Factors Affecting Nasal Absorption

A combination of the structure and function of the nasal mucosa as a barrier to absorption, the properties of the active drug and the formulation within which it is contained will affect the extent to which a compound is absorbed nasally. The following factors are commonly reported as significantly influencing the extent of nasal absorption. Generally, drugs which are in solution will be rapidly absorbed nasally (31), although it appears that hydrophilic compounds are not readily absorbed above...

Formulation of pMDI Systems

Modified Release Medication

Advances in Suspension-Based pMDI Systems Due to the poor solvent properties of HFAs, suspension based systems are a popular formulation route for current pMDIs. In general, research in this area has focused on two main themes over the past 5 years particle engineering and the application physical stabilizers. As with DPI systems, the drug particles used in suspension based systems should ideally have a diameter of less than 6 m to achieve a therapeutic affect upon administration. As previously...

Recent Advances in Nebulizer Technology

Conventional Jet Nebulizer

Nebulizers have been used for asthma therapy for many years and are used for the delivery of fine droplets of drugs to the lungs. For this reason they have been optimized for aerosol delivery in the upper range of inhalation Figure 21 Median adhesion between an albuterol particle and the internal walls of five pMDI canisters in model propellant using colloid probe microscopy. Canister coatings were as follows Aluminum ALU , anodized aluminum AN-ALU , polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE , fluorinated...

Microparticles Nanoparticles Nanofibers and Nanotubes

The use of microparticles (> 1 m) and nanoparticles (< 1 m) as delivery vehicles for anticancer therapeutics has great potential to revolutionize the future of cancer therapy. Microparticles have been used a carrier system for anticancer drugs using different types of polymers, such as poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). For example, sustained-release anastrozole-loaded PLGA microparticles have been developed for the long-term treatment of breast cancer (73). Nanoparticles have been...