Ways to Improve Your Vision Naturally

Vista Clear Vision Supplement

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Prostaglandins in ophthalmology

Topical PGE2 and PGF2a significantly reduce intraocular pressure for at least 24 hours and are used in the treatment of glaucoma. Derivatives of the isopropyl ester of PGF2a appear to be the most effective. Transient ocular adverse effects include conjunctival hyperemia, local irritation, intermittent photophobia, and pain in the eye (66-68). Newer derivatives, such as latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, appear to be better tolerated, with less severe and less frequent adverse effects (69). They reduce intraocular pressure by increasing uveoscleral outflow. The ocular pressure-lowering effect of latanoprost appears to be additive with timolol, with mild transient hyperemia in 50 of those treated with latanoprost alone (70). The ocular adverse effects of latanoprost include con-junctival hyperemia, iris pigmentation, periocular skin color changes, anterior uveitis, and cystoid macular edema in pseudophakic patients (77,78). H. simplex dendritic keratitis has been reported after...

Increased intraocular pressure and glaucoma

Ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma are well-known adverse effects of ophthalmic administration of glucocorticoids (SEDA-17, 449). A large case-control study, in which 9793 elderly patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were compared with 38 325 controls, has shown an increased risk of these complications with oral glucocor-ticoids (SEDA-22, 446) (54). The risk of ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma increased with increasing dose and duration of use of the oral glucocorticoid. There was no significant increase in the risk of ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma in patients who had stopped taking oral glucocorticoids 15-45 days before. The authors estimated that the excess risk of ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma with current oral glucocorticoid use is 43 additional cases per 10 000 patients per year. However, in patients taking over 80 mg day of hydrocortisone equivalents, the excess risk is 93 additional cases per 10 000 patients per...


Glaucoma is the commonest cause of blindness in the Western World. Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is usually due to an obstruction to the outflow of aqueous humour at the front of the eye, and by far the commonest deficit is primary open-angle (chronic simple) glaucoma. A range of topical and systemic drugs are used to treat this, but efficacy is variable and there are many possible unwanted effects. In the 1970s, anecdotal reports of symptom relief by smoked marijuana appeared and a small number of glaucoma patients successfully argued in the U.S. for legal access to the drug (Grinspoon and Bakalar 1993). Hepler and colleagues (1976) Two small placebo-controlled studies of smoked and topical THC confirmed a significant IOP reduction in glaucoma patients. Merrit and colleagues (1980) compared smoked THC (2 ) with placebo in a double-blind parallel-group study in 18 patients. IOP was significantly reduced in comparison with placebo between 1.5 and 2.5 h after dosing. Unfortunately,...


In a population-based cross-sectional study of vision and common eye diseases in 3654 people, 49-97 years of age, inhaled glucocorticoid use was reported by 370 subjects, of whom 164 reported current use and 206 previous use. Subjects who reported using inhaled glucocorticoids had a higher prevalence of nuclear cataracts (OR 1.5 CI 1.2, 1.9) and posterior subcapsular cataracts (OR 1.9 CI 1.3, 2.8). The highest prevalence (27 ) was in patients whose lifetime dose was more than 2000 mg (relative prevalence 5.5) (SEDA-22, 187). In 3677 patients undergoing cataract extraction over 2 years compared with a matched control group of 21 868 people, the patients were more likely to undergo cataract extraction if they had used inhaled glucocorticoids for more than 3 years (OR 3.06 CI 1.53, 6.13). This risk was not significant in patients who used low to medium doses (1000 micrograms day or less) when the OR was 1.63 (CI 0.85, 3.13) after 2 years. The OR was In a nested case-control analysis...

Use in glaucoma

It has been more than a quarter of a century since the discovery that oral propranolol reduces intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. However, the use of pro-pranolol for glaucoma was limited by its local anesthetic action (membrane-stabilizing activity). Partial agonist activity of beta-blockers may help to prevent ocular nerve damage and subsequent visual field loss associated with glaucoma. Such damage may be related to a reduction in ocular perfusion, as might occur if an ocular beta-blocker caused local vasoconstriction. An agent with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity might preserve ocular perfusion through local vasodilatation or by minimizing local vasoconstriction. The data are sparse and inconclusive, but carteolol appears to have no effect on retinal blood flow or may even increase it, making it potentially suitable as a neuroprotective drug (38,39).


Glaucoma is a disease of the eye which is characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure (Lemberger, 1980). Many reports have shown that A9-THC and other synthetic cannabinoids can lower intraocular pressure (Lemberger, 1980). Intraocular pressure is a reflection of the balance between the formation and the outflow of the aqueous humor. A9-THC can decrease fluid production and increase the total outflow facility of the eye (Adler and Geller, 1986). This may be one possible mechanism for the action. Because cannabinoids lower intraocular pressure, they have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of glaucoma. Unfortunately, simultaneously, they show CNS and cardiovascular effects as well. Recently, Buchwald and collegue (Klein et al., 1998) performed a SAR study designed to generate cannabinoid like anti-glaucoma agent which have local effects, but no systemic effect. The preliminary pharmacological study indicate that there is a good possibility for the development of atopical...

Drug administration route

Atropine administered by aerosol has a selective effect on the airways because of its low systemic absorption. Adverse effects are those of atropine and atropine-like drugs, but systemic effects are unlikely after topical administration. Two patients developed the signs and symptoms of angle-closure glaucoma after receiving aerosolized atropine. Patients with shallow anterior chambers or possible prior angle-closure glaucoma are probably at greater risk (10). Atropine methylnitrate, a quaternary ammonium derivative, is more selective than atropine sulfate because it is less readily absorbed.

General Information

Carbachol is a quaternary ammonium compound that shares both the muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine but is much more slowly deactivated. Carbachol has been used topically in ophthalmology and systemically (subcutaneously, for example in doses of 2 mg day) for urinary retention. Severe cholinergic effects can result. In one instance they primarily involved the gastrointestinal tract and the patient died of esophageal rupture (1). In other cases patients have experienced extreme bradycardia with hypotension, requiring treatment with intravenous atropine. As car-bachol is not destroyed by cholinesterase, a cumulative effect is possible in patients who receive regular doses at short intervals in one case, hypotension only developed on the third treatment day (2).


Adrenergic drugs are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity. Isoproterenol is contraindicated in patients with tachyarrhythmias, tachycardia or heart block caused by digitalis toxicity, ventricular arrhythmias, and angina pectoris. Dopamine is contraindicated in those with pheochromocytoma (tumor of adrenal gland), unmanaged arrhythmias, and ventricular fibrillation. Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and cardiac insufficiency. Norepinephrine and ephedrine are contraindicated in patients who are hypotensive from blood volume deficits. Midodrine is contraindicated in those with severe organic heart disease, acute renal disease, pheochromocytoma, and supine hypertension. These drugs are used cautiously in patients with coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pec-toris, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, occlusive vascular disease, or prostatic hypertrophy, and in those taking digoxin. Patients with...

Gerontologic Alert

MANAGING ALTERATION IN VISUAL ACUITY Blurred vision and photophobia are commonly seen with the administration of a cholinergic blocking drug. The severity of this adverse reaction is often dose dependent, that is, the larger the dose, the more intense the adverse reaction. The nurse monitors the patient for any disturbance in vision. The patient may need assistance when ambulating. If photophobia is a problem, the patient may need to wear shaded glasses when going outside, even on cloudy days. The rooms are kept dimly lit and curtains or blinds closed to eliminate bright sunlight in the room.

Pregnancy Category C

The drug was first isolated from coca plants in the mid-1800s. Cocaine apparently functions as an insecticide in the plants, but the substance has had no commercial agricultural use for that purpose. Early medical applications included administration to treat addiction to alcohol and opiates, but persons addicted to those drugs did not better on cocaine. Like many stimulants, cocaine has anorectic (weight-reducing) properties that decline as usage stretches over time but the drug's main medical use has been as a local anesthetic, particularly in ear, nose, and mouth surgery. Experimental use as an antide-pressant has been unsuccessful. Cocaine has been used to treat tonsillitis, earache, toothache, burns, skin rash, hay fever, asthma, hemorrhoids, nerve pain, nausea, and vomiting. It makes the body's immune system more active. For medical purposes cocaine has been largely superseded by drugs having less potential for abuse, but it is still called an excellent anesthetic for nose...

Preparing the Patient for Local Anesthesia

Depending on the procedure performed, preparing the patient for local anesthesia may or may not be similar to preparing the patient for general anesthesia. For example, administering a local anesthetic for dental surgery or for suturing a small wound may require that the nurse explain to the patient how the anesthetic will be administered, take a patient's allergy history, and when applicable, prepare the area to be anesthetized, which may involve cleaning the area with an antiseptic or shaving the area. Other local anesthetic procedures may require the patient to be in a fasting state because a sedative may also be administered. The nurse may administer an intravenous sedative such as the antianxiety drug diazepam (Valium) (see Chap. 30) during some local anesthetic procedures, such as cataract surgery or surgery performed under spinal anesthesia.

Drugs stimulating predominantly aadrenoreceptors

Clonidine raises systemic blood pressure and heart rate by stimulating a2-adrenorecep-tors in certain parts of the CNS, and it is used mainly as an antihypertensive agent. Clonidine is used in various forms of hypertonic illnesses and for stopping hypertensive attacks. It is also used in ophthalmological practice for open-angle glaucoma. Synonyms of clonidine are hemiton, catapres, and clofelin.

Epstein Barr Virus Infections

Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBVs) also belongs to the herpes family. It is transmitted through oral secretions. The virus affects the neuro-ophthalmologic and anterior segment of the eye. It encompasses a wide range of clinical symptoms that include follicular conjunctivitis, dendritic epithelial and stromal keratitis (10,46). Granular or ring shaped lesions may be found distributed through out the cornea and is also associated with corneal vascularization (46). EBV infections of retina are not very common.

Indirectacting Cholinomimetics

Clinical use of reversible inhibitors is directed to eye, skeletal muscle, neuromuscular junctions, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, respiratory tract, and heart and used in treatment of glaucoma (an ocular disease caused by increased intraocular pressure due to inadequate drainage of aqueous humor at filtration angle), myasthenia gravis (an autoimmune disease

Organs and Systems Nervous system

In 12 men who were exposed to ethylene oxide after a sterilizer developed a leak, although the concentrations of ethylene oxide were not monitored, all four operators intermittently smelled the ethylene oxide gas, roughly indicating a concentration of more than 700 ppm (8). All four operators developed neurological disorders. One operator who had been working for only 3 weeks developed headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy, followed by major motor seizures. The other three had all been working for more than 2 years and had headache, limb numbness and weakness, increased fatigue, trouble with memory, and slurred speech. Three of them developed cataracts and one required bilateral cataract extractions. Four men, two of whom had not worked directly with the leaking sterilizer, had increased central corneal thickness with normal endothelial cell counts (SEDA-11, 479).

Systemic effects of ophthalmic medications

Of the drug that is administered in eye-drops, 80 diffuses into the general circulation and can have systemic effects, even when low concentrations are used (1). The lacrimal pump is the essential route of diffusion from eye-drops into the systemic circulation, through active cellular absorption in the lacrimal secretory pathways. The active ingredient avoids first-pass metabolism and reaches its site of action directly, resulting in increased systemic availability. All the same, this form of treatment is generally very well tolerated, when one bears in mind the immense volume of eye-drops prescribed by ophthalmologists each day. Systemic problems can also develop with antimicrobial eye-drops (8) and contact lens products (9,10).

Local adverse effects

Ophthalmic drugs can cause problems of local tolerance, but with variable frequency. They can cause pain on instillation, allergic reactions, delayed healing, punctate keratitis, and disturbances of lacrimal secretion and accommodation. These local problems may be responsible for poor patient adherence to therapy. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common derma-tological condition that affects the eyelids. Allergic contact dermatitis was found in a retrospective study in 151 (74 ) of 203 patients with persistent or recurrent eyelid dermatitis with or without dermatitis elsewhere (11) 46 had protein-contact dermatitis, but only 14 had protein-contact dermatitis without concurrent allergic contact dermatitis 23 patients had atopic eczema, of whom 16 also had allergic contact dermatitis, protein-contact dermatitis, or both. Other conditions included seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, dry eyes, and dermatomyositis or overlapping connective tissue disease. Important sources of contact...

Susceptibility factors

Elderly people are particularly likely to make errors in the administration of ophthalmic medications, resulting in overdosage and adverse toxic effects or underdosage with inadequately controlled glaucoma (12). This may reflect impaired memory, mental confusion, impaired vision, hearing, and mobility, or a combination of these factors. It is wise to assess both adherence to therapy and administration technique to ensure the safe and effective use of

Pregnancy Category X

The drug can worsen verbal communication, causing voices to become indistinct and grammar to become garbled. Studies measuring sleep-time breathing find that the drug can exacerbate respiration problems in some experiments researchers concluded that the change has no practical effect on health, but medical literature notes an instance in which the drug's influence on breathing did cause trouble for a sleeping person. In a mice experiment flurazepam lowered body temperature. In humans long-term use of the drug is suspected of causing hallucinations and confusion, and a case report exists of a single dose creating those symptoms along with euphoria. Investigators in the 1970s found mild euphoria to be a routine effect of flurazepam. Headache, low blood pressure, eyesight trouble, nausea, vomiting, and constipation can occur. A case report relates that a woman's interest in sexual activity increased when she stopped taking flurazepam and diazepam. Flurazepam is believed to interfere with...

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Glaucoma is an increase in the IOP that, if left untreated, can result in blindness. Normally the eye is filled with aqueous humor in an amount that is carefully regulated to maintain the shape of the eyeball. In glaucoma, aqueous humor is increased, which causes the IOP to rise and can, without treatment, damage the retina. Acetazolamide (Diamox) is used in the treatment of simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma when delay of surgery is desired to lower the IOP. These drugs are also used in the treatment of edema caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), drug-induced edema, and control of epilepsy (absence formerly petit mal and non-localized seizures). Methazolamide (Neptazane) is used in the treatment of glaucoma.

Pregnancy Category None

Jimson weed has anticholinergic actions, meaning it can change heartbeat, affect eyesight (including extreme and prolonged dilation of pupils), and halt progress of material through the intestines. Jimson weed should be avoided by persons with heart trouble, glaucoma, or slow bowels. Other body signs indicating that Jimson weed should be avoided include enlarged prostate, urination difficulty, fluid buildup in lung tissue, and obstruction that impedes movement of food from the stomach. The substance can raise blood pressure and body temperature while drying mucous membranes. Persons hospitalized following jimson weed ingestion have shown a flushed face, exaggerated reflexes, other reflexes consistent with a poison acting upon the brain, and changes involving prothrombin (a factor in blood clotting). Paranoia may be present. More than one report about jimson weed describes users with a saying such as this Blind as a bat, hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as a beet, mad as a...

Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Suppressing Diuretics

Symptoms for using carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are edema in cardiopulmonary insufficiency, glaucoma (wide angle, secondary, and preoperational narrow-angle glaucoma), minor epileptic attacks, premenstrual high blood pressure, and severe altitude sickness. It is believed that in glaucoma, the effect of drugs is possibly linked to suppression of carbonic anhydrase in ciliary bodies, which can result in decreased secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. Of the drugs that suppress carbonic anhydrase activity, acetazolamide, methazo-lamide, and dichlorphenamide are used in medical practice.

Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 50373 Formal Names Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

Informal Names A, Acid, Acido, Angel Tears, Animal, Backbreaker (combined with strychnine), Barrel, Battery Acid, Beast, Beavis & Butthead, Big D, Bird-head, Black Acid, Black Star, Black Sunshine, Black Tab, Blotter, Blotter Acid, Blotter Cube, Blue Acid, Blue Barrel, Blue Chair, Blue Cheer, Blue Heaven, Blue Microdot, Blue Mist, Blue Moon, Blue Vial, Boomer, Brown Bombers, Brown Dots, California Sunshine, Cap, Chief, Chocolate Chips, Cid, Coffee, Conductor, Contact Lens, Crackers, Crystal Tea, Cubes, Cupcakes, D, Deeda, Delysid, Domes, Doses, Dots, Double Dome, Electric Kool Aid, Ellis Day, Elvis, Felixthe Cat, Fields, Flash, Flat Blues, Ghost, God's Flesh, Golden Dragon, Goofy, Grape Parfait, Green Double Domes, Green Single Dome, Green Wedge, Grey Shields, Hats, Hawaiian Sunshine, Hawk, Haze, Head Light, Heavenly Blue, Instant Zen, L, Lason Sa Daga, LBJ, Leary's, Lens, Lime Acid, Little Smoke, Live Spit and Die, Logor, Loony Toons, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, Mellow Yellow,...

Second Generation Effects Pregnancy

Rapid improvement of regulation by insulin lispro during pregnancy causes proliferative diabetic retinopathy more often. In 14 patients treated with insulin lispro to improve control before or at the beginning of pregnancy, six of the 10 patients with normal optic fundi remained negative. However, three patients developed bilateral progressive retinopathy with marked vision impairment, in two cases with vitreous hemorrhage one patient with a negative examination 6 months before pregnancy, but with minimal lesions 18 months earlier, developed progressive reti-nopathy with vitreous hemorrhages in spite of multiple coagulations (31). The authors advised care when starting insulin lispro in patients with a history of retinal lesions and to look for those at risk by performing fluorescein angiography, which distinguishes incipient changes better.

Adverse Reactions

Infections for use on the face, groin, or axilla (only the high-potency corticosteroids) and for ophthalmic use (may cause steroid-induced glaucoma or cataracts). The topical corticosteroids are Pregnancy Category C drugs and are used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. There are no significant interactions when administered as directed.

II52 Benzalkonium chlorides

Surfactants can be classified into cationic, anionic and nonionic ones. Benzalkonium chlorides are cationic surfectants and being widely used as a disinfectant and germicide using their strong protein-denaturing action. Especially in hospitals, 10 solution of benzalkonium chloride mixture is being usually used it is diluted to 0.05-0.1 solution to be used for various types of disinfection. The drugs are contained in gargles and preservative solutions for contact lenses.

Alpha2Adrenergic Drugs

The drug is contraindicated in patients with hypersen-sitivity to the drug or any component of the drug and in patients taking the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Patients should wait at least 15 minutes after instilling brimonidine before inserting soft contact lenses because the preservative in the drug may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. The drug is used cautiously during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category B) and lactation and in patients with cardiovascular disease, depression, cerebral or coronary insufficiency, orthosta-tic hypotension, or Raynaud's phenomenon. When bri-monidine is used with central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anesthetics, there is a risk for an additive CNS depressant effect. Use the drug cautiously in combination with the beta blockers, antihypertensive drugs, and cardiac glycosides because a synergistic effect may occur.

Sympathomimetic Drugs

These drugs are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug or any component of the drug. Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with narrow angle glaucoma, or patients with a narrow angle, but no glaucoma, aphakia (absence of the crystalline lens of the eye). Epinephrine should not be used while wearing soft contact lenses (discoloration of the lenses may occur).

Beta Adrenergic Blocking Drugs

The p-adrenergic blocking drugs are contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma, obstructive pulmonary disease, sinus bradycardia, heart block, cardiac failure, or cardiogenic shock and in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug or any components of the drug. These drugs are Pregnancy Category C and are used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation and in patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes (may mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia), and hyperthyroidism (may mask symptoms of hyperthyroidism). The patient taking p-adrener-gic blocking drugs for ophthalmic reasons may experience increased or additive effects when the drugs are administered with the oral beta blockers. Co-administration of timolol maleate and calcium antagonists may cause hypotension, left ventricular failure, and condition disturbances within the heart. There is a potential additive hypotensive effect when the beta-blocking ophthalmic drugs are administered with the phenothiazines.

Miotics Cholinesterase Inhibitors

The cholinesterase inhibitors are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug or any components of the drug. Some of these products contain sulfites, and patients with sulfite sensitivity may experience allergic-type reactions. The drugs are also contraindicated in patients with any active inflammatory disease of the eye and during pregnancy (demecarium, Pregnancy Category X echothiophate iodine, Pregnancy Category C) and lactation. The cholinesterase inhibitors are used cautiously in patients with myasthenia gravis (may cause additive adverse effects), before and after surgery, and in patients with chronic angle-closure (narrow angle) glaucoma or those with narrow angles (may cause papillary block and increase the angle blockage). When the cholinesterase

Vasoconstrictors Mydriatics

These drugs are contraindicated in individuals with hypersensitivity to the drug or any component of the drug and in patients with narrow angle glaucoma or anatomically narrow angle and no glaucoma and in patients with a sulfite sensitivity (some of these products contain sulfite). The drugs are used cautiously in patients with hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease, and arteriosclerosis. Local anesthetics can increase absorption of topical drugs. Systemic adverse reactions may occur more frequently when these drugs are administered with the p-adrenergic blocking drugs. When the mydriatics (drugs that dilate the pupil) are administered with the MAOIs or as long as 21 days after MAOI administration, exaggerated adrenergic effects may occur.

Preadministration Assessment

The primary health care provider examines the eye and external structures surrounding the eye and prescribes the drug indicated to treat the disorder. The nurse examines the eye for irritation, redness, and the presence of any exudate and carefully documents the findings in the patient's record. A purulent discharge is often found with infection of the eye. Pruritus (itching) is often present with allergic conditions of the eye. It is also important to determine if any visual impairment is present because this would indicate the need for assistance with ambulation and possibly activities of daily living.

Promoting an Optimal Response to Therapy

Before instillation, ophthalmic solutions and ointments can be warmed in the hand for a few minutes. Ophthalmic ointments are applied to the eyelids or dropped into the lower conjunctival sac ophthalmic solutions are dropped into the middle of the lower con-junctival sac (Fig. 57-2). When eye solutions are instilled, the nurse applies gentle pressure on the inner canthus to delay drainage of the drug down the tear duct. The primary health care provider is consulted regarding use of this technique before the first dose is instilled because this technique can be potentially dangerous in some eye conditions, such as recent eye surgery. When two eye drops are prescribed for use at the same time, the nurse waits at least 5 minutes before instilling the second drug. This help prevents dilution of the drug and loss of some therapeutic effect from tearing. Some ophthalmic drugs produce blurring of vision, which can result in falls and other injuries. The nurse warns patients to exercise care...

Monitoring and Managing Adverse Reactions

Although adverse reactions are rare, these drugs can cause visual impairment such as blurring of vision and local irritation and burning. These reactions are most often self-limiting and will resolve if the patient waits a few minutes. However, if visual impairment does not resolve itself or occurs as a consequence of an eye disorder, the nurse provides assistance with ambulation to prevent injury from falls. In addition, assistance with activities of daily living may also be needed. Visual impairment that does not clear within 30 minutes after therapy is reported to the primary health care provider.

Cannabinoid research today and tomorrow

The field of cannabinoid research is wide open and quickly expanding. This is occurring as an outgrowth of understanding the biochemical actions of cannabinoids for several different conditions. Basic science has now charted the actions of cannabinoids on spastic disorders and analgesia. In the near future researchers will uncover the basic biochemical utilization of cannabinoids in glaucoma and immune function. This deeper understanding of cannabinoid physiology is profoundly altering the knowledge base and giving tremendous impetus to the design of new cannabinoid-based dosage forms. The future will show multiple delivery systems like transdermal patches, creams, and pills. Ironically, this explosion of knowledge is leading medical science back in time as new dosage forms remake the tinctures, lotions, pills and extracts that were widely manufactured and prescribed by physicians more than 50 years ago.

Family Loganiaceae Martius 1827 nom conserv the Logania Family

Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of pharmaceutical products from Loganiaceae are the dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Nux Vomica, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963) and Strychnos ignatii (Ignatia, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), which have been used as bitter and as ingredients of purgative pills and tablets. The bitterness of the Strychnos species is attributed to the presence of series of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, such as strychnine (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1959) and brucine which are freakishly poisonous. The dried rhizome and roots of Gelsenium sempervirens (Gelsenium, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963), containing not less than 0.32 of gelsemine, has been used as a tincture to treat migraine (Gelsenium Tincture, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963). Note that Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Ait. f (evening trumpet-flower) is a common ornamental garden plant in North America. Another example of medicinal Loganiaceae is Gelsemium nitidum (American...

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

Organic brain damage, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and narrow angle glaucoma. Salmeterol is contraindicated during acute bronchospasm. The sympathomimetics are used cautiously in patients with hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, diabetes, pro-static hypertrophy, or a history of seizures. The sympa-thomimetic drugs are used cautiously during pregnancy (all are Pregnancy Category C, except terbutaline, which is Pregnancy Category B), and lactation.

One Man His Drug Scams

For example, the leaf's relief of ocular pressure for glaucoma patients is much shorter lasting and therefore unsatisfactory, compared to the bud. Also, the leaf sometimes gives smokers a headache. The federal government until 1986 used only the leaf. Turner said to the pharmaceutical companies and in interview, that leaf is all Americans would ever get although the bud works better. Still today in 1999, the seven legal marijuana users in the U.S. only get leaf, branch, and bud chopped up and rolled together. Although buds work better for chemotherapy, glaucoma, etc., the branches can be as toxic as smoking wood.

Eleocharis dulcis Burm fTrin ex Henschel

Uses In China, Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Henschel is used to treat measles, eye diseases, flu, to combat fever, counteract poisoning, check hemorrhage and to promote urination. The pharmacological properties of Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Henschel remain unexplored.

Alpha2 Adrenergic Drugs

Brimonidine tartrate is an alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist used to lower IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This drug acts to reduce aqueous humor production and increase the outflow of aqueous humor. glaucoma) may be used in Glaucoma Glaucoma, pre- and

Miotic Direct Acting

These drugs are contraindicated in patients with hyper-sensitivity to the drug or any component of the drug and in conditions where constriction is undesirable (eg, iritis, uveitis, and acute inflammatory disease of the anterior chamber). The drugs are used cautiously in patients with corneal abrasion, pregnancy (Pregnancy Category C), lactation, cardiac failure, bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer, hyperthyroidism, gastrointestinal spasm, urinary tract infection, Parkinson's disease, recent myocardial infarction, hypotension, or hypertension. These drugs are also used cautiously in patients with angle closure glaucoma because miotics can, occasionally, precipitate angle closure glaucoma by increasing the resistance to aqueous flow from posterior to anterior chamber. See Chapter 24 for information on interactions.

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

These drugs are contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to an individual drug or any components of the drug. The NSAID flurbiprofen is con-traindicated in patients with herpes simplex keratitis. Diclofenac and ketorolac are contraindicated in patients who wear soft contact lenses (may cause ocular irritation).

Q How Does Marijuana Affect Your Health

Smoking anything is not healthy, but marijuana is less dangerous than tobacco and people smoke less of it at a time. This health risk can be avoided by eating the plant instead of smoking it 13 , or can be reduced by smoking smaller amounts of stronger marijuana. There is no proof that marijuana causes serious health or sexual problems 14 but, like alcohol, its use by children or adolescents is discouraged. Cannabis is a medicinal herb that has hundreds of proven, valuable theraputic uses - from stress reduction to glaucoma to asthma to cancer therapy, etc. 15 .

Metamfetamine sulfate C10H15N2

Enhanced attention paid to peripheral vision -accompanied by head turning in an attempt to see the object(s) more clearly. Meth monster Colloquial term for person who has a violent reaction to metamfetamine. Meth monsters Colloquial term for hallucinations of various monstrous figures while under the influence of metamfetamines - possibly due to enhanced attention paid to peripheral vision - accompanied by head turning in an attempt to see the object(s) more clearly. Methachalonum Methaqualone. Methadol Dimepheptanol. Methadon, -e, -um Methadone. Methadon-Zwischenprodukt Methadone intermediate.

Effects And Risks Of Smoking

Besides the danger of nicotine addiction, cigarette use poses a wide range of threats to the user's health. The main health dangers include increased risk of heart attack, respiratory diseases such as emphysema and lung cancer, cancer of the mouth and throat, and pancreatic cancer. About one in six men who continue to smoke tobacco will develop lung cancer compared to one in 75 nonsmokers. Male smokers are also 85 percent more likely to suffer from impotence than nonsmokers are. Other diseases linked to smoking include various forms of cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, cataracts,

General adverse reactions

The adverse effects of disopyramide are mostly mediated by its effects on the cardiovascular system and by its anticholinergic effects. Disopyramide has a strong negative inotropic effect on the myocardium and can cause heart failure and hypotension. It prolongs the QT interval and can cause serious ventricular tachydysrhythmias. Anticholinergic effects can cause dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, glaucoma, and erectile impotence. Hypoglycemia can also occur. Disopyramide can cause uterine contractions and should not be used during pregnancy. Angioedema has been reported rarely. Tumor-inducing effects have not been reported.

Synthetic Prostaglandins

Latanoprost is a derivative of PGF,, that is used in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension, and increases the outflow of the aqueous humor, bypassing the obstructed site of normal drainage by opening an alternative drainage pathway through uveal and scleral tissues. It is used topically as eye drops, and as an adverse effect, it may induce an increase in brown pigmentation of the iris, corneal deposits, and, rarely, an increase in eyelash growth. This effect is caused by increased melanin formation in melanocytes. In addition, latanoprost also produces increased reductions in intraocular pressure when used with other anti-glaucoma agents, such as the muscarinic agonist, pilo- and the carbonic anyhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (337). It has the advantage that it only requires once daily administration, thus improvingpatient compliance (338). Unoprostone is another PGF,, analog that has also been used in the treatment of glaucoma, although mainly in the...

Family Rutaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Rue Family

Pharmaceutical interest To the family Rutaceae belong several fruit trees and countless medicinal plants. Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (lemon), Citrus auran-tium L. (sour orange), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet orange), and Citrus aurantifolia (Chaistm.) Swingle (lime), the oil of which is aromatic and of pharmaceutical value as a flavoring agent. The oil obtained by mechanical means from the fresh peel of the fresh orange Citrus sinensis (Orange oil, Oleum Aurantii, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) has been used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. Bergamot oil (Oleum Bergamottae, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949), obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the fruit of Citrus bergamia, has been used in perfumery in preparations for the hair (Cologne Spirit or Spiritus Coloniensis). Lemon oil (Oleum Limonis, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963), obtained by expression of fresh lemon peel (Citrus limon, Citrus limonia, Citrus medica), is carminative and used as a flavoring...

Cerumen And Isotretinoin

Ocular adverse effects secondary to isotretinoin are generally benign in nature and reversible on reduction or withdrawal of therapy. However, papilledema necessitates withdrawal. Corneal opacities should be monitored closely. Although they do not usually interfere with vision, prudence dictates withdrawal of isotretinoin or reduction of the dosage when corneal opacities develop (48). Several cases of cataract have been (unconvincingly) ascribed to isotretinoin (SEDA-19, 157). Etretinate and isotretinoin have caused photophobia and reduced night vision (SEDA-17,183), and possibly ectropion (SEDA-16, 152). A 39-year-old woman developed corneal opacities while taking oral isotretinoin 1 mg kg for 6 months. The opacities persisted for at least 6 years after discontinuation of the drug. She had worn soft hydrophilic contact lenses for 10 years before, but without signs of corneal opacity 1 month before treatment was started. Contact lens intolerance 19 Myopia 5

Concerns About Accuracy of Analysis

Drug-test target, often resulting in a mottled, nonuniform array of visual test lines. Several manufacturers indicate on the package insert that any presence of color change, no matter how faint it may appear, should be interpreted as a negative result. There is considerable subjectivity to the test-result interpretation, leading to potential false-negative and false-positive errors. Timing of the test is critical, and the interpreter must read the test result during the time indicated on the package insert, usually between 3 and 8 min. Improperly timed readings could potentially result in false-negative or false-positive results. Visual acuity, color vision, and lighting conditions may also play a role in the interpreter's accuracy in reading visually interpreted endpoints. Subjective interpretation, or translation of the analytical result from the test strip to the test result report, is of major concern in point-of-collection testing.

Physical description It is a laticif

Uses In Indonesia, the roots of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) Burk. are used to counteract poison, treat lumbago, gravel, stop diarrhea and assuage abdominal discomfort. The latex is used to make arrow-poison. In Malaysia, an infusion of leaves is bechic.The pounded roots are used to treat eye diseases. When mixed with other ingredients, they are snuffed to heal syphilitic ulceration of the nose. In Vietnam, a decoction of the roots is used to combat fever. In India, the roots are used to treat biliousness and diseases of the blood. The plant is also used to promote menses, increase venereal desire, invigorate the body, relieve the bowels of costiveness, assuage pain as well as toothache.

Problems In The Evaluation Of Clinical Results

A wide variety of psychogenic physical problems have in the past been favorably influenced by LSD psychotherapy this applies equally to organ-neurotic manifestations, symptoms that have the dynamic structure of hysterical or pregenital conversions, and psychosomatic diseases. Painful conditions of various kinds, such as ordinary or migraine headaches, severe menstrual cramps, gastric or intestinal spasms, pains in the neck muscles or in the lumbar area, and even arthritic pains without a detectable organic basis can be traced back to their origins and worked through in the course of LSD therapy. Neurotic disorders of various organs, such as cardiac dysfunction, gastric distress, breathing difficulties, excessive sweating, muscular tremors, constipation or diarrhea, and menstrual irregularities often disappear in the course of LSD treatment. Far-reaching improvements of myopia, which occurred as an unexpected side-effect during LSD psychotherapy with two neurotic patients in Prague,...

Alexander Hamilton October 14 1791

American Hemp Medicine Bottles

Researchers began getting positive results using medical marijuana in the treatment of glaucoma, anorexia, asthma, nausea, Parkinson's Disease, and spastic muscle disorders. An article in a 1971 medical magazine reported that medical marijuana is probably the most potent anti-epileptic known to medicine today.

Starving Hysterical Naked

Besides introducing Ginsberg and Kerouac, Carr took them to meet an older bohemian named William Burroughs, who was sort of Carr's spiritual mentor. Burroughs was black-sheep material too, only of a far tougher sort. He had been born into a prominent St. Louis family connected to the Burroughs adding machine fortune. The St. Louis Burroughses were businessmen and civic leaders, and when William came of age he was packed off to Harvard to acquire the pedigreed social connections that were the principal benefit of an Ivy League education in the 1930s. But there was something about his tall, emotionless presence that communicated the message that young Burroughs was not going to be an asset he was rebuffed by all the top social clubs that usually embraced the sons of the rich. In fact. Burroughs found it difficult to join any establishment. After Pearl Harbor he tried without luck to join the OSS and the American Field Service. Even the Navy spurned him. His feet are flat, his eyesight...

Eye nose and ear drops

Eye drops and glaucoma therapy in the eye drops might reach the fetus and increase or decrease its heart rate cannot be eliminated - and has, in fact, been observed to some extent (e.g. Wagenvoort 1998). However, at-risk situations would not be expected with the doses used in drops for diagnosing long-distance vision or for glaucoma treatment. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitors brinzolamide, dorzolamide, and for systemic application, acetazolamide, which are used for glaucoma therapy, have not been systematically studied. A new bom of 34 weeks' gestation was tachypnoic, and a combined respiratory-metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia was diagnosed. Its mother had been treated with 750 mg azetazolamide daily during the 3 days prior to delivery. There was 2.9pg ml in the blood of the newborn when this was measured 5 hours after birth - almost a therapeutic concentration (3-10(ig ml). There was no substance detectable on day 11. Further development of the child was uneventful...

Legislative History of Medical Cannabis in Oregon

The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act in some ways represents an end-point of focused attention and efforts by a considerable number of Oregonians over many years. It is also a beginning for Oregon patients. The first legislative attempt in 1979 at creating a medical marijuana bill was, remarkably, passed and signed into law. House Bill (HB) 2267 called for a coordinated effort between the Oregon State Police and the Oregon Health Division (OHD) to channel confiscated Cannabis through the OHD to patients suffering from two specific conditions cancer chemotherapy and glaucoma. This legislation was cosponsored by six Oregon Senators and nine Representatives. It also provided for the testing of confiscated Cannabis by the OHD for purity and safety. HB 2267 allowed physicians to lawfully obtain, prescribe, and dispense marijuana to their patients. Essentially this meant that doctors would have to stock and supply Cannabis to their patients from their office. HB 2267 was never implemented...

Forensic Drug Analysis

The definition of drug abuse changes over time and differs among societies. Cocaine was once an ingredient in Coca-Cola, LSD was used in psychotherapy and by the CIA, and methamphetamine was issued to American soldiers during World War II. All three drugs are regarded as dangerous today, and they are no longer used in these ways. Meanwhile, the active ingredient in marijuana has been found to be useful in treating glaucoma, anorexia, and the nausea associated with chemotherapy. A drug, Marinol (dronabinol), now exists that contains the active ingredients of marijuana. The list of illegal or controlled drugs is therefore flexible and evolves. What tends to remain the same is the methods used to group and classify drugs.

Reproductive and developmental toxicology

The rediscovery of Mendel's laws about a century ago, and the knowledge that some congenital abnormalities were passed from parents to children, led to attempts to explain abnormalities in children based on genetic theory. However, Hale (1933) noticed that piglets born to sows fed a vitamin A-deficient diet were born without eyes. He concluded that a nutritional deficiency leads to a marked disturbance of the internal factors which control the mechanism of eye development. During a rubella epidemic in 1941, the Australian ophthalmologist Gregg observed that embryos exposed to the rubella virus often displayed abnormalities, such as cataracts, cardiac defects, deafness and mental retardation (Gregg 1941). Soon after it was discovered that the protozoon Toxoplasma, a unicellular parasite, could induce abnormalities such as hydrocephaly and vision disturbances in the unborn. These observations proved undeniably that the placenta is not an absolute barrier against external influences.

Cannabis helps people feel better

With the exception of glaucoma, Cannabis seems to be a treatment mostly for symptomatic relief from many neurological functions including pain. It is not usually curative. Since pain accompanies most disease processes at some time during their course, pain accounts for probably the greatest single indication for Cannabis. Pain also increases anxiety. Now we are beginning to clearly understand why.

Elevated Intraocular Pressure

Glaucoma, the name depicting a group of problems characterized by raised pressure within the eye, affects over 67 million people worldwide. Approximately 300 people out of every 100,000 suffer from the disorder. More than 2 million Americans have glaucoma, 80,000 of whom cannot see. The heightened pressure within the eye eventually damages the optic disk, hindering vision dramatically. It is the leading preventable cause of visual impairments. Only cataracts, a currently unpreventable condition, cause blindness in more people. The prevalence of glaucoma increases with age and varies with ethnicity. The most common form of the disorder appears in 1 of people over age 60 and 9 of people over age 80. Individuals of African or Caribbean descent have higher rates. For example, over 3 of Jamaicans develop the disease. Eliminating this disorder could clearly minimize extensive financial costs and personal anguish (IOM, 1999 Quigley, 1996 West, 1997). Treatments for glaucoma have focused on...

CNS effects of secondgeneration antihistamines

Glaucoma has been attributed to promet-hazine (42A). A 48-year-old man presented to an ophthalmic casualty department with a three-day history of pain, redness and blurred vision in the right eye. He had had pain in the affected eye several times over the previous 2 months when he had been watching television, but had no known eye disease. Visual acuity was reduced to perception of hand movements in the right eye but was 6 6 in the left eye. The intraocular pressure was 42 mmHg in the right eye and 14 mmHg in the left the anterior chambers were shallow. He responded to systemic and local treatments followed by peripheral laser iri-dectomy. For 2 days before the onset of symptoms he had been taking proprietary cold formulations ( Day Nurse and Night Nurse ), which included promethazine. The authors concluded that promethazine, through its anticholinergic action, precipitated or aggravated acute angle closure glaucoma.

Biological and Therapeutic Functions of Prostanoids

The major roles of prostanoids are in the autocrine and paracrine control of physiological processes, and therapeutically they have found use mainly in obstetrics, gastoenterol-ogy, ophthalmology, and the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In the reproductive system, prostaglandins, especially of the E and F series, have potent effects on uterine contraction and have been used to stimulate abortion, cervical ripening, and the induction of labor (13). In addition, in many laboratory and farm animals, but not in humans, PGF2a is a potent luteolytic agent and is used for this purpose in veterinary medicine (14). Similarly, prosta-glandin receptors exhibit a widespread distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (15), and prostaglandins are generally thought to have effects in the gastric mucosa through the control of gastric secretions, protection of the mucosal barrier, and the regulation of blood flow (17). This assertion has led to the production of a number of PGE analogs for use as...

Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

Teratogenic effects of tetracyclines have been demonstrated (158-160), as evidenced by increased rates of intrauterine death, congenital anomalies in general (161), and congenital cataracts (162) in fetuses exposed to tetracyclines. However, it is often impossible to distinguish between the drug and an underlying unidentified viral infection as a cause of the observed abnormalities.

Ophthalmic Preparations

Various types of preparations are used for the treatment of ophthalmic (eye) disorders such as glaucoma to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP), bacteria or viral infections of the eye, inflammatory conditions, and symptoms of allergy related to the eye. The eye's lens, iris, and cornea are continuously bathed and nourished by a fluid called aqueous humor. As aqueous humor is produced, excess fluid normally flows out through a complex network of tissue called trabecular meshwork. An angle is formed where the trabeculum and iris meet. This forms a filtration angle that maintains the normal pressure within the eye by allowing excess aqueous humor to leave the anterior chamber of the eye. In chronic or open-angle glaucoma, the angle that permits the drainage of aqueous humor appears to be normal but does not function properly. In angle-closure glaucoma, the iris blocks the trabecular meshwork and limits the flow of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye. This limitation of...

Prostaglandins and cannabinoids in peripheral systems

Intraocular pressure is sensitive to levels of prostaglandins in the eye, and the pressure lowering effect of THC is well known. Evidence has been published supporting the idea that the beneficial effect of THC in glaucoma may be explained by a lowering of intraocular PGE2 (Green and Kim, 1976, 1977 Green and Podos, 1974). Finally, there is some evidence that there are interactions between cannabinoids and prostaglandins that impact on intestinal physiology (Jackson et al., 1976a,b Coupar and Taylor, 1983).

State schedules USA Availability Prescription where legal

This quick-acting and long-lasting drug is widely used around the world for legitimate medical purposes. Flunitrazepam is prescribed to treat insomnia and anxiety, to relax muscles, to stop convulsions, and to calm people. In the 1990s it was Western Europe's most commonly prescribed calming and sleep-inducing medicine. The drug is administered to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and experimental use in treating depression has found flu-nitrazepam promising. Some unauthorized use of the drug is believed to be for self-medication of depression and low self-esteem. The drug has specialized usefulness in surgery as a medication given prior to administration of anesthesia, and its tendency to reduce pressure inside the eyeball can avert the rise caused by the anesthetic succinylcholine (important if patients are at risk for glaucoma). In hospice care where doses can be higher and more frequent than normal, flunitrazepam has reduced nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy.

A potent irreversible inhibitor of anandamide amidase

Ideally, a selective amidase inhibitor should antagonize the enzyme at concentrations that fail to appreciably bind to cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, unlike PMSF, an inhibitor should not be toxic to the cells. Many of the synthetic compounds in this study fulfill these criteria they do not bind significantly to CB1 at concentrations that inhibit amidase activity by greater than 90 percent in cell-free preparations and appear to have low toxicity toward the cells. The role that these inhibitors play in different tissues such as spleen, where a peripheral receptor (CB2) exists (Munro et al. 1993), or as inhibitors of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 in brain and N18TG2 cells, remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the most successful inhibitors will be subjected to in vivo testing. The development of inhibitors that block the breakdown of anandamide may be of value in any of the therapeutic applications in which THC (Mechoulam 1986) or anandamide (Crawley et al. 1993 Fride and...

Summary and Implications

Multiple Sclerosis Pharmacology

Increased understanding of the organisation of endocannabinoid signalling has raised hopes that therapeutic agents without the unwanted side-effects of cannabis could be developed. Natural and synthetic cannabinoids produce a range of pharmacological effects with potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of pain, migraine, muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting, and stimulation of appetite. Unfortunately, the CB1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and accounts for almost all of the effects of cannabis, including non-therapeutic effects on memory, cognition and motor

Topical administration to the eye

Since glucocorticoids reduce the immunological defences of the body to most types of infection, their use in the eyes should be monitored carefully. When long-term use is necessary, even with oral or inhalation therapy, eye examination should be performed every 6 months. The ophthalmological follow-up of patients using topical glucocorticoids should include tonometry at least twice a year, careful slit-lamp examination for early signs of herpetic or fungal keratitis and for changes in the equatorial and posterior subcapsular portions of the lens, examination of pupillary size and lid position, and staining of the cornea to detect possible punctate kerati-tis. Blood glucose concentrations should be checked if there are symptoms that suggest hyperglycemia. Ocular adverse effects of local or systemic administration of glucocorticoids include cataracts, glaucoma, papille-dema, pseudotumor cerebri, activation of corneal infections, superficial keratitis, ptosis, pupillary dilatation,...

Family Fabaceae Lindley 1836 nom conserv the Pea or Bean Family

Classical examples of pharmaceutical products are Physostigma veneno-sum Balf. (Calabar bean), Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms (Tolu basalm) and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (liquorice). Physostigma venenosum Balf. contains physostigmine which is used to treat myasthenia gravis and primary glaucoma. Physostigmine is structurally close to acetylcholine and inhibits the enzymatic

Brief History Of The Compassionate

Robert Randall was diagnosed with severe glaucoma at age 24 and was expected to become totally blind long before he turned 30. He soon began a fascinating medical odyssey that has been memorialized in his personal reflection co-authored by his wife, Alice O'Leary, titled Marijuana Rx The Patients' Fight for Medicinal Pot (Randall and O'Leary 1998), and other books (Randall 1991a Randall 1991b). Until the day he died on June 2, 2001 at age 52 of complications of AIDS, Randall retained his vision, and remained a vocal advocate for the benefits of clinical cannabis. His own journey commenced when he independently discovered that smoking a certain amount of cannabis eliminated the annoying visual haloes produced by his glaucoma. A subsequent arrest in August 1975 for cannabis cultivation led in turn to his dogged pursuit of the right to a legal means to supply his medicine of choice. He subsequently learned of medical support for his treatment (Hepler and Frank 1971). D. Pate has...

LSD Price: Blotters, Sheets, Tabs, Pyramids And Vials

Blotter paper is still considered its most common form, but liquid LSD is typically encountered on the party circuit. It can be found occasionally in capsules, generally mixed with other adulterants or other drugs. If an MDMA dealer cannot get enough of his product to meet demand, LSD may be found mixed with methamphetamine, and the mixture is then substituted for MDMA. Officers should handle all small bottles (Visine or other eye medicine bottles, Crystal Ice or Binanca Blast or other breath mint bottles or small liquid candy bottles) carefully as they may contain either GHB or LSD. A Schedule I drug first discovered in 1938, LSD's hallucinogenic effects were first documented in 1945 by a Swiss chemist. Because all LSD is illegally made, there are no standards for packaging or form of the final product. LSD by itself is very potent, tasteless, colorless and odorless. Light sensitive, it is often wrapped in tinfoil and stored in a cooler or refrigerator. Water soluble, it is...

Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

This infection is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is a member of the herpes virus family. It commonly occurs as a childhood infection. The infection frequently causes scars on the eyelids. If left untreated it may lead to serious complications like gangrene of the eyelids, corneal melting, extraocular muscle palsies and optic neuritis (10). Similar to HSV, following primary infection VZV also remains latent in the dorsal root ganglion and then gets reactivated by various stimuli which causes secondary infection (36). The important clinical manifestation of this infection is herpes zoster ophthalmicus. This occurs when the latent VZV is reactivated from ophthalmic trigeminal ganglion. The infection occurs by the secondary perineural and intraneural inflammation of sensory nerves (37,38), and is mainly limited to cornea. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with HIV AIDS, are more prone to herpes zoster ophthalmicus (39,40). Other ocular complications include...

Ethambutol Dexambutol Myambutol

- Do not administer to patients with severe renal impairment or coexisting visual defects (e.g. diabetic retinopathy, cataract). - May cause retrobulbar optic neuritis. Patients should be warned that they must immediately stop treatment and seek medical attention in the event of visual disturbances such as blurred vision, reduced visual acuity, blind spot (scotoma), green-red colour blindness. Visual alterations are usually reversible a few weeks after stopping ethambutol. The dosage must be carefully adjusted to the body weight (adverse effects are dose-dependant), especially for children less than 5 years, as it is more difficult to detect visual alterations at this age.

Plant Kingdom Sends Neurochemical Invitation To Apes

The synergetic combination of pain-and-dope will prove to have much explanatory value to future exo-psychological historians and biographers. In addition to Darwin, we think of Nietzsche, who battled his chronic migraine headaches with so many patent medicines that Stefan Zweig described the philosopher's tiny room as looking like a pharmacist's shop Gurdjieff, whose Nietzsche-old visions of evolution from mechanistic robotry to Cosmic Consciousness were all written while suffering acute pain from war-wounds and dosing himself with cocaine and hashish James Joyce, whose painful eye problems, leading eventually to blindness, were treated with cocaine, and who created his own hilariously non-Euclidean in risible universe as normal vision faded and it darkled (tinct tinct ) all this our funnanimal world. 5 In the repeated cycle of pain-bliss-pain-bliss some especially gifted individuals can obtain neurological vistas far beyond the reflex robotry of yokel terrestrial life.

Appendix A State Medical Marijuana Laws

Current Law For glaucoma and cancer chemotherapy and radiology or other procedures. The program has never been operational. Current Law For cancer chemotherapy and radiology, glaucoma, and asthma (marijuana or THC). The program has never been operational. For glaucoma and cancer chemotherapy (marijuana or THC) patients with other diseases must get approval from Patient Qualification Review Board. For cancer, glaucoma, and other life- and sense-threatening diseases approved by the commissioner. Administered by Department of Health and Patient Qualification Review Board the program was operational confiscated marijuana may be used if necessary.

The advantages of breastfeeding versus the risks of maternal medication

The nutrient advantages can be simply stated by species specificity (see Table 3.1). The nutrient needs of the human infant are specifically met by the nutrient content of human milk. The most dramatic evidence of this is demonstrated by the comparative advantages to brain growth, visual acuity, auditory acuity, and scores on

Drug Drug Interactions Brimonidine

The effects of topical brimonidine and timolol have been compared in two trials in 926 subjects with glaucoma or ocular hypertension already using systemic beta-blockers (5). Concurrent systemic beta-blocker therapy had no deleterious effects on ocular hypotensive efficacy and no impact on safety with topical brimonidine, but the combination of timolol and brimonidine significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate compared with brimonidine alone. This observation suggests that ocular hypotensive agents other than beta-blockers, such as brimonidine, may be appropriate as a first-choice therapy for glaucoma in patients concurrently taking systemic beta-blockers.

Medical Marijuana A Brief History

Not since prohibition began in 1937 has there been such a large body of knowledge. Millions now know that medical marijuana provides safe, effective relief for a wide array of ailments, from chronic pain and migraines to glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and the debilitating effects of chemotherapy and AIDS.

Using Cannabis Who Where

Cannabis, like other psychoactive substances such as alcohol, tobacco and opiates, is used for a variety of reasons. For some users it is simply the pleasure of an altered state and a social experience. For others, it is a way of coping with the troubles of everyday life, a source of solace or, indeed, a source of cognitive benefits and enhanced creativity (Iversen, 2008). For yet other users it has a therapeutic value for some physical or mental health problem. Though the medical value of cannabis is not well researched, it is plausible that it does in fact provide relief for a number of conditions, such as AIDS wasting syndrome or glaucoma (Institute of Medicine, 1999).

II14 Methanol and formic acid

Methanol (methyl alcohol) poisoning accidents take place most frequently by drinking it in mistake for ethanol. Methanol poisoning is not due to the effect of methanol itself, but due to toxicity of its metabolites. Methanol is rapidly absorbed into human body through the airway mucous membranes, digestive tract mucous membranes or the skin it is metabolized into formaldehyde (formalin, HCHO) and then formic acid (HCOOH) by the actions of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. Formic acid inhibits cytochrome oxidase in the optic nerves, and causes visual disturbances followed by the loss of eyesight. The accumulation of formic acid in the body provokes severe acidosis, which is characteristic for methanol poisoning. The metabolic (oxidation) velocity for methanol is about 5-10 times slower than that for ethanol. This is the reason why the poisoning symptoms do not appear soon after its ingestion, but appear after a while. Formic acid can be detected from urine...

Miscellaneous Anticonvulsants

The miscellaneous anticonvulsants are used cautiously in patients with glaucoma or increased intraocular pressure a history of cardiac, renal or liver dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. When the miscellaneous anticonvulsants are used with other CNS depressants (eg, alcohol, narcotic analgesics, and antidepressants), an additive CNS depressant effect may occur.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

In 539 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, organ damage was associated with glucocorticoid therapy compared with controls (356). Oral prednisone 10 mg day for 10 years (cumulative dose 36.6 g) was significantly associated with osteoporotic fractures (RR 2.5 95 CI 1.7, 3.7), symptomatic coronary artery disease (RR 1.7 CI 1.1, 2.5), and cataracts (RR 1.7 CI 1.4, 2.5). Avascular necrosis was associated with high-dose prednisone (at least 60 mg day for at least 2 months RR 1.2 CI 1.1, 1.4). Intravenous pulses of methylprednisolone (1000 mg for 1-3 days) were associated with a small increase in the risk of osteoporotic fractures (RR 1.3 CI 1.0, 1.8).

See also Prostaglandins General Information

Latanoprost is an analogue of PGF2a, used to treat glaucoma. The use of latanoprost and unoprostone in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension has been reviewed (1). More data on safety are needed to calculate its benefit-to-harm balance. Latanoprost caused reduced intraocular pressure by 20-40 in adults with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, but its efficacy and safety in children have not been widely reported. Most children reported so far gained little benefit on intraocular pressure from latano-prost, but older children and those with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma do gain a significant ocular hypo-tensive effect. Systemic and ocular adverse effects in children using latanoprost are infrequent (2).

Epilogue Trick Or Treat

Psilocybe semilanceata mushrooms can be located from late August till as late as December, especially after heavy rain, in most wild, green places (like pasture, grassy valleys, heaths, and moorland), certainly within a radius of no more ten or twenty miles should you live in Northern Europe or on the east coast of North America. Often there are lots of them to be found, the mushroom being widespread and gregarious if contextual conditions are just right. However, one should be prepared to look long and hard. Undoubtedly, first excursions may end with empty hands, and thus perseverance and patience are necessary virtues to be practised on the quest. You might have to impersonate someone who is searching for a lost contact lens for a good few hours before finally stumbling upon a specimen or three of the mushroom. But at least the fresh air will do you good. Alternatively, if you find yourself in Amsterdam, it is possible to legally purchase psilocybin fungi as well as specialised kits...

W Hemp Chronicles

Meanwhile, to add further confusion, the 1980s brought forth the medicinal argument to the broader discussion of cannabis prohibition in North America. Not only were expert opinions about the health impacts of cannabis contradictory, but here we see also the emergence of a group with the belief that this much-maligned drug can actually be therapeutic. It's not really a new belief cannabis has been used by herbalists for millennia and has been proscribed for everything from failing eyesight to erectile dysfunction (Spicer 2002). In fact, cannabis even existed in the pharmacopoeia of the U.S. from 1850 until 1942. Statements by various government officials seem to back this up in 1988, U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) administrative law judge Francis L. Young noted that in its natural form, cannabis is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known, and the 1972 Canadian Le Dain commission reached similar conclusions (Young 1988 LeDain 1972). Further, the 1978 creation of...

Highlights in the History of Cannabis

Humans use nearly every part of the infamous green weed Cannabis sativa. The plant grows quickly in many environments and can reach a height of 20 feet. Few natural pests attack the crop few extremes in weather challenge its growth. The leaves consist of five or more narrow leaflets, each radiating from a slender stem attached to a thick, hollow stalk. The jagged edge of each leaflet resembles the blade of a serrated knife. The species is dioecious, meaning both female and male varieties of the plant exist. The male grows taller, topped by flowers covered with pollen. The shorter female plant, with its larger, pollen-catching flowers, produces seeds and protects them with a sticky resin. The stalks help produce fiber the seeds provide food and oil. The flowers, leaves, and resin appear in medical and intoxicating preparations. Each day, smiling teens buy hemp shirts. Retailers sell snacks made from the seed. Glaucoma patients puff cannabis cigarettes in hope of saving their sight, and...

Symptomatic Relief in Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury

Open or single-blind observations of small numbers of patients on the effects of synthetic THC given orally have provided some support to these reports (Dunn and Davis 1974 Petro 1980 Clifford 1983 Meinck et al. 1989 Brenneissen et al. 1996). Subjective improvements in spasticity are a consistent finding, with some studies also indicating benefits for tremor, bladder control, mobility and mood. Unwanted effects do not seem to have been prominent. Schon et al. (1999) reported amplitude reduction of pendular nystagmus and improved visual acuity in an MS patient following smoked cannabis, but no effect following cannabis capsules or nabilone (a synthetic THC analogue). Of related interest is a report from Russo et al. (2003) describing improved night vision following both THC and cannabis in a single subject.

Pharmaceutical interest

To treat eyes diseases, their effectiveness probably due to the presence of strychnine, which is known to increase the ability to discriminate colors and intensities of illumination, and particularly to increase the area of the blue visual field. It was also once used to treat amblyopia.

Clinical Use Of Agents

Remains to be seen whether selective prostanoid receptor antagonists might provide better medicines for the treatment of pain and other therapeutic indications. A summary of the available agents and their indications is presented in Table 6.13. The therapeutic areas in which these agents are used are diverse and are a consequence of the widespread physiological actions of the natural prostaglandins. Prostaglandins used in the termination of pregnancy, cervical ripening, and labor induction include dinoprost (PGF2a) and carbaprost (15-methyl-PGF,,), dinoprostone (PGE2), sul-prostone,gemeprost, and misoprostol. Alpros-tadil (PGEi) is used to treat erectile dysfunction. Prostaglandins used in cardiovascular conditions include alprostadil and the PGE, analog, limaprost, as well as epoprostenol (prostacyclin) and its analog, iloprost. Miso-prostol is used clinically, with some success, as an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. Prosta-glandins, particularly of the F series, are widely used...

Prolactin antagonists

In a study of 2587 pregnancies in which bromocriptine was administered during the first weeks of pregnancy, there was a slight increase in the rate of early miscarriage but no increase in the rate of birth defects (Krupp 1987). Because most women stop therapy as soon as pregnancy is confirmed, this study also suggests that continuing hyperprolactinemia has no adverse effects on the fetus. A more recent report concerning 27 pregnancies also demonstrated effectiveness and apparent lack of adverse effect of continuing therapy for micro- or macroprolaetinoma with bromocriptine or lisuride through early pregnancy. If, during the course of the pregnancy, ophthalmologic problems occur in connection with macro-prolactinoma, restarting medication therapy is recommended (Ventz 1996). In individual cases, long-term therapy throughout pregnancy is sitmrtimes indicated.

Pituitaryadrenal axis

Syndrome, the predominant symptoms are in part determined by hyperandrogenicity and tend to comprise hypertension, acne, impaired sight, disorders of sexual function, hirsutism or virilism, striae of the skin, and plethora, Cushing's syndrome due to glucocorticoid therapy is likely to cause benign intracranial hypertension, glaucoma, subcapsular cataract, pancreatitis, aseptic necrosis of the bones, and panniculitis. Obesity, facial rounding, psychiatric symptoms, edema, and delayed wound healing are common to these different forms of Cushing's syndrome.


It is used in Europe to treat varicose veins, problems with blood circulation to the brain, and a variety of eye problems, including night blindness, photophobia, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and in combination with vitamin E cortical cataracts. Also used as an antiseptic, astringent, and antidiarrhea medication. Eating the fresh berries can reportedly regulate bowel action, stimulate the appetite, and reduce intestinal gas. As a tea, it is said to treat coughs, vomiting, stomach cramps, and catarrhal enteritis.

West LA Perspective

Some patients who join these collectives are qualified and passionate yet ultimately are uneducated. As in the case of 18-year-old West LA medical cannabis patient, Kelly Howardson. At first glance, due to his age and manner of dress many people would assume he is a recreational user who uses cannabis to get high even though he was in a serious car crash, has been diagnosed with pre-glaucoma, anxiety, insomnia and medicates responsibly under supervision of his parents. When the WLANC met him, Kelly was starting his own unofficial medicated bakery company called Blissed Out Bakery 14 and was interested in vending his edibles to hardship and pre-ICO MMC's in his area. The WLANC Medical Marijuana Committee explained to him the legal risk of running such an operation as well the potential for financial loss and physical danger to himself by associating with people with likely ties with illegal activity. Shocked at the state of the industry and his own naivety, Kelly is currently creating...


Studies performed in the 1970s revealed a new potential application of the drug in the treatment of glaucoma. Research on smoked marijuana, THC, and other cannabinoids, though often hindered by bureaucratic difficulties, continues to reveal potential pharmaceutical applications.


Lesser known problems are associated with alcohol. Male users experience a decline in testosterone levels, and females may experience menstrual difficulties. The nerve inflammation disease beriberi has been linked with alcoholism, and research has raised the possibility that alcoholism can worsen Alzheimer's disease. Some studies report that drinkers have a slightly higher chance of developing cataracts, but a very large study involving 77,466 women found little, if any, relationship between the substance and cataracts. Experiments show that a drink of alcohol encourages more cigarette consumption and that persons who use both alcohol and nicotine tend to drink more when cigarettes are unavailable. Although alcohol can make a person feel hotter, that effect is superficial the substance actually lowers body temperature, making alcohol counterproductive if a chilled person is trying to warm up the substance should not be given to persons injured by exposure to cold temperatures....


Hemodynamic changes after the topical ocular use of beta-blockers sometimes include only small reductions in heart rate and resting pulse rate and an insignificant reduction in blood pressure. However, patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially those with an irregular heart rate and dysrhythmias, are certainly at risk (SEDA-4, 339). Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, heart block, hypotension, palpitations, syncope, and cerebral ischemia and stroke can occur (356). Rebound tachycardia has been reported after withdrawal of ophthalmic timolol (88,357). Continuous 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure has shown that beta-blocker eye-drops for glaucoma can increase the risk of nocturnal arterial hypotension (358). A 58-year-old patient using topical timolol maleate for open-angle glaucoma developed cough and dyspnea due to interstitial pneumonitis. Three months after withdrawal of the eye-drops, he was asymptomatic with normal lung function, chest X-ray, and thoracic CT scan (359).


At the beginning of the century pot was one of the most commonly prescribed medicines. Queen Victoria famously used cannabis tinctures to ease her PMT, Historical trivia aside, the medical profession widely agrees that i. annabis has still an invaluable role to play. The anee dotal and scientific evidence I ha I cannabis can be of real help to sufferers of numerous illnesses l including cancer, AIDS HIV, MS and glaucoma) is both wetkiot umented and overwhelming. That millions ot medical cannabis users risk prosecution everyday to ease their symptoms is testament in ilself to the benefits ol the plant.

Pregnancy Category D

Clonazepam is not recommended for persons suffering from narrow-angle glaucoma. The compound may worsen respiratory disease. The substance increases saliva production. It often makes people tired, interferes with muscular coordination, and can impede decision making such effects hinder ability to operate dangerous machinery. Dozens of less common adverse effects are described, ranging from skin rash to painful gums. One case report concludes that clonazepam may promote porphyria, a body chemistry disorder that can make a person violent and supersensitive to light, but such a result is virtually unheard of. A review of medical records of men being treated for posttraumatic stress disorder suggested that the drug may commonly inhibit sexual performance in such a population. Some persons suffer from a disquieting affliction called apnea in which they temporarily stop breathing case reports say clonazepam can cause apnea attacks. An experiment noted a rebound effect when people...

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