Natural Flatulence Cure and Treatment
They slow down food digestion in the gut, reducing peak blood glucose concentrations after meals. They also prevent reactive hypoglycemia, as can be seen after gastric operations, in dumping syndrome, and in idiopathic forms. When carbohydrates appear in the colon, bacterial fermentation can occur, leading to gastrointestinal adverse effects, of which flatulence and loose stools are the most frequent. During long-term treatment the colonic bacterial mass can increase. In elderly patients acarbose increases insulin sensitivity but not insulin release (1). Acarbose may reduce the incidence of colon cancer, the risk of which is 30 higher in people with diabetes than in the non-diabetic population (2).
Of 1027 patients, 283 used acarbose as the treatment of choice (12). In 250 cases the physician was not sure of the benefit 124 of these patients took acarbose and 126 patients took placebo besides regular therapy. In those taking acarbose HbA1c fell. The adverse effects were bloating, flatulence, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea there were moderate increases in serum transaminases.
Voglibose and acarbose have been compared in 32 patients insufficiently treated by diet in an open crossover study (13). The metabolic results were identical. There were fewer adverse reactions in those who took voglibose. There was increased flatulence with acarbose in 96 and with voglibose in 57 abdominal distension was reported in 17 and 10 respectively. In an open study in 57 patients acarbose and gliclazide had the same effects on HbA1c, blood glucose, and lipids, but the ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol increased with acarbose (14). Acarbose caused flatulence in 30 and diarrhea in 3 and gliclazide caused at least one mild attack of hypoglycemia in 10 .
In an open, randomized trial in 266 patients with active distal ulcerative colitis, mesalazine foam enema 2 g day was as effective as mesalazine standard liquid enema 4 g day (103). The number of adverse effects attributable to medication was higher in the foam group than in the liquid enema group (14 versus 4). The most commonly reported adverse effect was flatulence.
The adverse effects of amprenavir in patients treated with combination therapy included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain, flatulence, paresthesia, headache, rash, and fatigue (4). The contribution of a single drug to the observed adverse effects is difficult to establish. Amprenavir inhibits CYP3A4 to a greater extent than saquinavir, and to a much lesser extent than ritonavir (5). Co-administration with rifampicin and rifabutin should be avoided. Those who take
14-16 mg kg day has been investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in 192 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (4). Ursodeoxycholic acid was associated with significant improvement in liver function tests and liver histology, but it did not affect the time to death or liver transplantation. Adverse effects were mild abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea were reported in nine patients taking ursodeoxycholic acid and six taking placebo.
Pharmaceutical interest Belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae are several very valuable timber trees such as Shorea robusta Gaertn. (Saul tree). Dipterocarpaceae often produce resins Vateria indica L. (piny resin, Indian copal, white dammar), Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. (Sumatra camphor tree), Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn. (gurjun basalm, garjan or kanyin oil) and Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (eng oil). The resin obtained from Vateria indica L., is used to make ointments, stop flatulence, treat bronchitis and piles, heal boils and to invigorate health. The resins (gurjun) obtained from
Lighter doses of the gas stimulate breathing, but larger doses depress it. The gas irritates airways. At higher doses pulse rate and blood pressure decline. A serious unwanted effect can be a fatal convulsion. Using ether as a beverage can cause headache, increase salivation, irritate the passageway from mouth to stomach (resulting in vomiting), and produce heavy flatulence. In liquid form the substance can irritate skin and be absorbed through it.
Of 17 patients who were given gemtuzumab, three developed grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia, and five developed grade 3-4 hepatic transaminitis after a median of 13 days, including one who developed veno-occlusive disease (4). This patient had abrupt onset of weight gain, associated with ascites, abdominal distension, acute hepatic failure, and right upper quadrant pain, and died. As a possible mechanism gemtuzumab may selectively target CD33-expressing cells in hepatic sinusoids, activate stellated cells, damage sinusoidal endothelial cells, and cause sinusoidal vasoconstriction or ischemic hepatocyte necrosis. Liver histology showed sinusoidal injury with extensive sinusoidal fibrosis, centrilobular congestion, and hepatocyte necrosis (5).
Laxative use, especially high doses or use over a long time, can cause diarrhea and a loss of water and electrolytes. For some patients, this may be a serious adverse effect. Laxatives may also cause abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, perianal irritation, fainting, bloating, flatulence, cramps, and weakness. Prolonged use of a laxative can result in serious electrolyte imbalances, as well as the laxative habit, that is, a dependency on a laxative to have a bowel movement. Some of these products contain tartrazine, which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in susceptible individuals.
Acarbose and miglitol are given three times as day with the first bite of the meal because food increases absorption. Some patients begin therapy with a lower dose once daily to minimize gastrointestinal effects, such as abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and diarrhea. The dose is then gradually increased to three times daily. The nurse monitors the response to these drugs by periodic testing. Dosage adjustments are made at 4- to 16-week intervals based on 1-hour postprandial glucose levels.
Pharmacokinetic factors (slow metabolism) may underlie the marked effect of indometacin on platelet aggregation in premature infants and small children. The use of indo-metacin in children with patent ductus arteriosus can be followed by a severe general reaction. Nephrotoxicity, abdominal distension, hemorrhagic enteritis, and necro-tizing enterocolitis have been observed (SEDA-10, 81) (24,55). No retrospective study has shown that indometa-cin-treated infants have a higher incidence of retrolental hyperplasia or visual problems (56). Reopening of the ductus after indometacin-induced occlusion has been described (SEDA-18, 101), but the risks of using intravenous indometacin are few and it is more efficacious and safer than ligation.
Uses In Indonesia, the leaves are used to expel worms and to combat fever. In Malaysia, this plant is applied externally to treat skin diseases. In Taiwan, a decoction of the roots is used to combat fever. In Vietnam, Clausena excavata Burm. f. is used to promote menses, and to invigorate the body. In Cambodia, the stems are bitter, taken as a tonic and or used as an astringent. In India, Clausena excavata Burm. f. is used to promote urination and to treat flatulence.
Seeds and roots of the Ipomoea hederacea morning glory are used medicinally. The natural product works as a laxative and as a treatment against intestinal worms. Traditional applications include combating flatulence, easing excessive feelings of fullness after a meal, and treating scabies (a skin disease caused by a parasite). Albert Hofmann, the discoverer of LSD, became intrigued by accounts of seed called ololiuqui by the Aztecs. Folk medicine used its ointments or potions to treat flatulence, tumors, and venereal disease. Ingesting the seeds allowed Aztecs to commune with their gods, and native peoples still used ololiuqui for that purpose during the twentieth century. Hofmann found that the ololiuqui seeds of Mexico came from two kinds of morning glory from Ipomoea sidaefolia (also called Rivea corymbosa) and from Ipomoea violacea (also called Ipomoea tricolor, whose seeds are also known as badoh negro). Seeds from both plants contained ergot chemicals resembling LSD.
Vasopressin may be given IM or SC to treat diabetes insipidus. The injection solution may also be administered intranasally on cotton pledgets, by nasal spray, or dropper. When given parenterally 5 to 10 units administered two to three times daily is usually sufficient. To prevent or relieve abdominal distension, 5 units of the drug is administered initially and may increase to 10 units every 3 or 4 hours IM. When the drug is administered before abdominal roentgenography, the nurse administers 2 injections of 10 units each. The first dose is given 2 hours before x-ray examination and the second dose V2 hour before the testing. An enema may be given before the first dose.
Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) K. Schum. are used to treat thrush. In the Philippines, Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) K. Schum. is used to treat nervous diseases and flatulence. The pharmacological potentials of this interesting plant remain unexplored.
Uses A number of plants classified under the genus Aganosma are used to invigorate the body, promote urination and combat fever in the Asia-Pacific. In Malaysia, a decoction of the roots of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is drunk to combat fever, regulate menses, promote urination and aid recovery from childbirth. In India, Aganosma dichotoma K. Schum. is emetic, anthelmintic, and useful for treating bronchitis, leprosy, and diseases of the mouth. The flowers are used for treating eyes diseases and biliousness. Aganosma calycina A. DC. is heaty, used as a tonic to treat bile and blood disorders. In Thailand, an infusion of the leaves, flowers and fruits of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is drunk to treat flatulence and to promote urination. The plant is used to combat fever. The therapeutic potential of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is still yet to be discovered.
Uses In Indonesia, the juice extracted from the leaves is drunk believing to threaten abortion. A decoction is used to heal hemorrhoids, promote menses, expel impurities after childbirth, and to soothe inflamed eyes. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves or the juice extracted from the leaves is drunk to stop flatulence, to treat congestion of the liver, to assuage heart and liver pain, to treat smallpox, to soothe swollen parts and to induce vomiting. In the Philippines, a paste of leaves is used to assuage headache and to soothe bruises. In Vietnam, the plant is pectoral.
Uses In Indonesia, Alyxia stellata (Forst.) Roem. et Schult. is used to give flavor to medicinal mixtures, promote digestion, and stop spasms, flatulence and diarrhea. In Malaysia, the dried bark is placed among clothes to perfume them. The leaves are mixed with onions and cooked in a plantain leave to offer an internal remedy for thrush. The plant is used to promote digestion, and to treat shingles as well as sterility associated with irregular menses. A decoction of leaves is drunk to treat leucorrhea and to stop dysentery. A decoction of roots is drunk to aid recovery from childbirth. An infusion of either the bark and leaves or flowers and leaves is used to treat gonorrhea and to stop dysentery. The plant is also used to calm the mind, combat fever, treat dimness of vision, heal buboes and burn, and assuage pain of bones. In Vietnam, a number of plants classified under the genus Alyxia are burned as incense, as well as to assuage headache. Alyxia stellata (Forst.) Roem. et Schult....
Pharmaceutical interest To the family Rutaceae belong several fruit trees and countless medicinal plants. Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (lemon), Citrus auran-tium L. (sour orange), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet orange), and Citrus aurantifolia (Chaistm.) Swingle (lime), the oil of which is aromatic and of pharmaceutical value as a flavoring agent. The oil obtained by mechanical means from the fresh peel of the fresh orange Citrus sinensis (Orange oil, Oleum Aurantii, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) has been used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. Bergamot oil (Oleum Bergamottae, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949), obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the fruit of Citrus bergamia, has been used in perfumery in preparations for the hair (Cologne Spirit or Spiritus Coloniensis). Lemon oil (Oleum Limonis, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963), obtained by expression of fresh lemon peel (Citrus limon, Citrus limonia, Citrus medica), is carminative and used as a flavoring...
The efficacy, speed of action, and acceptability of ispa-ghula husk, lactulose, and other laxatives in the treatment of simple constipation in 394 patients have been studied by 65 general practitioners (3). Ispaghula was used by 224 patients and other laxatives by 170. After 4 weeks of treatment ispaghula husk was assessed by the GPs to be superior to the other laxatives. In patients' assessment, ispaghula users had a higher proportion of normal stools and less soiling than patients using other laxatives. Diarrhea and abdominal pain and gripes and were less common with ispaghula. Distension, flatulence, indigestion, and nausea were equally frequent in the two groups.
Alcoholic brain syndrome A general term for a range of disorders due to the effects of alcohol on the brainNacute intoxication, pathological intoxication, withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, hallucinosis, amnesic syndrome, dementia, psychotic disorder. More specific terms are preferred. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy A diffuse disorder of heart muscle seen individuals with a history of hazardous consumption of alcohol, usually of at least 10 years' duration, Patients typically present with biventricular heart failure common symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion and while recumbent (nocturnal dyspnoea), palpitations, ankle oedema, and abdominal distension due to ascites. Disturbance of the cardiac rhythm is usual atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy should be distinguished from beriberi heart disease and from a form of beer drinkers' cardiomyopathy caused by cobalt poisoning. Synonym Alcoholic heart muscle disease. Alcoholic cirrhosis A...
Ginseng is used to invigorate the body, treat flatulence, soothe inflammation, stimulate venereal desire, calm the mind and fight forgetfulness. Many products containing ginseng are available, especially for the symptomatic treatment of functional asthenia (Pharmaton ). Ginseng is incorporated in the B. H. P. (1990) and in the British Herbal Compendium (Vol. 1, 1992).
Uses The dried roots of Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke were officinal in India (Saussurea, Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1955), used to counteract putrefaction, treat flatulence, promote expectoration, urination, and a widely claimed remarkable effect in controlling bronchial asthma . It has been administered as a liquid extract (1in 1 with alcohol 90 , dose 0.6 mL to 1.5 mL). In China, the roots are used to promote digestion, to treat flatulence, to stop spasms and diarrhea. In Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, the plant is used to treat respiratory infection. In Malaysia, the plant is used to invigorate health, to relieve the bowels of costiveness, combat fever and to counteract putrefaction. The roots are cut into small pieces and shipped to Rome and China where they are used as a culinary spice and a perfume as well. The price of Costus in Rome is stated by Pliny to have been 5 denarii per pound.
Voglibose and acarbose have been compared in 32 patients insufficiently treated by diet in an open crossover study (52C). The metabolic results were identical. There were fewer adverse reactions in those who took voglibose. There was increased flatulence with acarbose in 96 and with voglibose in 57 abdominal distension was reported in 17 and 10 respectively. LDL cholesterol increased with acarbose (54C). Acarbose caused flatulence in 30 and diarrhea in 3 and gliclazide caused at least one mild attack of hypoglycemia in 10 . When patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes used glibenclamide plus met-formin, miglitol, or placebo for 24 weeks in addition to their earlier therapy, fasting blood glucose concentrations improved with miglitol (55C). Flatulence and diarrhea were significantly more common with miglitol. No patient stopped taking miglitol because of adverse effects.
Uses The plant is a source of an aromatic resin known as ngai camphor. In China, Taiwan and Japan, ngai camphor is used to combat fever, treat flatulence, promote expectoration and to counteract putrefaction. In Indonesia, the leaves are used to promote urination and to invigorate health. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat beriberi, lumbago, rheumatism and to promote recovery from childbirth. The crushed leaves are used to check bleeding, to heal wounds and to assuage headache. In Vietnam, a decoction of 6g-12g of leaves is drunk to treat coryza and influenza, combat fever, alleviate cough and to promote digestion. A poultice of leaves is used to heal hemorrhoids and an alcoholic extracts is used to treat rheumatism.
Uses In China and Taiwan, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to invigorate health, stop flatulence, lower body temperature, expel impurities, promote urination and to abort a pregnancy. A paste made from the leaves is used to treat skin diseases, counteract snake-poisoning and heal poisoned wounds. In China, the plant is used to stimulate blood circulation and treat coronary diseases.
Gastrointestinal The effects of lactulose and lactilol in daily doses of 18-36 g for 6 months have been evaluated in a prospective open study in 31 cirrhotic patients with chronic en-cephalopathy (47c). Mean daily stool frequency (2.5 vs. 1.7) and frequency of reported adverse effects (59 vs. 14 ) were significantly higher with lactulose. Common adverse effects were nausea, intestinal discomfort, flatulence, and diarrhea.
The use, efficacy, and adverse effects of non-prescription H2 receptor antagonists and alginate-containing formulations obtained from community pharmacies have been evaluated in 767 customers with dyspepsia (3). Most obtained some or complete symptom relief (75 ) and were completely satisfied with the product (78 ). H2 receptor antagonists were more likely to produce complete relief of symptoms than alginate-containing formulations. Only 3 reported adverse effects diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and flatulence from alginate formulations, and dry mouth, altered bowel habit, diarrhea, and constipation from H2 receptor antagonists.
Uses The dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Myrobalans, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) are astringent and contain 20 to 40 of tannins. In Burma, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to invigorate health. In China, the fruits are used to stop flatulence and promote expectoration. In India, the fruits are eaten to invigorate health, promote digestion and expectoration, soothe sore throat and inflamed areas, stop dysentery and vomiting, and to treat ascite (Ayurveda). In Indonesia, the fruits are astringent. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to check bleeding, assuage liver discomfort and stop dysentry. In Vietnam, the fruits are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness.
Uses In India, the bark of Crateva magna (Lour.) DC. is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to expel intestinal worms. The flowers are used to assuage liver congestion. In Indonesia, the bark of Crateva magna DC. is pounded with water and applied to the skin to treat fever and muscular pain. The leaves and other ingredients are used to make an external remedy to cure mental illnesses. In Malaysia, the leaves, the roots and the bark are boiled in oil and the mixture obtained is applied to the body to stop flatulence. The bark is bitter and flavoring, and the juice expressed from it is drunk to stimulate appetite and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. The leaves are counter-irritant.
Uses In China, the fruits of Momordica charantia L. are eaten to reduce body temperature, invigorate health, relieve the bowels of costiveness and stop flatulence. In Cambodia, the leaves are used to combat fever and delirium. In Indonesia, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to relieve the bowels of costiveness, treat liver diseases and expel intestinal worms. In India, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and expel intestinal worms. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to treat diabetes, and a poultice of the powdered leaves is applied to burns. A decoction of Momordica charantia L. is drunk to abort a pregnancy. In the Philippines, the juice expressed from the green fruit is drunk to treat chronic colitis and dysentery In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the cooked fruit is used to stop catarrh, flux and cough.
Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Tylophora cissoides Bl. f. are used to assuage abdominal pain and to treat thrush. In Malaysia, the leaves of Tylophora tenuis Bl. are used to soothe inflamed parts. In the Philippines, a decoction of the roots of Tylophora brevipes (Turcz.) F. Vill. is drunk to induce vomiting, to promote menses, to treat flatulence, to combat fever, to promote expectoration and to assuage stomachache. The leaves of Tylophora perrottetiana Decne are used to heal wounds. In India, both Tylophora asthmatica Wight. and Arn. and Tylophora indica are used to treat asthma.
Uses In Asia, an infusion of the leaves is used to make a drink (tea) to invigorate the mind and the heart, stop spasms and dysentery, treat fever cough, and nervous disorders, and to promote urination and digestion. In Europe, tea has been listed in the 1949 edition of the British Pharmaceutical Codex and is found in the 10th edition of the French Pharmacopoeia. Stuart reports the Pen Ts'ao Kang Mu as tea clears the voice, gives brilliancy to the eyes, invigorates the constitution, improves the mental faculties, opens up the avenues of the body, promotes digestion, removes flatulence, and regulates the body temperature . (Stuart GA, 1911).
The leaves are sedative, anodyne, narcotic, antispasmodic, diuretic, digestive, and astringent. They are given in doses of forty grains as a sedative or anodyne. Half a drachm of the dried leaves are given with a little sugar and black pepper as a household remedy for dysentery and diarrhea. The powdered leaves are administered as a stomachic and-for relieving flatulence. In cases where it is not advisable to use opium, the leaves are given to induce sleep. They are also used in tetanus and for relieving pain in dysmenorrhea. Some practitioners consider it preferable to boil the leaves before use. The leaves are also used externally. A cataplasm of fresh leaves is applied to tumors as an aid in resolving them. The fresh juice of the plant is used for removing dandruff and vermin from the scalp, and for allaying pain in the ear. A powder of the leaves is useful for dressing fresh wounds and sores, as it promotes granulation. A poultice of the fresh leaves is used in diseases of the eye...
A review of miglitol included data on adverse effects in 3585 patients in well-designed clinical trials (34). Only the adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract occurred with a significantly greater incidence with miglitol 50 or 100 mg tds. The adverse effects were the same as with other drugs in this class flatulence, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain. There were no differences with monotherapy or combination therapy or in relation to age or ethnicity. There were more episodes of hypoglyce-mia when miglitol was combined with insulin but not with oral agents. The incidence of cardiovascular events was the same as with placebo. Long-term acarbose had a good effect on late dumping syndrome in six patients with type 2 diabetes one patient complained of increased flatulence (35).
The use of naloxone has been studied in an open study in 43 patients having combined thoracic epidural and general anesthesia for subtotal gastrectomy, who were randomly assigned to receive a bolus dose of epidural morphine 3 mg followed by a continuous infusion of 3 mg in 0.125 bupivacaine 100 mg with either no naloxone (n 18) or naloxone 0.208 Hg kg hour (n 25) for 48 hours (123C). The time to the first postoperative passage of flatus and feces (indicating restoration of bowel function) and pain intensity (using a visual analogue scale) were assessed. The results suggested that naloxone 0.208 Hg kg hour adequately reverses hypomotility induced by epidural morphine.
Effects Sarsaparilla is said to increase energy, regulate hormonal activity and protect against radiation. Herbalists have used it for catarrhal problems, colds, fever, flatulence, frigidity, gout, hives, impotence, infertility, nervous system disorders, PMS, rheumatism, and certain blood disorders.
The use of rabeprazole in acid-related disorders has been reviewed (40R). Rabeprazole has proven efficacy in healing, symptom relief, and prevention of relapse of peptic ulcer and gastro-esophageal reflux disease and can form part of effective Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens. It was generally well tolerated in both short-term and long-term studies of up to 2 years. Headache was the most important reported adverse effect. Other commonly reported adverse effects were diarrhea, rhinitis, nausea, pharyngitis, abdominal pain, and flatulence. The changes in serum gastrin concentrations were consistent with proton pump inhibitor pharmacology, and no study has reported mean values at end-point that were outside the reference range. In controlled trials, the frequency of abnormalities of hepatic amino-transferases was similar to that of placebo. Scoring of enterochromaffin-like cells in gastric biopsies taken prospectively from patients in studies of up to 2 years have shown some...
Uses The rhizome of Acorus calamus L. has been used since ancient times to promote appetite and digestion, to invigorate health and to stop spasms and flatulence. Ibn Sina called this herb waj and Dioskurides aKopov. A description of Acorus calamus L. is given in the Theatrum Botanicum of J. Parkinson (1640). The rhizome has since been listed in a number of Western Pharmacopoeia and Codices. Calamus (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) has been used to promote appetite and digestion in the form of an infusion (1 to 10 of boiling water dose of 15mL-30mL) or tincture (1 in 5 dose of 2 mL-4 mL). The volatile oil is used in perfumery. In the Asia-Pacific, the rhizome is principally used to invigorate health, soothe inflammation and to treat skin infection and lumbago. In China, it is used to combat fever, to stop spasms and to treat anxiety. The juice expressed from the rhizome is used externally to heal buboes, carbuncles, treat deafness and to soothe inflamed eyes. In Indonesia, the...
Uses In China, the leaves are used to invigorate health, treat flatulence, heal ulcers, curb vomiting, remove nasal polyps and to cure hiccups. The seeds are used to assuage eyes discomfort and to heal ulcers. In Indonesia, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is used to alleviate cough. A decoction is used to aid recovery from childbirth, promote menses and to combat fever. The seeds are used to combat fever. In Vietnam, the plant is used in perfume making, to invigorate health, treat dysentery and to combat fever. The ashes of the roots are used to treat skin diseases. Ocimum basilicum L. is listed in the French Pharmacopoeia, 1989 and known of Dioskurides as mki ov.
Uses Cleome gynandra L. is a counter-irritant remedy. In China, the seeds are used to stop flatulence and a decoction of the plant is applied externally to treat piles and rheumatism. In Indonesia, the crushed leaves are applied externally to treat herpes, and the plant is used internally to promote expectoration and to stop flatulence. In Malaysia, the crushed leaves are applied externally to treat fever and rheumatism. A decoction of about 30 g of this plant is used to treat malaria, hepatitis, and leucorrhea. The seeds are eaten to prevent a malarial attack. In the Philippines, the leaves are eaten to treat bilious disorders. In Taiwan, a decoction of Cleome gynandra L. is drunk to treat gonorrhea and to stop dysentery. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the roots are invigorating and antiscorbutic. The leaves are applied to the lumbar region to assuage pain in the loins. In India, half a teacup full of seeds given twice daily in a decoction, is eaten to treat convulsive infection,...
Tenofovir is the newest member of this class, and, in contrast to the others, it only needs to be phosphorylated twice intracellularly before it is pharmacologically active. Adverse effects have been reported as flatulence, raised transaminases, raised creatine kinase, and rarely a raised serum creatinine (26c). However, teno-fovir does not currently appear to be nephro-toxic.
A 300 mg dose of rifabutin is usually well tolerated. Adverse effects include neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, rash, and gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, flatulence). Myositis (12) and uveitis (13) are rarely observed. The drug-induced lupus-like syndrome has been linked in a few cases with rifampicin and rifabutin.
The osmotic laxatives include inorganic salts and the synthetic disaccharide, lactulose, as well as magnesium salts and sodium phosphate. Osmotic agents are largely free of adverse effects, apart from flatulence, cramps, and abdominal discomfort. The most common adverse effects of lactulose are flatulence, cramps, and abdominal discomfort. Non-toxic megacolon has been seen in some elderly patients and, as with other laxatives, there is always a possibility of dependence (SEDA-11, 374). Low-dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and lactulose have been compared in chronic constipation in a randomized multicenter study in 115 patients with chronic constipation (37). After 4 weeks the patients who took polyethylene glycol had a higher number of stools, a lower median daily score for straining at stool, and greater overall improvement than patients who took lactulose. Except that significantly fewer patients who took polyethylene glycol reported flatus, other adverse effects were...
Uses In India, the roots of Bauhinia purpurea L. are used to stop flatulence. The bark is used to stop diarrhea and heal ulcers. The flowers are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and the bark or the roots and flowers are mixed with rice water and used to heal boils and abscesses. In Malaysia, the leaves are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. A paste made from the powdered leaves is used to heal boils and soothe inflammation. In Vietnam, the roots are used to treat fever.
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