Natural Ways to Treat Fatty Liver
Of all the tricyclic antidepressants, amineptine appears to be the most likely to cause liver damage. More than 26 cases of toxic hepatitis have been reported in France (6). In most cases, hepatitis occurred within the usual dosage range and recurred on rechallenge. However, in several instances it was reported after overdosage. There are other reports of hepatotoxicity associated with aminep-tine (7,8).
Diethyl ether (SED-9, 172) is obsolete as a general anesthetic (1). It is highly inflammable and therefore incompatible with modern surgical and anesthetic techniques. It has an unpleasant smell and irritates mucous membranes this can cause coughing, straining, laryngeal spasm, and hypersalivation. Recovery is slow and accompanied by nausea and vomiting in up to 85 of patients. Liver damage is as frequent as with halothane. Ether raises intracranial pressure and can cause convulsions. It can cause impaired immune responsiveness and contact dermatitis has been reported, together with a systemic allergic reaction (SEDA-5,120).
If liver damage occurs, isoniazid is probably an important factor and it should be stopped before rifampicin or pyr-azinamide (8). Prediction of hepatotoxicity is possible (9). In a case-control study of 60 patients in India, conducted in order to identify features predicting hepatotoxicity, the body mass index was significantly lower (17.2 kg m2) in patients who experienced hepatotoxicity than in controls (19.5 kg m2) (10).
Disturbances, up to 7 in one large sample of children. Chloral hydrate had a reputation for safety, which has been challenged by data that suggest that it and short-acting barbiturates are particularly lethal when taken in overdose (2). Liver damage and cardiac toxicity, consistent with the chemical similarities between trichloro-ethanol, chloroform, and alcohol, can occur.
In France, dapsone is available in combination with ferrous oxalate as Disulone (Aventis), and in 1983-98, 249 adverse reactions were reported to French pharma-covigilance centers, mainly blood dyscrasias (often neu-tropenia and agranulocytosis, rarely hemolysis and anemia) (11). Five patients died three of them had septicemia secondary to agranulocytosis. There were 29 cases of dapsone syndrome, 39 skin reactions, 27 cases of liver damage, and 27 cases of neurological and psychiatric adverse effects. Patients taking dapsone need to be under close medical supervision for early recognition of adverse reactions.
Uses Capsella bursa-pastoris is well-known in Europe and North America for its use to check bleeding, treat dropsy and promote urination. In China, the ashes of the roots and leaves are used to treat flux. A powder of the plant is used to soothe inflammation. The plant is used to improve liver health, stop dysentery, treat fever, promote urination and check bleeding. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, a decoction of the entire herb (6g day-12g day) is drunk to stop haemoptysis and uterine bleeding, and to treat pulmonary oedema and fever.
Monitor Side Effects All medications have side effects. Aspirin can cause ulcers. It can even cause severe brain damage in infants when ingested during the course of a viral illness. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage. Amoxicillin, the most common antibiotic given to ward off ear infections, can cause allergic reactions that are potentially fatal. There is no way to introduce a chemical into the body that induces only the alteration that helps you. They all cause other changes that may result in side effects.
Green tea and black teas come from the same plant. The difference is in the processing. Green tea is simply dried tea leaves, whereas black tea is fermented, giving it the dark color, the stronger flavor, and the lowest amount of tannins and polyphenols. The beneficial effects of green tea lie in the polyphenols, or flavonoids, that have antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are thought to play a major role in preventing disease (eg, colon cancer) and reducing the effects of aging. Green tea polyphenols are powerful antioxidants. The polyphenols are thought to act by inhibiting the reactions of free radicals within the body that are thought to play a role in aging. The benefits of green tea include an overall sense of well-being, cancer prevention, dental health, and maintenance of heart and liver health. Green tea taken as directed is safe and well tolerated. It contains as much as 50 mg of caffeine per cup. Decaffeinated green tea retains all of the polyphenol content. The...
Volunteers who took methyltestosterone in an experiment showed slight changes in thinking ability, and 2 of the 20 subjects had man-iclike episodes that might be attributable to the drug. A report noted that someone receiving the drug experienced visual and auditory hallucinations, and a case report indicated that methyltestosterone and methandrostenolone were likely causes of psychotic incidents experienced by two bodybuilders. A human experiment attempted to document the drug's psychological effects but was unable to correlate behavioral changes with volunteers' usage of the substance. The substance is suspected of causing liver damage, sometimes resulting in jaundice, lesions, tumors, or other conditions. The compound may cause fluid retention, which can be risky for persons with kidney, liver, or Westaby, D., et al. Liver Damage from Long Term Methyltestosterone. Lancet 2 (1977) 261-63.
The FDA has announced its intention to require alcohol warnings on all over-the-counter pain medications that contain acetylsalicylic acid, salicylates, paracetamol, ibu-profen, ketoprofen, or naproxen. The proposed warnings are aimed at alerting consumers to the specific risks incurred from heavy alcohol consumption and its interaction with analgesics. For products that contain paracetamol, the warning indicates the risks of liver damage in those who drink more than three alcoholic beverages a day. For formulations that contain salicylates or the mentioned NSAIDs three or more alcoholic beverages will increase the risk of stomach bleeding (120). The severe hepatotoxicity in this case was probably due to induction of CYP3A4 by rifampicin, but rifampicin-induced liver damage could not be excluded.
Tioguanine is an analogue of the physiological purines, gua-nine and hypoxanthine, and is a purine antimetabolite. It is incorporated into DNA and RNA, resulting in a variety of cytotoxic effects. It has been used to treat hematologi-cal malignancies, psoriasis, and more recently, inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease. Its main adverse effects are liver damage and hemotoxicity.
There are some indications that individuals with severe liver damage have a tendency to prolonged LSD reactions, because the liver plays an important role in detoxifying LSD and excreting it from the body. Some researchers therefore tended in the past to screen out persons with insufficient liver function associated with cirrhosis, a history of hepatitis, or other pathological conditions. Our experience with chronic alcoholics and cancer patients, many of whom had considerable liver damage, indicated that this factor is negligible unless the dysfunction is of a critical degree.
See also Alcohol-sensitising drug Disulfiram. Acetaldehydedehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+). Acetalgan Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital . Acetalgin Acetaminophen. Acetaminophen C8H9NO2, A crystalline compound, , used in chemical synthesis and in medicine to relieve minor pain, such as headaches and structural muscle aches, and to reduce fever. Best known by the trade name Tylenol. It does not relieve intense pain or the pain caused by spasms of smooth muscles (such as the muscles lining the digestive or urinary tracts). Like the other common analgesic drugs, aspirin and ibuprofen, acetaminophen works by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. However, it does not have the anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic properties of the other two analgesics, neither does it irritate the stomach lining, as aspirin tends to do for some users. It is often used as a substitute for aspirin. Aceta-minophen's...
Tranylcypromine Synthetic drug of the monoamine-oxidase inhibitor type, used to treat severe mental depression. Like other monoamine-oxidase inhibitor drugs, tranyl-cypromine prevents the enzymatic breakdown of norepinephrine, the brain-neurotransmitter substance concerned with emotional stimulation. It does so by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO), which normally breaks down norepinephrine at nerve endings. Tranylcypromine is administered orally. The onset of action is delayed, the effects of the drug developing slowly over the first two weeks of therapy. As with other monoamine-oxidase inhibitor drugs, liver damage is a possible side effect.
Alcoholic epilspy See Delirium Tremens. Alcoholic fatty liver Accumulation of fat in the liver following exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol intake, with consequent enlargement of liver cells and sometimes hepatomegaly, abnormal liver function, nonspecific abdominal pain, anorexia, and less commonly jaundice. Definitive diagnosis can be made only on histological examination of the liver. Fatty liver may develop after only a few days' drinking, and the condition should therefore not be taken to indicate a dependence on alcohol. Abstinence results in regression of the histological abnormalities. The preferred term for the condition is ''alcohol-induced fatty liver , although it is not in common usage. (K70.0) Alcoholic steatonecrosis See Alcoholic fatty liver.
African trypanosomiasis, 18.293 toxoplasmosis, 20.262 Antipsychotic drugs, comparison 25.53 Antitubercular drugs, 16.341 Liver damage, 25.363 cephalopathy, 24.40 Diclofenac, liver damage, 20.91 Digitalis, in atrial fibrillation, 24.197 Digoxin, heart failure in sinus rhythm, 18.196 Diuretics liver damage, 17.98, 18.94 overdose, 23.117 Penicillins, acute desensitization, 23.252 Peritoneal dialysis fluids, effects on peritoneum, 22.381
Despite advancements in modern medicine, no hepatoprotective medicine is available. Treatment options for cirrhosis, fatty liver, and chronic hepatitis are limited as well as problematic. The conventional drugs used in such treatments are corticosteroids, interferon, colchicine, penicillamine, and antiviral and immune suppressant drugs. These are inadequate and inconsistent at best. Paradoxically, these drugs may themselves cause damage (e.g. azathioprine can cause cholestatic jaundice 12 , while interferons and virazole can cause elevation of serum transaminase 13, 14 ). Alternative treatments for liver diseases to replace the currently used drugs need to be given impetus in the light of current findings from research studies and publications in the field of herbal treatment of liver diseases, especially during the last quarter of the twentieth century.
Although some herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of diseases against which modern medicines are inefficient, very often these drugs are unscientifically exploited and improperly used. Numerous plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of liver diseases. However, in most of the severe cases, the treatments are not satisfactory. Experimental evaluation in most cases has been incomplete and insufficient and the therapeutic values have been tested against chemically induced subclinical levels of damage in rodents. Even common dietary antioxidant and micronutrients such as tocopherol 44 , ascorbic acid 45 , beta-carotene 45 , glutathione, uric acid, and bilirubin, and proteins such as ceru-loplasmin can provide protection from liver damage. Ali et al. demonstrated that arjunaphthanoloside from Terminalia arjuna decreases inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages 69 . Jafri et al. reported significant...
The knowledge base on health is especially curious. In 1972 The Times quoted from an IOC booklet called Doping in which it was claimed that steroids 'can severely harm the health, causing liver and bone damage, disturbances in the metabolic and sexual functions, and, among women, virilization and menstrual upset' (The Times, 21 April 1972). Such fears were also expressed by George Kaye, physiology editor of the American magazine Muscle Power who is quoted as saying 'How nutsy must one be to risk liver damage, testes atrophy, prostate and kidney cancer ' By contrast, the more rational scientific opinion was offered by Professor F. T. G. Prutny who was researching detection methods at St Thomas' Hospital, London, and funded by the Sports Council. He argued there was a lack of evidence, but risks of vascular disease and cancer were possible though liver cell changes would be reversible after discontinuation of the drugs.
Fat jay Colloquial term for an especially thick and long joint of marijuana. Fat joint Colloquial term for an especially thick and long joint of marijuana. Fatigan Plus Clorazepate dipotassium. Fatto Italian colloquial term for a person who has just used an illegal drug. Fatty Colloquial term for an especially thick and or long joint of marijuana. Fatty alcohol Any of various alcohols derived from plant or animal oils and fats and used in plastics and pharmaceuticals. Fatty liver, alcoholic See Alcoholic fatty liver.
The eye caused by ocular fluid buildup. Its exact mechanism is unknown. Surgery poses severe risk to the eyes and pharmaceuticals hold dangerous side effects, such as liver damage. Regular cannabis use can often halt this painful progressive vision loss by lowering the fluid pressure within the eye. When symptoms appear, smoking can stop an acute attack.
Liver Further reports of the potential hepa-totoxicity of nimesulide continue to appear (SEDA-25, 135 122A-124A). A wide range of types of liver damage have been documented (125A). Some patients have required liver transplantation (126A) and deaths have occurred (127A). The pathogenic mechanism of these unpredictable, sometimes severe, reactions is uncertain (128r, 129r). In recent months in some countries nimesulide has been withdrawn from the market or its use has been restricted.
Ingredients included in weight-loss aids or other dietary supplements can be unsafe, even though the packaging may say that the product is all-natural. Just because a product claims to be made only of natural materials does not mean that it is automatically safe to use. Some substances found in nature are toxic to humans and should not be ingested. For a famous example, simply consider marijuana a naturally growing plant, but an illegal drug that can cause health problems nonetheless. One of the natural ingredients that can be found in weight-loss aids is bitter orange, which contains a stimulant that is chemically similar to ephedrine and may also have the same side effects. Other ingredients, such as usnic acid that may cause liver damage or aristolochic acid that may
The use of herbs and nutritional supplements to treat various disorders is common. Herbs are used for various effects, such as to boost the immune system, treat depression, and for relaxation. Individuals are becoming more aware of the benefits of herbal therapies and nutritional supplements. Advertisements, books, magazines, and Internet sites abound concerning these topics. People, eager to cure or control various disorders, take herbs, teas, megadoses of vitamins, and various other natural products. Although much information is available on nutritional supplements and herbal therapy, obtaining the correct information sometimes is difficult. Medicinal herbs and nutritional substances are available at supermarkets, pharmacies, health food stores, specialty herb stores, and through the Internet. The potential for misinformation abounds. Because these substances are natural products, many individuals may incorrectly assume that they are without adverse effects. When any herbal remedy...
Phendimetrazinium hydrogentartaricum Phendimetrazine bitartrate Phenedrine Amfetamine or Phenobarbital
Phenelzine C8H12N2, often in the form of phenelzine sulfate, synthetic drug of the monoamine-oxidase inhibitor type, and one of the first of its kind to be used to treat mental depression. Like other monoamine-oxidase inhibitor drugs, phenelzine prevents the enzymatic breakdown of biogenic amines such as the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is associated with certain brain functions including emotional stimulation. Phenelzine is administered orally. The onset of action is delayed, the effects of the drug developing slowly over the first two weeks of therapy. As with other monoamine-oxidase inhibitor drugs, liver damage is a possible side effect. Phenelzine may also react with certain foods, beverages, and medications to produce dangerously high blood pressure. Phenelzine sulfate See Phenelzine. Phenemal, -um Phenobarbital. Phenemalnatrium Phenobarbital sodium. Phenethyl Phenobarbital. Phenethylazocin, -e, -um Phenazocine. Phenethylazocine bromide Phenazocine hydrobromide.
Alcohol Besides liver damage, ulcers, heart problems, seizures, and blood problems, alcohol can also exacerbate symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Although the euphoria of alcohol can temporarily help you feel better, your distress often returns in a more intense form once the alcohol wears off. This can last some days and is not limited merely to the morning hangover.
Snorting cocaine can damage the lining of the nose, cause sinus infection, and impact the sense of smell. Smoking or freebasing cocaine can cause liver and lung damage. Cocaine can also burn uncontrollably when exposed to fire, and accidents involving free-basing have resulted in serious burns. Injecting cocaine carries the negative consequences of injecting any drug, the most serious being HIV infection (a virus that attacks the body's immune system and causes AIDS) and hepatitis (infectious disease that can cause serious liver damage). In addition, cocaine is often mixed, or cut with other chemicals, including other stimulants, that can have adverse effects of their own.
Issues about the quality, efficacy, and safety of medicinal plants and herbals are of concern to all forms of these medicines, not only those used to treat diarrhea. This has been highlighted by recent examples of herbal medicines that have been linked to serious adverse effects 52, 53 , including herbal preparations derived from com-frey which have been used to treat diarrhea 54 . The use of comfrey leaves has been identified as a health hazard, leading to hepatic toxicity (veno-occlusive disease) in humans. This toxicity appears to result from the conversion of pyrrolizi-dine alkaloids into reactive pyrroles or alkaloid-N-oxides by hepatic enzymes. The toxicity leads to necrosis of hepatocytes and mesenchymal cells and eventually results in liver damage in the form of portal hypertension.
Prevents the enzymatic breakdown of norepinephrine, the brain-neurotransmitter substance concerned with emotional stimulation. Isocar-boxazid is administered orally and is readily absorbed from the stomach. The onset of action is delayed, the effects of the drug developing slowly over the first two weeks of therapy. As with other monoamine-oxidase inhibitor drugs, liver damage is a possible side effect.
Alcohol lengthens the duration of effects from chlordi-azepoxide, diazepam, and lorazepam. Cocaine worsens liver damage caused by alcohol. When rats receiving morphine or methadone drink alcohol, the alcohol blood level takes longer to increase but then lasts longer, a result suggesting that a human opiate user might have to drink more in order to get an alcohol effect and would then stay intoxicated longer than someone who does not use opiates. Rat studies indicate that steady opiate consumption may intensify alcohol dependence. In rats, alcohol, chlordiazepoxide, and pen-tobarbital all have cross-tolerance with one another, meaning that one will substitute for the other to some extent. So many drugs interact dangerously with alcohol that a person should always check information labels on drug containers before using the substances simultaneously with alcohol.
Effects Contains the bioflavonoid mixture silymarin, which protects the liver against hepatitis, cirrhosis, and toxins such as carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and the poisonous Amanita mushroom. It may also help protect the liver from otherwise beneficial pharmaceuticals such as antianxiety drugs, antidepressants, cholesterol-lowering drugs such as Zocor (simvastatin) and Mevacor (lovastatin), and high doses of Tylenol (acetaminophen) and iron. Milk thistle may even reverse damage that has already occurred. Studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association have revealed that at least three-quarters of all adult Americans show at least some sign of chronic liver damage which could manifest itself as irritability, fatigue, malaise, anxiety, depression, and mild intellectual impairment possibly indicating that this may be an important herb to add to the diet. This bioflavonoid mixture may also be useful in preventing or treating gallstones and in relieving the symptoms...
Kava is a popular herbal remedy used to relieve stress, anxiety, and tension promote sleep and provide relief from menstrual symptoms. Although the FDA has not made a determination about the ability of kava dietary supplements to provide such benefits, it has issued an alert indicating that the use of kava may cause liver damage. Because kava-containingproducts have been associated with liver-related injuries (eg, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure), the safest use of kava is to take the herb occasionally for episodes of anxiety, rather than on a daily basis. It is important that individuals who use a kava-containing dietary supplement and experience signs of liver disease immediately consult their primary health care provider. Symptoms of liver disease includejaundice, urine with a brownish discoloration, nausea, vomiting, light-colored stools, weakness, and loss of appetite. Adverse effects experienced with the use of dietary supplements should be reported to the FDA's MedWatch...
A condition that impairs normal physical or psychological functioning. One of the least-appreciated drawbacks to using drugs is the possibility of developing mental disorders or contracting a serious disease such as hepatitis (an infectious disease that can cause serious liver damage) or HIV AIDS. HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system and causes AIDS, a medical condition in which the body's immune system is so weakened that even mild infections can cause serious illness or death. Knowing about the health risks associated with drugs can help you realize just how dangerous drug use can be.
Although Western skullcap formulations are supposed to come from Scutellaria lateriflora, it is unclear whether it is responsible for the liver damage that has been associated with skullcap. In the UK, the American germander (Teucrium canadense) has been widely used to replace S. lateriflora in commercial skullcap materials and products. In one UK case of skullcap-associated hepatotoxicity, the material was found to come from T. canadense. This raises the possibility that other cases of skullcap toxicity may also have involved Teucrium rather than Scutellaria (16).
Seven patients developed hepatitis after taking T. chamaedrys and had no other cause of liver damage (24). The hepatitis was characterized by jaundice and a marked increase in serum transaminases 3-18 weeks after taking germander. Liver biopsies in three patients showed hepatic necrosis. After withdrawal of germander the jaundice disappeared within 8 weeks and recovery was complete in 1.5-6 months. In three cases, germander was followed by prompt recurrence of hepatitis.
Naphthalene may create agitation and tiredness, fever, skin paleness, headache, appetite loss, abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, cataracts, and kidney failure. Blood disorders serious enough to prevent the body from utilizing enough oxygen from the lungs may arise. The kidney failure can create excessive blood potassium levels, which in turn can cause heart failure. Seizures and coma may also occur. Jaundice is a known affliction from naphthalene, and a case report notes fatal liver damage.
Pain cramps, vomiting, low energy, joint and muscle pain and headache. Many of these effects are mild and disappear with time. Nal-trexone can cause liver damage when taken in excessive doses. There are no studies on the use of naltrexone in pregnant or nursing women. Naltrexone should be used only if the patient and physician decide that the potential benefit is worth the potential risk. If you take narcotics including heroin in small doses, you may not feel any effects because they will be blocked by naltrexone.However, if you take large doses of narcotics to overcome naltrexone, you may die or be seriously injured. Naltrexone will block the effects of narcotics including codeine in cough or pain preparations. Patients on naltrexone should carry a wallet card to alert physicians and other emergency health-care providers to instruct them on pain management. Naltrexone is not a cure to alcoholism, but when used as part of a treatment plan it can help some alcohol dependent people...
Liver damage has been attributed to black cohosh, which contains diterpenoids that cause liver damage in animals, either via reactive metabolites or by an autoimmune mechanism. However, causality was not demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt. A 47-year-old woman took an extract of C. racemosa for 1 week to treat menopausal symptoms she developed jaundice and raised liver enzymes (5). No other causes of liver damage were found. She required liver transplantation.
The main type of liver damage caused by S. officinale is veno-occlusive disease, a non-thrombotic obliteration of small hepatic veins leading to cirrhosis and eventually liver failure (3). Patients can present with acute or chronic signs portal hypertension, hepatomegaly, and abdominal pain are the main features. It is prudent to avoid exposure of unborn or suckling children to herbal remedies containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Animal studies have shown that transplacental passage and transfer to breast milk can occur, and fatal neonatal liver damage has been reported, when the mother used an herbal cough tea containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids throughout her pregnancy.
Abdominal Pain Nefazodone, phenothiazines, tacrine, and valproate (3) can cause liver damage and failure. If you experience abdominal tenderness, especially if it is accompanied by yellow eyes or skin (signs of jaundice), consult your doctor immediately. Stimulants (1) commonly cause abdominal pain. Though not medically dangerous, it can be unpleasant. Taking a dose after meals may be helpful, although this may reduce effectiveness. A medication change is another option. Jaundice Liver damage caused by disulfiram, lamotrigine, phenothiazines, tacrine, or valproate (3) can manifest itself by yellow eyes and skin, a condition called jaundice. This is a serious reaction. You should consult your physician immediately about stopping your medication. Yellow Skin or Eyes Liver damage caused by disulfiram, lamotrigine, phe-nothiazines, tacrine, or valproate (3) can manifest itself by yellow eyes and skin, a condition called jaundice. This is a serious reaction. You should consult your...
There have been several reports of hepatotoxicity attributed to herbal medicines containing L. tridentata leaves (1,2). Of 18 reports of illnesses associated with the ingestion of chaparral, there was evidence of hepatotoxicity in 13 cases (3). The presentation was characterized by jaundice with a marked increase in serum liver enzymes at 3-52 weeks after ingestion, and it resolved 1-17 weeks after withdrawal. The predominant pattern of liver damage was cholestatic in four cases there was progression to cirrhosis and in two there was acute fulminant liver failure that required liver transplantation. However, in four patients who were given topical chaparral tincture there was no evidence of liver damage (5). Contact dermatitis has been attributed to L. tridentata (6).
PRECAUTIONS Warnings It may be habit-forming. Zaleplon is different structurally from benzodiazepines but has similar pharmacological properties, and may share their tendency to be physically and psychologically habit-forming. This issue is not resolved. Use with extra caution if you have Liver damage, as the metabolic breakdown of zaleplon will be reduced, increasing the intensity and duration of its effects. Tests needed before starting None. Alcohol Alcohol must be avoided entirely. The simultaneous use of zaleplon and alcohol is extremely dangerous because it may cause you to stop breathing. The combination may cause death. The elderly are especially sensitive to the effects of hypnotics and may experience pronounced side effects at low doses (see chapter 4).
Amphetamines stimulate the central nervous system (the brain and associated anatomy). At one time evidence of damage to nerve cells was not clear enough to satisfy some credible researchers that such a hazard exists, despite any theoretical reasons for concern, but in the 1990s evidence was becoming persuasive. Among other things, researchers have found that persons who continually abuse amphetamines and persons with a certain type of organic brain injury ( focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC prefrontal cortex ) have similar problems in making decisions.4 Severity correlates to length of amphetamine abuse. Nonprescription sales have long been banned in Sweden due to kidney system damage, and amphetamines are suspects in liver damage involving hepatitis. Amphetamines also excite the heart, increasing pulse rate and blood pressure. Normally cardiac effects are unharmful but can be risky at high doses. To a lesser extent, amphetamines help to open air pathways in the lungs while...
DXM abuse is harmful enough on its own, but the cold medicines that contain it also sometimes contain other products that can heighten the danger of abusing them. For example, several cough syrups with DXM in them also contain acetaminophen, a pain reliever. Taking large doses of it causes liver damage, strokes, heart attacks, and death. Even if abusers are familiar with the dangers of DXM itself, they might not be aware that other substances included in their drug are just as harmful. They
Precautions Scientific evidence is lacking for many of its claims, including its ability to reduce insomnia and anxiety. An overdose of the tincture can cause confusion, giddiness, stupor, twitching, and other neurological problems. There are a few recorded cases where high doses have caused liver damage.
Overdosing of the Chinese remedy Jin Bu Huan containing large amounts of tetrahy-dropalmatine 105 . A 6-month-old infant suffered garlic burns when his father applied crushed garlic cloves to the wrists 106 , while a 6-year-old child developed a necrotic ulcer on her foot after her grandmother applied crushed garlic under a bandage as a remedy for a minor sore 107 . Two cases of serious or fatal toxicity have been described in two infants who had been given 90 to 120 ml of mint tea containing pennyroyal oil for colic and minor ailments 108 . A case of methe-moglobinemia in a 5-week-old infant treated with a gum asafetida preparation has been reported 5 . In a study carried out in two hospitals in South Africa, 20 children were diagnosed with hepatic veno-occlusive diseases, and pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning was suggested as the cause of the problem, confirmed from the presence of these alkaloids in the urine samples of four subjects 109 . The case of a 13-year-old child with...
The acute and chronic toxicity profile of cannabis is described in Chapter 10 of this volume. Liver damage is not a prominent feature and it has been suggested that alcoholics might be encouraged to shift their dependence from alcohol to cannabis on grounds of increased safety, in a parallel with the substitution of methadone for heroin in addiction with the latter. There are no reports of individual cannabinoids being investigated in this respect.
Another serious adverse reaction to Ecstasy use is hepatitis, inflammation of the liver. There have been several reported cases (Henry et al. 1992 Dykhuizen et al. 1995), but they do not conclusively define MDMA as the inciting agent, and the specific mechanism of action by which MDMA might cause the damage has not been described. In twenty-eight-day toxicology studies in the rat and dog, Frith and Chang (1987) did not report any liver damage from MDMA administration. Ed. Liver damage after Ecstasy use has been reported, but it appears to be unrelated to hyperthermia and may be due to an idiosyncratic drug reaction (Karch 1996 Milroy et al. 1996). In 1992 a case series of seven patients with liver damage associated with Ecstasy use was reported (Henry et al. 1992). Several isolated cases also have been reported, including two cases of acute hepatitis (Delentre et al. 1994 Dykhuizen et al. 1995) and one case of accelerated hepatic fibrosis (hardening of the liver) (Khakoo et al. 1995)....
Metabolism There has been a series of reports of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver disease in tamoxifen users, but only recently has attention been devoted to effects on fat deposits. Steatosis and adipose tissue distribution has been evaluated using CT scanning in a cross-sectional study of 32 women taking tamoxifen for breast cancer and a similar control group (71cr). Tamoxifen users generally had more visceral adipose tissue and more liver fat than controls, and had a higher risk of diabetes. It is still unclear whether tamoxifen causes long-term metabolic abnormalities in obese patients, or whether patients with the metabolic syndrome X of obesity are at increased risk of the complications of tamoxifen. In view of this finding, and earlier results pointing in the same direction, it would be wise in future studies of tamoxifen to monitor metabolic changes in obese women with or without breast cancer.
PRECAUTIONS Warnings Abuse potential Pemoline can be abused for its stimulant effects of euphoria and increased energy. Dependence can occur in some individuals, who may exhibit insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. Liver damage and failure has occurred in 13 people since pemoline was introduced in 1975. Don't use if you have Heart disease, as pemoline can cause an elevated heart rate hypertension, as pemoline can elevate blood pressure hyperthyroidism, as pemoline can cause a further elevation of heart rate liver disease, as pemoline may further damage the liver Tourette's disorder or tics, as pemoline can worsen tics. Use extra caution if you have Bipolar disorder, as pemoline can cause a manic episode epilepsy, as pemoline may increase the frequency of seizures a psychotic disorder, as pemoline can worsen psychotic symptoms. Tests needed before starting None. Alcohol The simultaneous use of pemoline and alcohol causes no specific adverse consequences, but...
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