...

Thevetia peruviana Pers K Schum

After Andre Thevet, a 16th century French monk and plant collector and from Latin, peruviana from Peru Synonymy Thevetia neriifolia Juss., Thevetia peruviana K. Schum. Common names Bastard oleander, exile oleander, yellow oleander guinnyeh (Malay) noix de serpent (French) hpayoungban, molamiyapan (Burmese). Fig.277. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Fig.277. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Physical description It is a tree which grows to height of 6 m.The plant is native to South...

Order Magnoliales Bromhead 1838

The order Magnoliales is the most primitive order of the subclass Magnoliidae (Appendix I). This order consists of 10 families and about 3000 species of trees or shrubs, the therapeutic potential of which is still waiting to be discovered. Magnoliales are living fossils rich in isoquinolines and indoles alkaloids, lig-nans, essential oils, diterpenes, triterpenes, tannins, and phenylpropanoids. Of particular interest in this order are alkaloids which might hold potentials for the treatment of...

Ananas comosus L Merr

Physical description It is a stout, herbaceous plant native to tropical America. The stems are erect and 50cm-1.5m long. Leaves numerous, 1 m-1.5m x 5cm-7cm, finely toothed and acuminate. The flowers are perfect and arranged in the axil of the bracts. The calyx consists of 3 short sepals. The corolla comprises of 3 petals that are purple, free with a pair of scales at the base. The andrecium consists of 6 stamens. The ovary is inferior and the style is filiform. The fruits are conical,...

Family Iridaceae A L de Jussieu nom conserv the Iris Family

Physical description The family Iridaceae consists of 80 genera and approximately 1500 species of toxic, rhizomatous, or bulbous perennial and cosmopolitan herbs most abundant in Africa. It is also known to produce saponins, mangiferin, quinones (naphthoquinones and anthraquinones), terpenoids (mono-, sesqui-, di- and tetra-terpenoids) and flavonoids (anthocyani-dins, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones). The leaves are lanceolate, often crowded at the base of the stem, while sheathing at the...

Leucaena leucocephala Lamk de

From Greek, leukos white and kephale head Physical description It is a small tree native to tropical America. Leaves bip-innate, stipulate and consists of 4-8 pinnae, and 10-20 pairs of folioles. The folioles are oblong to lanceolate, 7 mm-12 mm long, and glaucous below. A petiolar gland is usually present on the first pinnae of the petiole. The flowers are white and organized in dense, globose, solitary, and long pediceled axillary heads which are Synonymy Leucaena glauca sensu Bth., Mimosa...

Euonymus alatus Thunb Sieb

From Greek, eu good and onoma name and from Latin, alatus wing Physical description It is a shrub found in China, Korea and Japan which is often cultivated as an ornamental plant. The bark is greyish, and the stems are characteristically winged. Leaves simple, opposite and without stipules. The petiole is very small, glabrous and channeled. The blade is 3.5 cm x 1.3 cm, thin, orbiculate, reddish, and shortly acuminate at the apex. The margin is serrulate. The midrib Synonymy Euonymus...

Ilexpubescens Hook

From Latin, ilex Quercus ilex and from Physical description It is a small and evergreen rainforest shrub found in China and Taiwan. Leaves 4 cm-5.5 cm x 1.5cm-2cm and simple. The blade is oblong or lanceolate, and the apex of the blade acute. The margin is subentire or remotely serrate. The secondary nerves are indistinct. The flowers are arranged in axillary cymes. The fruits are globose, 4mm-5mm berries containing 4-5 pyrenes. Uses In China and Taiwan, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to...

Rhinacanthus nasutus L Kurz

From Greek, akantha thorn and rhinos nose and from Latin, nasutus large-nosed Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 1 m. It is grown as an ornamental plant throughout Asia-pacific. The stems are smooth, articulate and glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite and without stipules. The petiole is 5 mm-1 cm long. The blade is oblong-lanceolate and 3 cm-12 cm x 1 cm-5 cm. The corolla tube is white and tubular. The lower lip is showily 3-lobed. The upper one is very much smaller....

Cassia tora L

Senna Leaf

From Hebrew, q'tsi'ah cut off bark and from Latin, torus swelling Physical description It is a common tropical herb which grows to a height of 1 m. Leaves foetid, stipulate and consisting of 6 pairs of folioles. The stipules are linear and caducous. The folioles are obovate, apiculate, and 2cm-5cm long. A gland is present between the folioles of the first and second pairs. The flowers are arranged in axillary bracteated racemes. The calyx comprises of 5 sepals which are ovate, acute and 8 mm...

Cnestis palala Lour Merr

From Greek, knestis with irritant hairs Synonymy Thysanuspalala Lour., Cnestis ramiflora Griffith. Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of the roots of Cnestis palala (Lour.) Merr. is drunk to treat malaria, assuage stomachache, normalize urination, aid recovery from childbirth and to resolve sprains. Physical description It is a woody streamside climber found in the rainforests of Hainan, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. The wood is reddish and the bark is brown and fissured...

Family Aizoaceae Rudolphi 1830 nom conserv the Fig marigold Family

Physical description The family Aizoaceae consists of about 2500 species and about 12 genera of succulent herbs, sometimes cactus-like, or less often shrubs or subshrubs known to abound with triterpenoid saponins and oxalic acid. The leaves are opposite, alternate, and without stipules. The inflorescences are solitary or cymose. The flowers are perfect, and comprise of 3-8 sepals, and numerous petals in 1-6 whorls. The andrecium consists of 1-many stamens originating in a centrifugal sequence....

Order Papaverales Cronquist 1981

The order Papaverales consists of 2 families of herbaceous plants, the Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae. This order is thought to have originated from the order Ranunculales, from which it inherits the ability to elaborate several sorts of isoquinoline alkaloids (Appendix I). An interesting feature of this order is the production of isoquinoline alkaloids of therapeutic value. Morphine from Papaveraceae is an instance of such an alkaloid. Synonymy Pericampylus formosanus auct. non Diels, Cocculus...

Family Elaeocarpaceae A P de Candolle 1824 nom conserv the Elaeocarpus Family

Physical description The family Elaeocarpaceae is the most primitive family of the Malvales. It consists of 10 genera and 400 species of tropical trees, often containing indolizidine alkaloids derived from ornithine and oxygenated steroids known as cucurbitacins. In this family, the leaves are simple, often dark green and glossy on the surface alternate, simple, occasion-allysiphonostelic, minutelytoothed, and stipulate. The petiole is long and often bends near the base of the blade. The...

Bulbostylis barbata Rottb Kunth

From Greek, bolbos bulb, stylis small pillar, and from Latin, barba beard Synonymy Bulbostylis fimbriata (Nees) C.B.Clarke, Fimbristylis barbata (Rottb.) Benth., Isolepis fimbriata (Nees) Steud. Uses In the Philippines, a decoction of Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Kunth. is drunk to treat dysentery. The pharmacological potential of Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Kunth. remains unexplored. Physical description It is an erect or prostrate, beard-looking herb which grows annually to a height of 30...

Family Solanaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom Conserv the Potato Family

Physical description The family Solanaceae consists of about 85 genera and 2800 species of prickly herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees, well represented in South America. Solanaceae are known to elaborate tropane alkaloids derived from ornithine, pyridine and steroidal alkaloids. The leaves of Solanaceae are alternate, simple, often soft, dull green and without stipules. The flowers are hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. The calyx is 4-6-lobed and persistent in fruit. The corolla is tubular,...

Graptophyllum pictum L Griffith

Common names Caricature plant benalu (Malay) daun ungu (Indonesian) baitawng (Thai) morado (Filipino). From Greek, graptos painted and phullon leaf and from Latin, pictum variegated Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 1.5 m. The plant is native to Papua New Guinea and is grown to be ornamental. Leaves simple, opposite, and without stipules. The blade is 8 cm-20 cm x 3 cm-13 cm, oblong-lanceolate, cuneate at the base, variegated with white and undulate. The flowers are...

Ageratum conyzoides L

From Latin, ageratum a plant that does not wither readily and conyzoides resembling to conyza Common names White weed, appa grass, conyzoid floss-flower, bastard agrimony, common cocklebur tahi ayam, tombok jantan, sianggit, ara batu (Malay) babadotan (Indonesian) herbe a madame (French) caycutlon, bu xich, cohoi (Vietnamese). Physical description It is a common tropical invasive herb which grows 90 cm annually. The stems are terete and hairy. Leaves simple, exstipulate, opposite below, and...

Imperata cylindrica L P Beauv

From Latin, imperata imperial and from Greek, kulindros cylinder Synonymy Imperata arundinacea Cyr., Saccharum spicatum sensu Lour., Sac-charum cylindricum Lamk. Common names Red baron, Japanese blood grass, satin grass, dog's tail grass lalang, along-along (Malay). Uses The rhizome is used to combat fever, treat influenza, remove the presence of blood in the urine, internal haemorrhage, haemoptysis, to treat oedema, jaundice, to alleviate cough and to assuage kidneys discomfort. In Malaysia,...

Phyllanthus emblica L

From Greek, phullon leaf and anthos flower and from Bengalese amlaki Phyllanthus emblica L. Synonymy Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Emblicapectinata Ridl. Common names Emblic myrobalan emblic officinal (French) amlaj (Arabic) amala (Persian) pokok melaka (Malay) alma khushk (Indian). Physical description It is a medium-sized lowland rainforest tree which grows in a geographical zone ranging from India to South China. The bark is greyish-red. The inner bark is sappy and pink, and the heart wood...

Schefflera elliptica Bl Harms

After Jacob Chricheck h Scheffler, 18th century German botanist and from Greek, elleipsis regular oval Synonymy Schefflera venulosa sensu Ridley, Schefflera micrantha (Miq.) Ridley, Schefflera minimiflora Ridley. Uses In Indonesia, the wood of Schefflera elliptica (Bl.) Harms is used to assuage toothache. The pharmacological potential of Schefflera elliptica (Bl.) Harms remains unexplored. Note that the analgesic property of this plant is very probably due to the presence of saponins. Fig....

Peperomia pellucida L HBK

From Greek, peperi pepper and homoios resembling and from Latin, pellucidus transparent Common names Shiny bush pansit pansitan (Filipino). Uses In Indonesia, Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. is used to assuage headaches and to treat colic. In the Philippines, Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. is used to heal abscesses and boils. Physical description It is a dwarfy herb which grows to a height of 20 cm. The plant is native to South Amer- Fig. 26. Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. Fig. 26. Peperomia...