Pharmaceutical interest

Antiplasmodial properties A series of quassinoids, characterized from Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., inhibit the proliferation of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (Kl), cultured in vitro with IC50 values between 0.046 g mL-0.0008 g mL. Such a series also protect mice experimentally infected with Plasmodium berghei. However, all quassinoids tested in vivo are toxic (O'Neill MJ etal., 1987). Uses The dried fruits of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. or Macassar kernels have been used to...

Family Ixonanthaceae Exell Mendoca 1951 nom conserv the Ixonanthes Family

Physical description The family Ixonanthaceae consists of 5 genera and about 30 species of tropical trees or shrub known to produce saponins. The leaves are alternate, spiral, simple, entire or merely lobed, and the stipules small or wanting. The flowers are perfect, hypogynous, regular and 5-merous. The sepals are imbricate, and the petals, imbricate or convolute. The andrecium comprises of 5-20 stamens inserted around a well-developed nectary disc. The anthers are tetrasporangiate, dithecal...

Gymnosporia spinosa Blco Merr Rolfe

From Greek, gumnos naked, spora spore and from Latin, spina thorn Synonymy Catha spinosa Forsk., Gymnosporia montana (Roth.) Benth. Celastrus senegalensis Lam.). Common names Bahuphala (Sanskrit) valuluvai (Tamil). Gymnosporia spinosa (Blco.) Merr. & Gymnosporia spinosa (Blco.) Merr. & Physical description It is a shrub found in Southeast Asia. The stems when young are prickly. Leaves drying yellowish, thick, and 3cm-5cm x 2cm-3.8cm. The petiole is 3 mm-10 cm long. The blade is elliptic...

Acronychia laurifolia Bl

From Greek, akros apical and onux claw and from Latin, laurus laurel and folium leaf Synonymy Acronychia pedunculata Miq., Gela lanceolata Lour. Common names Claw flowered laurel, laka wood bai bai (Vietnamese) chiang chen hsiang (Chinese) gambadak, mentua (Malay) muttainari (Tamil). Physical description It is a tree of the lowland rainforest of Southeast Asia. Leaves opposite, simple and entire. The blade is elliptic to oblong-elliptic, obscurely dotted with oil cells, leathery, and...

Dillenia excelsa Jack Gilg

After J J Dillenius (1684-1747), a German botanist and from Latin, celsus lofty shows about 15 pairs of secondary nerves which are prominently raised above and below. The tertiary nerves are raised below the blade. The inflorescences are terminal cymes of fragrant flowers which are globose in buds, 1.5 cm in diameter and velvety. The calyx comprises of 5 ovate, 1 cm-2 cm x 9 mm-1 cm sepals which are velvety on the outside. The corolla consists of 5 petals which are very thin, nerved, yellow,...

Camellia sinensis L O Ktze

After Kamel, 17th century Jesuit and botanist and from Latin, sinensis from China Synonymy Thea sinensis L., Thea cochinchinensis Lour., Thea chinensis Sims Common names Tea the (French) letpet (Burmese) ming (Chinese) caolo (Vietnamese) cha (Portuguese) teylai (Tamil). Physical description It is a shrub native to Asia and has been cultivated for ages in China and Japan. The bark is dark grey and the stems glabrous and terete. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is 4 mm-7...

Citrullus lanatus Thunb Matsum

From Latin, citrullus diminutive of citrus, and lana wool Synonymy Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Common names Watermelon paye (Burma) hsi kua (Chinese) pasteque (French) au lek (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam) melao da India (Portuguese) chitra (Sanskrit) melon de agua (Spanish) cocomero (Italian). Physical description It is an annual, woolly climber native to Africa which is cultivated in several warm countries for its edible fruits. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is pilose,...

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk

From Greek, artos bread, karpos fruit and heteros different and phullon leaves Physical description It is a tropical fruit tree probably native to India. The bark is dark grey and exudes an abundant milky latex when incised. Common names Jack-fruit nangka (Malay) jaca (Portuguese) chakka (Malayalam). The stems are articulate. Leaves simple, spiral, and stipulate. The petiole is 1.25cm-4cm long. The blade is elliptic to obovate, leathery, glossy, deep green on the surface, and 5cm-23cm x 2cm-11...

Subclass Caryophyllidae Takhtajan 1966

The Caryophyllidae consists of 3 orders, 14 families and about 11 000 species of herbaceous plants. It developed some 70 million years ago from the subclass Magnoliidae, through the order Ranunculales and is considered quite a recent development, compared with the Magnoliidae, Hamamelidae, Dilleniidae and Rosidae (Appendix I). The gynecium of Caryophyllidae comprises of a finite number of carpels united to form an inferior ovary, where ovules are attached to free central or basal placentas. In...

Cymbopogon citratus DC Stapf

From Greek, kymbe boat and pogon beard and from Latin, citrus citron Physical description It is a fragrant, aromatic herb which grows to a height of 1.6 m. Leaves the blade is lanceolate, linear and 15 cm-60 cm x 1 cm-2 cm. The plant has been cultivated for the production of Lemon Grass Oil in India, Ceylon, and Malaysia (Fig. 406). Synonymy Andropogon citratus DC., Andropogon nardus L. var. ceriferus Hack., Andropogon schoenanthus sensu Lour. Common names Lemon grass, ginger grass, citronella...

Dendrophthoe pentandra L

From Greek, pente five and andro Uses In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the leaves of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. are used to make a tea-like drink used to treat cough. In Malaysia, Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is used as a remedy to and recovery from childbirth, and to heal sores, wounds and ulcers. The pharmacological potential of this plant is yet to be discovered. Fig. 181. Macrosolen cochichinensis (Lour.) van Tieghem. From KLU 355111. Flora of Singapore. Comm. Ex. Herb. Hort. Bot....

Styrax benzoin Dryand

From Greek, styrax Styrax officinalis and from Arabic, luban jawi frankinscence of Java Common name Styrax tree, benzoin tree kemenyan (Malay). Physical description It is a buttressed timber which grows to a height of 30 m in lowland rainforests up to 800 m in Malaysia and Indonesia. The bark is smooth, or finely cracked. The inner bark is soft and reddish and Uses Benzoin or the resin obtained by bruising then tapping the bark of Styraxbenzoin Dryand. has long been used in Asian medicine. It...

Family Dioscoreaceae R Brown 1810 nom conserv the Yam family

Physical description The family Dioscoreaceae consists of approximately 6 genera and 650 species of tropical climbers growing from rhizomes or tubers. It is known to produce raphides of calcium oxalate, steroidal saponins, some alkaloids, chelidonic acid and tannins. The family is dominated by the large genus Dioscorea consisting of 600 species of plants. The leaves are simple and alternate. The blade is often cordate and the petiole is twisted, long and thin. The inflorescences are racemes or...

Family Lecythidaceae Poiteau 1825 nom conserv the Brazilnut Family

Physical description The family Lecy-thidaceae consists of 20 genera and 400 species of soft-wooded tropical trees known to abound with tannins and saponins. In this family, the leaves are simple, alternate, commonly crowded at the tips of the stems, toothed, glossy, tapered at the base and without stipules. The flowers are ephemeral, epig-ynous, perfect, showy, and regular. The calyx consists of 2-12 valvate sepals. The corolla consists of 4-6 petals which are free, imbricate and thin. Note...

Carmona microphylla Lamk

Carmona a Spanish botanical artist of the 18th century and from Greek, mikros small and phullon leaf Synonymy Ehretia buxifolia Roxb., Ehretia macrophylla Lamk., Carmona retusa (Vahl), Masam. Cordia retusa Vahl, Ehretia dentata Courchet. Common names Fukien tea, Ceylon boxwood pala (Hindi) kuruvingi (Tamil). Fig. 299. Carmona macrophylla (Lamk.) Don. Fig. 299. Carmona macrophylla (Lamk.) Don. Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 2 m. The stems are terete,...

Chonemorpha fragrans Moon Alston

From Latin, fragrare smell sweet Uses Cerbera odollam Gaertn. has the typical pattern of medicinal uses of poisonous plants laxative, emetic and counter-irritant. In India, the seeds are eaten to induce drowsiness and to kill wild dogs. In Indonesia, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to soothe inflamed parts and rheumatism. In Malaysia, a paste of the fruit is used to treat rheumatism in the legs. In the Philippines, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to treat rheumatism. Synonymy...

Euphorbia hirta L

From Latin, Euphorbus physician to King Juba II and from Latin, hirta hairy Common names Euphorbia pilulifera L., Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millspaugh. Common names Hairy spurge, euphorbia herb, Australian snake weed, cat's hair, asthma plant gelang susu (Malay) amumpatchai (Tamil). Physical description It is an annual herb which grows to a height of 40 cm in vacant plots of land, car parks by the roadsides. The plant produces an irritating milky latex. The stems are hirsute, reddish,...

Begonia species

From Michel Begon, a French administrator of Louis XIV King of France Physical description The leaves of Begonia species are succulent, alternate, distichous, long-petiolate, stipulate, simple and cauline or from rhizomes. The blade is cordate at the base and very asymmetrical. The margin is toothed or lobed. The flowers are monoecious, in clusters of axillary cymes. The male flowers are actinomorphic or not, showy, pink, white or reddish. The perianth comprises of 4 tepals, the pair of outer...

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk

From Greek, ips worm and homoios like and from Latin, aqua water Synonymy Ipomoea reptans (Linn.) Poir. Common names Chinese water spinach, water spinach kankung (Indonesian, Malay), patate aquatique (French) vilucchio d'acqua (Italian) wasserspinat (German) cancon (Portuguese) wengcai, kongxin cai, tong cai, ong choi, yung ts'ai (Chinese) kalmua (Hindi) asagaona (Japanese) tr ku n, raumuong (Vietnamese) bongz, phakbung. (Laotian) trakuo (Cambodian) tangkong (Filipino) vallai kirai, koilanga...

Piper cubeba L f

From Greek, peperi pepper and from Arabic, kababah cubeb Physical description It is a climbing shrub which grows to a length of 1 m in tropical Asia. The plant is native to Indonesia and Malaysia. The stems are glabrous, articulate and succulent. Common names Java pepper, cubebs, or tailed pepper lada berekur (Malay) tieu that (Vietnamese) thippli (Tamil) poivre de Java (French). Leaves simple and alternate. The petiole is 1.5cm-1.7cm long, velvety, and channeled. The blade is broadly...

Adenanthera pavonina L

From Greek, aden acorn and from Latin, pavoninus peacok Common names Red wood tree Circassian seeds tree saga (Malay) bois noir rouge, crete de paon (French) kanduri batang (Malay) alalangat (Filipino), sem (Tamil). Physical description It is a tree native to tropical Asia and Africa. The wood is used in cabinetry and is a source of red dye. Leaves bipinnate, and stipulate and consist of 713 folioles. The folioles are oblong or ovate, 2.5 cm-4.5 cm x 1.5 cm-2.4cm, obtuse and glabrous. The...

Cyperus brevifolius Rottb Hassk

From Greek, kuperos sedge, and from Latin, brevis short and folium leaf Uses Ibn Sina and other Arabian and Persian physicians use this plant to promote urination, menses and to combat fever. Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. is the Kvnepoa of Dioskurides, the Juncuc Triangularis of Pliny and is mentioned in the Iliad (21, 355) and Odyssey (4, 603). In China, Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. is used to expel intestinal worms, counteract poisoning, treat dysentery, regulate menses and to...

Burmannia disticha L

Burmann, 18th century Dutch botanist and from Greek, di two and stikhos line Uses In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, Burmannia disticha L. is used to promote menses.The pharmacological potentials of Burmannia disticha L. and of the genus Burmannia remain unexplored. Physical description It is an erect herb which grows to height of 40 cm-50 cm on the dampy roadsides, banks, ditches, dry areas in heath formation and dampy moist ground of Southeast Asia. The scapes are erect from...

Emilia sonchifolia L DC

Emilia Sonchifolia

From Latin, sonchifolia having leaves like Sonchus Synonymy Cacalia sonchifolia L., Senecio sonchifolius Moench, Emilia javanica (Burm. f.) C. B. Rob. Common names Cupiol's shaving brush hongpei ts'ao (Chinese) petit lastron (French) ketumbit, katumbit jantan, satunbakmerah (Malay) chua le, la matgioi (Vietnamese) fua lele, fua lele lili'i (Samoa). Physical description It is a herb which grows to a height of 30 cm by the roadsides and vacant plots of lands in Southeast Asia and Pacific...

Family Campanulaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Bellflower Family

The family Campanulaceae consists of 70 genera and 2000 species of herbs, known to produce inulin, piperidine alkaloids (Lobelioideae subfamily), poly-acetylenic fatty acids, pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins and tannins. The leaves are simple, alternate or opposite and without stipules. The flowers are showy, actinomorphic, tubular and epigynous. The calyx comprises of 5 lobes which are imbricate or valvate. The corolla is tubular and bell-shaped, 5-lobed, the lobes being valvate. The...

Family Mimosaceae R Brown in Flinders 1814 nom conserv the Mimosa Family

Physical description The family Mimo-saceae consists of 40 genera and about 2000 species of trees and shrubs but rarely herbs, which are often prickly. Mimosaceae are known to abound with tannins, mucilages, gums, and an unusual series of amino acids. The leaves of Mimosaceae are bip-innate and stipulate. The flowers are hermaphrodite, small, spicate, racemose or capitate, and actinomorphic. The calyx is tubular, valvate, and 5-lobed. The petals are small, valvate, free or connate, and...

Apama corymbosa Griff Willd

Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 3 m. The plant is a common sight along the jungle tracks of Malaysia and Sumatra. The stems are glaucous, soft, zig-zag-shaped and articulate. Leaves simple, 15 cm x 6 cm, glabrous, alternate and without stipules. The blade is lanceolate and pubescent and shows 3-5 pairs of secondary nerves. The petiole is 5 mm long. The inflorescences are terminal, pubescent, panicles of small yellowish-green flowers. The perianth comprises of 3...

Ancistrocladus tectorius Lour Merr

From Greek, ancistr fish hook, klados forming a covering Physical description It is a climber found on the seashores of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia. The stems develop from the axil of hooks. Leaves simple, branch and from Latin, tectorius Synonymy Ancistrocladus pinangianus. Common names Akarjulong hitam lindah sapi (Malay). hard, lanceolate and 5cm-10cm x 15cm-30cm. The blade shows 7-10 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are axillary, long and thin...

Family Ericaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Heath Family

Physical description The family Ericaceae consists of 125 genera and 3500 species of shrubs and treelets known to contain iridoid, phenolic glycosides and tannins. Ericaceae are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions and in tropical mountains. Note that the presence of iridoids in Ericaceae suggests that the family should be classified in the Asteridae rather than Dilleni-idae. In this family the leaves are simple, small, firm and without stipules. The flowers are perfect, regular,...

Wahlenbergia marginata Thunb DC

After Georg Goran Wahlenberg, 19th century Swedish professor of botany and from Latin, margo margin Synonymy Wahlenbergia gracilis DC., Campanula gracilis G. Forst. Uses In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) DC. is used to treat pulmonary diseases. In Indonesia, the plant is used to treat skin eruption. Fig. 339. Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) DC. From KLU Herbarium 14125. Field collector & botanical identification Nakaike. 15 June 1969. Geographical localization...

Eleusine indica L Gaertn f

From Greek, Eleusinios Demeter, celebrated at Eleusis in Attica and from Latin, indica from India Physical description It is a tufted annual tropical grass which grows to a height of 60 cm common in sunny disturbed places in lawns and along dirty roads and tracks up to 900 m elevation. The plant is native to the Old World Tropics and is naturalized in the New World. The stems are flattened and glabrous. Leaves straight, flattened, keeled, slightly hairy along margin and at the base. The sheath...

Randia esculenta Lour Merr

After Isaac Rand, 18th century London apothecary and director of the Chelsea Physic Garden and from Latin, esculentus fit for food Physical description It is a treelet of the lowland and the rainforests of the hills of the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, decussate and stipulate. The stipules are interpetiolar, narrowly triangular, cuspidate and 2mm-4mm long. A pair of 1 cm long prickles is present on the leaf axil. The blade is elliptic to ovate, 3cm-12cm x 1 cm-5cm, pointed at the apex and hairy...

Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb

From Greek, dis two, pteron wing, karpos fruit and from Latin, alatus having wings Synonymy Dipterocarpus incanus Roxb., Dipterocarpus gonopterus Turcz. Common names Kanyin (Burmese) yang khao (Thai) chhoeuteal trach (Cambodian) chhoeu teal thom (Laos, Vietnamese). Physical description It is a resinous timber which grows to a height of 45 m and a girth of 4 m. It is found in the lowland tropical rainforest of Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam. The bark is pale grey and the...

Picrasma javanica Bl

From Greek, pikrasmos bitter plant and from Latin, javanica from Java Physical description It is a rainforest tree which grows to a height of 24m and has a girth of 150 cm. The plant is found spanning Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon islands. The bole is fluted, and the bark is dark, smooth, brittle with bitter, with the inner bark, yellowish with brownish sapwood. Leaves compound, stipulate and fragrant. The stipules are leafy. The blade comprises of 5-7 medium-sized and very...

Family Begoniaceae C A Agardh 1825 nom conserv the Begonia Family

Physical description The family Begoniaceae consists principally of the large tropical genus Begonia, which consists of about 1000 species of succulent, sappy herbs and soft-stemmed shrubs. Begoniaceae are known to produce cucurbitacins, and oxalic acid. The leaves in this family are simple, alternate, principally palmately veined and often palmately lobed, and toothed, and have large stipules. The flowers are unisexual and irregular, and arranged in axillary, cymose, occasionally...

References

Mustafa MR, etal. (1990) Toxicon 28(10) 1237-1239. Mustafa MR, (1993) Toxicon 31(1) 67-74. Warning Caution must be taken as the toxic effects of this plant are unknown. Tylophora tenuis Bl. From Greek, tulos knob and phero bear and from Latin, tenuis thin Physical description It is a climber of the tidal rivers of India, Malaysia, Borneo and Java. Leaves simple, Uses Sarcolobus globulus Wall. is principally used in Malaysia where the leaves are mixed with the nuts, Aleurite moluccana, to treat...

Bauhinia purpurea L

After Gaspard and Jean Bauhin, 16th century Swiss physicians and botanist and from Greek, porphura shellfish yielding purple Physical description It is a deciduous treelet native to India. The plant is ornamental and grown as such in the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple and stipulate. The blade is shaped like a butterfly, coriaceous, and 7 cm-10 cm and shows 9-11 pairs of secondary nerves. arranged in axillary or terminal racemes. 1.5 cm x 15 cm and woody. Common names Butterfly tree kupu kupu...

Didymocarpus platypus C B Clarke

From Latin, didymocarpus pair of fruits and platypus broad footed Common names Julong rimba semboyen (Malay). Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of roots of Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke is used to treat cough. The medicinal property of Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke remains unexplored. Are the antitussive property owing to glycosides Fig. 318. Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke. Fig. 318. Didymocarpus platypus C. B. Clarke. Physical description It is an understorey herb of the rainforest...

Family Aristolochiaceae A L deJussieu 1789 nom conserv the Birthwort Family

Physical description The family Aristolochiaceae consists of about 5 genera and 300 species of foetid climbers and herbs thought to have originated directly from the order Magnoliales from which is inherited the ability to produce toxic isoquinolines and their derivatives nitrophenanthrene alkaloids, and essential oils (Appendix I). Aristolochiaceae are usually bitter. The stems of woody species are articulate and show broad Menispermaceae-like medullary rays in cross-section. The leaves are...

Family Clusiaceae Lindley 1826 nom conserv the Mangosteen Family

Physical description The family Clusiaceae, or Guttiferae, consists of 50 genera and 1200 species of tropical plants which are thought to have originated from the family Theaceae. These are trees, climbers or herbs, exuding a sticky yellow gum resin and often contain proanthocyanidins, tannins, and various sorts of phenolic substances including xanthones. The leaves are simple, without stipules, decussate or whorled, principally entire, and often showing long, thin and parallel secondary...

Pharmaceutical potential

Antidiabetes properties In regard to the antidiabetes properties of Momordica charantia L., a number of experiments conducted in vivo tend to demonstrate that intake of the fruits improves glucose tolerance. An extract of the fruit given for ten weeks lowers glycaemia in streptozocin-induced type I diabetic rats (Ahmed I et al., 2001). The juice expressed from the fruit improves significantly the glucose tolerance of diabetic patients (Welihinda J etal., 1986). The precise mechanism of action...

Crateva magna Lour DC

After kratevas, a Greek root gatherer of antiquity and from Latin, magnus great Physical description It is a small and handsome riverside tree found in India, South China, Burma, and Malaysia. The bark is smooth the inner bark mottled with yellow and white. The wood is white and hard. Leaves deciduous with 3 folioles. The folioles are large elliptic, entire, glabrous, slightly bluish beneath, reticulately veined and 8cm-17cm x 4cm-8cm. The petiolules are 3mm-6mm long and the petiole...

Caesalpinia bonduc L Roxb

After A Caesalpini, 1519-1603, an Italian physician and a botanist and from Persian, finduk Synonymy Caesalpinia crista L., Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem. Common names Nicker tree gorek (Malay) yeux de bourique (French) putikaranja (Sanskrit) akitmakit (Arabic). Physical description It is a scandent, prickly, woody and tropical climber which grows to a length of 10 m. The stems are lenticelled. Leaves bipin-nate and 1 m long. The rachis is prickly and shows several pairs of folioles which...

Terminalia chebula Retz

Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 30 m. It is found in India, Vietnam, Burma and Thailand. The bark is dark brown, 6 mm thick and the wood is very thick. The leaf-buds, twigs and young leaves are rusty hairy. Leaves the petiole is 2cm-5cm long, pubescent Common names Myrobalan, chebulic myrobalan pangah (Burmese) he lip (Chinese) srama (Cambodian) mirabolanos (Portuguese) abhaya, jaya (Sanskrit) amagola (Tamil) hara, hirala (Indian) chieu lieu, kha li lac...

Family Euphorbiaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Spurge Family

Physical description The family Euphorbiaceae consists of 300 genera and about 7500 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers and even cactus-shaped plants, often exuding a milky poisonous latex, and known to produce hydrolysable tannins, aporphine, pyridine, indole, and tropane types alkaloids, lignans, phloroglucinol derivatives, various sorts of terpenes, ellagitannins, proanthocyanins and, cyanogen glycosides, anthraquinones and fatty acid epoxides. The leaves of Euphorbiaceae are simple or...

Aleurites moluccana L Willd

From Greek, Aleurites wheaten flour and from Latin, moluccana from the Moluccas Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 18 m and a girth of 50 cm. It grows in the geographic area spanning Malaysia and the Pacific Islands. When cut, the bark exudes a clear watery sap. The stems, petioles, and blades are covered with a whitish starry tomentum. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is 11.5cm-15cm and thin. The blade is lanceolate, rigid, 3-5-lobed, 7.8 cm x...

Codiaeum variegatum L Bl

From the Malaysian name for codebo and from Latin, varius various Uses In Indonesia, Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl. is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the plant is used to heal syphilitic sores. In Papua New Guinea and the Solomons Islands, the plant is used to facilitate abortion and to heal infected sores. The plant was first studied by Dutch naturalist Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1628-1702). Fig. 201. Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl. Fig. 201. Codiaeum variegatum (L.)...

Euphorbia antiquorum L

From Latin, Euphorbus physician to Juba II and from Latin, antiquorum antique Common names Pyathal (Burmese) chanlat (Cambodia) simhunda (Sanskrit), shadurak (Tamil). Uses In Burma, the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum L. is used to remove warts and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In China, the plant is used to resolve inflammation and treat cholera. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the latex is used to induce vomiting, promote urination and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia,...

Mallotus philippensis Lamk Muell

Common name Kamala tree balek (Malay). Physical description It is a small, bushy tree which grows to a height of 9 m, in a geographical zone spanning the West Himalayas, Ceylon, Formosa, Southern China, New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Australia. The plant is found in forest fringes and open places or limestone. The stems, young leaves and inflorescences are covered with scarlet glands. Leaves simple, spiral, and stipulate. The petiole is 5 cm long and slender. The blade is ovate, trinerved, and...

Swertia chirayita Roxb Lyons

After Emanual Sweert, 16th century Dutch botanist and from Sanskrit, chiratika Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons Physical description It is a herb native to India which grows to a height of 80 cm. The stems are somewhat quadrangular or obscurely winged and glabrous, and the internodes are 2.4cm-2.5cm long. Leaves bitter, simple, decussate, sessile and without stipules. The blade is linear, lanceolate, membranaceous, glabrous, Synonymy Swertia chirata Buch. - Ham., Agathotes cherayta D.Don,...

Allamanda cathartica L

Allamand who sent seeds of the plant to Linnaeus and from Greek, kathartikos purgative Physical description It is a common garden and street ornamental climbing shrub of the Asia-Pacific which is native to South America. It grows to a height of 4 m. The stems are terete, smooth and exude an abundant milky latex when incised. Leaves simple, verticillate by 3-5, sessile, without stipules, glabrous beneath, leathery, and glossy. The blade is 8 cm-15 cm x 4 cm-5 cm, Common names Yellow...

Thevetia peruviana Pers K Schum

After Andre Thevet, a 16th century French monk and plant collector and from Latin, peruviana from Peru Synonymy Thevetia neriifolia Juss., Thevetia peruviana K. Schum. Common names Bastard oleander, exile oleander, yellow oleander guinnyeh (Malay) noix de serpent (French) hpayoungban, molamiyapan (Burmese). Fig.277. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Fig.277. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Physical description It is a tree which grows to height of 6 m.The plant is native to South...

Order Magnoliales Bromhead 1838

The order Magnoliales is the most primitive order of the subclass Magnoliidae (Appendix I). This order consists of 10 families and about 3000 species of trees or shrubs, the therapeutic potential of which is still waiting to be discovered. Magnoliales are living fossils rich in isoquinolines and indoles alkaloids, lig-nans, essential oils, diterpenes, triterpenes, tannins, and phenylpropanoids. Of particular interest in this order are alkaloids which might hold potentials for the treatment of...

Ananas comosus L Merr

Physical description It is a stout, herbaceous plant native to tropical America. The stems are erect and 50cm-1.5m long. Leaves numerous, 1 m-1.5m x 5cm-7cm, finely toothed and acuminate. The flowers are perfect and arranged in the axil of the bracts. The calyx consists of 3 short sepals. The corolla comprises of 3 petals that are purple, free with a pair of scales at the base. The andrecium consists of 6 stamens. The ovary is inferior and the style is filiform. The fruits are conical,...

Family Iridaceae A L de Jussieu nom conserv the Iris Family

Physical description The family Iridaceae consists of 80 genera and approximately 1500 species of toxic, rhizomatous, or bulbous perennial and cosmopolitan herbs most abundant in Africa. It is also known to produce saponins, mangiferin, quinones (naphthoquinones and anthraquinones), terpenoids (mono-, sesqui-, di- and tetra-terpenoids) and flavonoids (anthocyani-dins, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones). The leaves are lanceolate, often crowded at the base of the stem, while sheathing at the...

Leucaena leucocephala Lamk de

From Greek, leukos white and kephale head Physical description It is a small tree native to tropical America. Leaves bip-innate, stipulate and consists of 4-8 pinnae, and 10-20 pairs of folioles. The folioles are oblong to lanceolate, 7 mm-12 mm long, and glaucous below. A petiolar gland is usually present on the first pinnae of the petiole. The flowers are white and organized in dense, globose, solitary, and long pediceled axillary heads which are Synonymy Leucaena glauca sensu Bth., Mimosa...

Euonymus alatus Thunb Sieb

From Greek, eu good and onoma name and from Latin, alatus wing Physical description It is a shrub found in China, Korea and Japan which is often cultivated as an ornamental plant. The bark is greyish, and the stems are characteristically winged. Leaves simple, opposite and without stipules. The petiole is very small, glabrous and channeled. The blade is 3.5 cm x 1.3 cm, thin, orbiculate, reddish, and shortly acuminate at the apex. The margin is serrulate. The midrib Synonymy Euonymus...

Ilexpubescens Hook

From Latin, ilex Quercus ilex and from Physical description It is a small and evergreen rainforest shrub found in China and Taiwan. Leaves 4 cm-5.5 cm x 1.5cm-2cm and simple. The blade is oblong or lanceolate, and the apex of the blade acute. The margin is subentire or remotely serrate. The secondary nerves are indistinct. The flowers are arranged in axillary cymes. The fruits are globose, 4mm-5mm berries containing 4-5 pyrenes. Uses In China and Taiwan, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to...

Rhinacanthus nasutus L Kurz

From Greek, akantha thorn and rhinos nose and from Latin, nasutus large-nosed Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 1 m. It is grown as an ornamental plant throughout Asia-pacific. The stems are smooth, articulate and glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite and without stipules. The petiole is 5 mm-1 cm long. The blade is oblong-lanceolate and 3 cm-12 cm x 1 cm-5 cm. The corolla tube is white and tubular. The lower lip is showily 3-lobed. The upper one is very much smaller....

Cassia tora L

Senna Leaf

From Hebrew, q'tsi'ah cut off bark and from Latin, torus swelling Physical description It is a common tropical herb which grows to a height of 1 m. Leaves foetid, stipulate and consisting of 6 pairs of folioles. The stipules are linear and caducous. The folioles are obovate, apiculate, and 2cm-5cm long. A gland is present between the folioles of the first and second pairs. The flowers are arranged in axillary bracteated racemes. The calyx comprises of 5 sepals which are ovate, acute and 8 mm...

Cnestis palala Lour Merr

From Greek, knestis with irritant hairs Synonymy Thysanuspalala Lour., Cnestis ramiflora Griffith. Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of the roots of Cnestis palala (Lour.) Merr. is drunk to treat malaria, assuage stomachache, normalize urination, aid recovery from childbirth and to resolve sprains. Physical description It is a woody streamside climber found in the rainforests of Hainan, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. The wood is reddish and the bark is brown and fissured...

Family Aizoaceae Rudolphi 1830 nom conserv the Fig marigold Family

Physical description The family Aizoaceae consists of about 2500 species and about 12 genera of succulent herbs, sometimes cactus-like, or less often shrubs or subshrubs known to abound with triterpenoid saponins and oxalic acid. The leaves are opposite, alternate, and without stipules. The inflorescences are solitary or cymose. The flowers are perfect, and comprise of 3-8 sepals, and numerous petals in 1-6 whorls. The andrecium consists of 1-many stamens originating in a centrifugal sequence....

Order Papaverales Cronquist 1981

The order Papaverales consists of 2 families of herbaceous plants, the Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae. This order is thought to have originated from the order Ranunculales, from which it inherits the ability to elaborate several sorts of isoquinoline alkaloids (Appendix I). An interesting feature of this order is the production of isoquinoline alkaloids of therapeutic value. Morphine from Papaveraceae is an instance of such an alkaloid. Synonymy Pericampylus formosanus auct. non Diels, Cocculus...

Family Elaeocarpaceae A P de Candolle 1824 nom conserv the Elaeocarpus Family

Physical description The family Elaeocarpaceae is the most primitive family of the Malvales. It consists of 10 genera and 400 species of tropical trees, often containing indolizidine alkaloids derived from ornithine and oxygenated steroids known as cucurbitacins. In this family, the leaves are simple, often dark green and glossy on the surface alternate, simple, occasion-allysiphonostelic, minutelytoothed, and stipulate. The petiole is long and often bends near the base of the blade. The...

Bulbostylis barbata Rottb Kunth

From Greek, bolbos bulb, stylis small pillar, and from Latin, barba beard Synonymy Bulbostylis fimbriata (Nees) C.B.Clarke, Fimbristylis barbata (Rottb.) Benth., Isolepis fimbriata (Nees) Steud. Uses In the Philippines, a decoction of Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Kunth. is drunk to treat dysentery. The pharmacological potential of Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Kunth. remains unexplored. Physical description It is an erect or prostrate, beard-looking herb which grows annually to a height of 30...

Family Solanaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom Conserv the Potato Family

Physical description The family Solanaceae consists of about 85 genera and 2800 species of prickly herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees, well represented in South America. Solanaceae are known to elaborate tropane alkaloids derived from ornithine, pyridine and steroidal alkaloids. The leaves of Solanaceae are alternate, simple, often soft, dull green and without stipules. The flowers are hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. The calyx is 4-6-lobed and persistent in fruit. The corolla is tubular,...

Graptophyllum pictum L Griffith

Common names Caricature plant benalu (Malay) daun ungu (Indonesian) baitawng (Thai) morado (Filipino). From Greek, graptos painted and phullon leaf and from Latin, pictum variegated Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 1.5 m. The plant is native to Papua New Guinea and is grown to be ornamental. Leaves simple, opposite, and without stipules. The blade is 8 cm-20 cm x 3 cm-13 cm, oblong-lanceolate, cuneate at the base, variegated with white and undulate. The flowers are...

Ageratum conyzoides L

From Latin, ageratum a plant that does not wither readily and conyzoides resembling to conyza Common names White weed, appa grass, conyzoid floss-flower, bastard agrimony, common cocklebur tahi ayam, tombok jantan, sianggit, ara batu (Malay) babadotan (Indonesian) herbe a madame (French) caycutlon, bu xich, cohoi (Vietnamese). Physical description It is a common tropical invasive herb which grows 90 cm annually. The stems are terete and hairy. Leaves simple, exstipulate, opposite below, and...

Imperata cylindrica L P Beauv

From Latin, imperata imperial and from Greek, kulindros cylinder Synonymy Imperata arundinacea Cyr., Saccharum spicatum sensu Lour., Sac-charum cylindricum Lamk. Common names Red baron, Japanese blood grass, satin grass, dog's tail grass lalang, along-along (Malay). Uses The rhizome is used to combat fever, treat influenza, remove the presence of blood in the urine, internal haemorrhage, haemoptysis, to treat oedema, jaundice, to alleviate cough and to assuage kidneys discomfort. In Malaysia,...

Phyllanthus emblica L

From Greek, phullon leaf and anthos flower and from Bengalese amlaki Phyllanthus emblica L. Synonymy Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Emblicapectinata Ridl. Common names Emblic myrobalan emblic officinal (French) amlaj (Arabic) amala (Persian) pokok melaka (Malay) alma khushk (Indian). Physical description It is a medium-sized lowland rainforest tree which grows in a geographical zone ranging from India to South China. The bark is greyish-red. The inner bark is sappy and pink, and the heart wood...

Schefflera elliptica Bl Harms

After Jacob Chricheck h Scheffler, 18th century German botanist and from Greek, elleipsis regular oval Synonymy Schefflera venulosa sensu Ridley, Schefflera micrantha (Miq.) Ridley, Schefflera minimiflora Ridley. Uses In Indonesia, the wood of Schefflera elliptica (Bl.) Harms is used to assuage toothache. The pharmacological potential of Schefflera elliptica (Bl.) Harms remains unexplored. Note that the analgesic property of this plant is very probably due to the presence of saponins. Fig....

Peperomia pellucida L HBK

From Greek, peperi pepper and homoios resembling and from Latin, pellucidus transparent Common names Shiny bush pansit pansitan (Filipino). Uses In Indonesia, Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. is used to assuage headaches and to treat colic. In the Philippines, Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. is used to heal abscesses and boils. Physical description It is a dwarfy herb which grows to a height of 20 cm. The plant is native to South Amer- Fig. 26. Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. Fig. 26. Peperomia...

Deeringia amaranthoides Lamk Merr

After Georg Karl Deering, an English doctor, and from Latin, amaranthoides amaranth-like Uses In Indonesia, the juice squeezed from the roots is used as an ingredient of a mixture which is sniffed to clear congested nasal cavities. The leaves are used to treat inflamed sores and chicken pox maturations. In the Philippines, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat dysentery. In the Solomon Islands, the sap expressed from the plant is used to counteract skin putrefaction in pigs. The...

Carpesium abrotanoides L

From Greek, habrotonon Artemisia abrotanum Physical description It is a wild herb which grows to a height of 80 cm in Asia. The stems are terete, ribbed and velvety. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is very short, channeled and velvety. The blade is lanceolate, serrate, papery, velvety Uses The plant is a source of an aromatic resin known as ngai camphor. In China, Taiwan and Japan, ngai camphor is used to combat fever, treat flatulence, promote expectoration and to...

Flacourtia rukam Zoll

After E de Flacourt (1607-1660), a French Governor of Madagascar, and from Malay, rukam Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. Synonymy Hiaingera grandiflora Turez, Flacourtia inermis Merr. Uses The ripe berries of Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. are acid and astringent, but rubbing them between the hands bruises the flesh and renders it sweet and palatable. In Indonesia, the sap expressed from young shoots is used to wash the eyes. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the berries is ingested to...

Hunteria zeylanica Retz Gardn

From Latin, zeylanica from Ceylon Synonymy Hunteria corymbosa Roxb., Hunteria roxburghiana sensu Ridl. Common names Kemuning hutan (Malay) lahoi(Indonesian). Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 18 m high and a girth of 40 cm. It is found in the rainforest of Malaysia and Thailand. The bark is smooth and grey. Leaves simple, decussate and without stipules. The petiole is 1cm-1.4cm long, thin and channeled. The blade is 13.5 cm x 5cm-14.5cm x 4.5 cm, and...

Family Asteraceae Dumortier 1822 nom conserv the Aster Family

Physical description The family Asteraceae or Compositae consists of approximately 1100 genera and 20000 species of herbs which are cosmopolitan. The chemical weapons used here are a series of sesquiterpene lactones, poly-acetylenic fatty acids, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids and flavonoids. The leaves are simple, without stipules, alternate or opposite. The most characteristic botanical feature of Asteraceae is a flower-like inflorescence known as capitulum.The capitulum consists of a receptacle...

Salomonia cantoniensis Lour

From Latin, cantoniensis from Canton Synonymy Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. Common name Common salomonia rumput buak (Malay). Uses In Indonesia, a paste of Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. is used to treat thrush. The pharmacological potential of this plant remains unexplored. Physical description It is a succulent, mycoparasitic herb which grows to a height of 15 cm. It is found in wet grassy spots of tropical Asia. The stems are winged. Leaves simple, alternate, and without stipules. The petiole...

Asclepias curassavica L

From Greek, Asklepios God of healing and from Latin, curassavica from Curacao Physical description It is a bushy herb native to Tropical America, which grows to a height of 1 m. The plant is ornamental. Leaves simple, opposite, without stipules. The blade is 6cm-15cm x 1.2cm-2.5cm, very thin, lanceolate, acuminate at the apex and tapering at the base. The flowers are arranged in axillary or terminal 12-flowered umbels which are 5 cm long. The flower pedicels are 1.3 cm long. The calyx is...

Casearia grewiaefolia Vent

After J Caesarius (1642-1678), preacher in Dutch East India Company and from Latin, grewiaefolia leaves like Grewia Physical description It is a rainforest tree which grows to a height of 24 m and a girth of 180 cm. The stems are softly hairy and slightly zigzag-shaped. Leaves simple, stipulate, 10 cm x 3.5 cm and spiral. The stipules are deciduous. The blade is tomentose below, oblong, tapered at the apex and squarish at the base, and shows about 20 pairs secondary nerves. The inflorescences...

Cyperus rotundus L

From Greek, kuperos sedge and Latin, rotundus rounded Common names Nut grass, coco grass rumput halia hitam, rumputteki (Malay) co gau, sa thao (Vietnamese). Physical description It is a herb which grows perennially from a reddish-brown aromatic rhizome. The culms are upright, 15cm-60cm long and slender. Leaves narrow, 6cm-20cm long, sheathing and single-nerved. The inflorescences are simple, 2.5cm-4.5cm long, umbels made of 4-6 dark red, 1.5cm-2.5cm long spikes. The glumes are distichous,...

Crinum asiaticum L

From Greek, krinon lily and from Latin, asiaticum from Asia Common names Seashore crinum, poison bulb, or bakong, bawang tanah, or bawang hutan (Malays) lautalotalo (Samoa, Fiji) viavia (Fiji) piga-palayi (Guam). Physical description It is a herb which grows wild or cultivated to a height of 1 m from a 5 cm x 10cm-10cm x 25cm bulb in a geographical zone, spanning Southeast Asia and Polynesia. Leaves Fig. 413. Crinum asiaticum L. succulent, rosette of light green leaves of 50 cm x 15 cm with a...

Luffa acutangula Roxb

From Arabic, lufah Luffa acutangula Roxb., and from Latin, acutus acute and angulus angle Common names Thapwot (Burmese) ronung chrung (Cambodian) jalini (Sanskrit) pekankai (Tamil). Physical description It is a monoecious climber cultivated in many warm countries for its edible berries. The stems are 5-angled, hairy and rigid. Leaves simple, alternate and without stipules. The petiole is channeled, hairy and 7 mm-2 cm long. The tendrils are slender and 3-fid. The blade is papery, 5-lobed, 5...

Cordia dichotoma Forst f

Cordus, 1515-1544, a German botanist and from Greek, dikho asunder Synonymy Cordia dichotoma Forst. f., Cordia myxa auct. non. L., Cordia obliqua Willd., Argyreia arborea Lour. Common names Fragrant manjack sekundah, sekendai(Malay) leshora (India). Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 12 m in a geographical zone spanning from China to New Caledonia. Leaves 5cm-8cmx3cm-5cm, simple, somehow succulent and dull green. The petiole is 2.5 cm long and thin. The blade...

Family Gentianaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Gentian Family

Physical description The family Gentianaceae consists of about 75 genera and about 1000 species of annual or perennial herbs, often mycorhizal, related to the Loganiaceae but more recent, and cosmopolitan in distribution, and known to produce xanthones and iridoid glycosides. The largest genus is the genus Gentiana which includes about 400 species. The leaves of Gentianaceae are simple, opposite, without stipules, often connate at the base or connected by a transverse line. The flowers are...

Cleidion spiciflorum Burm f Merr

From Greek, cleidion a club and from Latin, spica spike and flores flower Uses In the Philippines, Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) is used to relieve the bowels for costiveness, to assuage stomachaches as well as for abortion purposes. The pharmacological potentials of Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) and of the genus Cleidion in general, still remains yet to be discovered. Physical description It is a tree which grows to a height of 8m in a geographical zone ranging from India to Papua New...

Ludwigia hyssopifolia D Don Exell

From Greek, hyssopos hyssop and from Latin, folium leaf Physical description It is a multi-branched and succulent herb which grows to a height of 40 cm in Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. The stems are glabrous and somewhat angular. Leaves simple, spiral, sessile and without stipules. The blade is lanceolate, Synonymy Jussiaea linifolia Vahl, Jussiaea tenella Burm. f. Uses In Indonesia, Ludwigia hyssopifolia (D. Don) Exell is used to maturate pimples. In Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam,...

Family Polygonaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Buckwheat Family

Physical description This large North Temperate family consists of about 30 genera and 1000 species of rhizomatous succulent, tanniferous and bitter-tasting herbs, commonly producing tannins, oxalic acid, flavonoids and anthraquinone glycosides. Polygonaceae are easily recognizable in the fields by their stipules which are well-developed and united into a sheath or ochrea which surrounds the stems. The stems are often hollow, zigzag-shaped, reddish, tabbed and juicy. The leaves of Polygonaceae...

Vernonia cinerea L Less

After W.Vernon, a British botanist of the 18th century, and from Latin, cineris ashes Common names Ash-colored fleabane common vernonia cenderong hari, concong hari, bujong semalam, ekor kudah, rumput sabasi, rumputsusor, tahibabi (Malay) vernonia cendre (French) devida (Sanskrit) sahadevi (Tamil). Uses In Vietnam, Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. is used to combat fever, to treat dysentery, to soothe inflammation and to assuage skin discomfort. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is used to...

Evolvulus alsinoides L

Common names Slender dwarf morning glory vishnukranta (Sanskrit) shankhpushpi (Indian) tu ding dui yuan bian zhong (Chinese). Uses In India, Evolvulus alsinoides L. is used to strengthen the brain, improve memory, combat fever, promote hair growth, treat dysentery and asthma, improve complexion, rejuvenate the skin, and to expel intestinal worms. In the Philippines, the plant is used to expel intestinal worms, combat fever, and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. Fig. 293. Erycibe rheedii Bl....

Andrographis paniculata Nees

Andrographis Paniculata Nees

From Greek, andro male, graphis paint and from Latin, panus ear of millet Physical description It is an annual, dark green, upright herb of the Asia-Pacific which grows to a height of 1 m. The stems are glabrous and somewhat Common names Creat, snake herb pokok cerita, hempedupahit, hempedu bumi (Malay) bidara, sadilata, sambiloto (Javanese) kiorai, kipeurat, takila (Sunda) kalmegh (Indian) kirata (Sanskrit) fatalaijun (Thai). squarish and articulated. Leaves simple, opposite and exstipulate....

Aerva lanata L Juss

From Arabic, erwa Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. and from Latin, lanatus woolly Physical description It is a common tropical herb which grows to a height of 90 cm. The stems are terete and woolly. Leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, and 1.8cm-4cm x 3cm-4mm. The blade is elliptic, obovate, obtuse or Synonymy Achyranthes ianata L. Aerva floribunda Wight. Common names Wool plant astmabayada (Sanskrit) sirupuiai (Tamil). acute, entire, pubescent above, and more or less woolly beneath. The petiole...

Opuntia dillenii Ker Gawl Haworth

From Greek, opunte a city of ancient Greece and Johann Jacob Dillenius (1648-1747), a German botanist and Professor of Botany at Oxford Common names Prickly pear, slipper thorn kalazaw (Burmese) raquette, figue de Barbarie (French) palmatoria d'inferno (Portuguese) guda (Sanskrit) kalli (Tamil). Physical description It is a shrubby cactus which grows to a height of 2 m. It is native to Central America. The plant is ornamental and cultivated as such throughout the tropics. The stems are...

Family Brassicaceae G T Burnett 1835 nom conserv the Mustard family

Physical description The family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae) consists of about 350 genera and 3000 species of annual and perennial pungent herbs. Brassicaceae are easily detectable by their cross-shaped corolla, hence the name crucifers. The pungency and crucifers are imparted to glucosinolates which release isothiocyanates. The leaves are simple, without stipules, and alternate or opposite. The blade is dissected, soft and dull green. The inflorescences are racemes of yellow or white, bisexual...

Family Convolvulaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Morning glory Family

Physical description The family Convolvu-laceae consists of 50 genera and 1500 species of tuberous climbers, known to elaborate glu-coresins, lignans, indole and tropane alkaloids and polyhydroxytropanes, derived from ornithine. The leaves of Convolvulaceae are simple, often cordate at the base, without stipules, entire and lobed. Convolvulaceae are easily recognizable by their flowers which are infundibuliform. The sepals are free, imbricate and persistent in fruits. The andrecium consists of...

Jatropha curcas L

Jatropha Curcas Latex

From Greek, iatros doctor trophe name for this plant Common name Physic nut, purging nut tree jarakbelanda (Malay) medicinier, haricot du Perou, oignon d'Inde (French) kesugi (Burmese) lohong kvang sa (Cambodia) ma fong chou (Chinese) ricino mayor (Portuguese) chitra (Sanskrit) arbol de los pinones de Indias (Spanish). Physical description It is a tropical shrub native to Mexico. The plant grows to a height of 3 m and produces an abundantly milky latex. The stems are smooth and covered with...

Croton cascarilloides Raeusch

From Greek, kroton thornberry, Palma-Christi Synonymy Croton cumingii Muell. Arg. Uses In Taiwan, the roots are used to combat fever and to stop vomiting. The leaves are smoked instead of cigarettes. In Thailand, the bark and the roots are used to treat fever. Not much is known about the pharmacological and toxicological properties of this medicinal plant. Fig. 203. Croton cascarilloides Raeusch. Fig. 203. Croton cascarilloides Raeusch. Physical description It is a coastal shrub of Taiwan,...

Homonoia riparia Lour

Herbarium Drugs

From Greek, Homonoia Greek Goddess and from Latin, riparius riverbank Uses In Indonesia, the sap of Homonoia riparia Lour. is used to strengthen loose teeth. In Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia, the leaves are used to assuage itchiness and to expel impurities. In Malaysia, the leaves and fruits of Homonoia riparia Lour. are used to treat skin diseases. In the Philippines, the leaves are applied externally to heal wounds inflicted by poisonous fish and the plant is also used to assuage toothache. In...

Fagraea fragrans Roxb

After JT Fagraeus, 1729-1747, a Swedish naturalist, and from Latin, fragrare smell sweet Synonymy Fagraea cochinchinesis (Lour) A. Chev., Cyrtophyllum peregrinum Bl. Common name Tembusu (Malay) anan (Burmese). Uses In Cambodia, drinking an infusion of the bark is believed to give long life. In Malaysia, a decoction of the bark is drunk to treat malaria, and a decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat the condition of blood in stools. In the Philippines, a decoction of the bark is used to...

Acrotrema costatum Jack

From Greek, akros highest, and trema aperture and from Latin, costatus ribbed Physical characteristic It is a brightly colored, medium-sized, rainforest herb of Malaysia, which develops from woody underground stems. Leaves in rosette, simple, 12cm-30cm x 6cm-12cm, hairy, obovate, serrate, deep green, ribbed and penciled with red. The flowering stems stand up to a height of 10 cm and are covered with long reddish hair. Uses In Malaysia, Acrotrema costatum Jack is used to invigorate health after...