Stop Eczema Naturally

Eczema Free Forever Ebook by Rachel Anderson

Rachel Anderson is the developer of this Eczema Free Forever book, and this woman also is known as a skin care specialist. In many years before, the son of Rachel Anderson was a victim of eczema, and this mom spent a lot of time and effort for studying and testing advanced techniques for stopping eczema forever. She helped her son get rid of eczema permanently, and thousand of other eczema sufferers also got a same result. Through research, application, and a variety of studies it has been discovered that specific diets, supplements, and lifestyle changes can actually promote a complete turnaround in skin condition. All of this information is included in Eczema Free Forever which was written to specifically help individuals suffering from eczema to not only take care of the inflammation but to completely knock it out. This book is ideal for those who have been through dose after dose of doctor prescribed medication without any long lasting results, or for those who wish to avoid prescriptions and are seeking a more holistic cure for their eczema issues. Read more here...

Eczema Free Forever Summary


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Observational studies

The effects of abacavir have been evaluated in a study in over 13 000 adults who no longer responded to commercially available treatment regimens (2). By month 2 of treatment with abacavir, plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations fell by at least half a log unit in 31 of patients, and in 5.6 of the patients HIV-1 RNA concentrations fell to under 400 copies ml. Serious drug-related adverse events were reported by 7.7 of patients. The most common were nausea, skin rash, diarrhea, malaise or fatigue, and fever. About 4.6 of patients had a hypersensitivity reaction that was possibly drug-related.

General adverse effects

The adverse effects of abacavir that have been most often observed in clinical trials are fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, rash, and dyspepsia (3,4). Allergic reactions lead to withdrawal of therapy in about 3 of patients (5). These can be severe, and anaphylaxis has been reported after rechallenge in a patient with an apparent allergic reaction to abacavir (6). It is wise to avoid rechallenge when allergy is suspected (7). In one study nausea and vomiting occurred in 3857 of patients, headache in 27-41 , malaise and fatigue in 28 , diarrhea in 18-23 , and weakness in 29 (8). There was also one case of agranulocytosis accompanied by a skin rash.

General Information

The adverse effects of aldesleukin include fever, chills, malaise, skin rash, nausea, vomiting (often resistant to antiemetics), diarrhea, fluid retention, myalgia, insomnia, disorientation, life-threatening hypotension, and the capillary leak syndrome (which can be preceded by weight gain) (SEDA-15, 491) (2).

See also General anesthetics General Information

Diethyl ether (SED-9, 172) is obsolete as a general anesthetic (1). It is highly inflammable and therefore incompatible with modern surgical and anesthetic techniques. It has an unpleasant smell and irritates mucous membranes this can cause coughing, straining, laryngeal spasm, and hypersalivation. Recovery is slow and accompanied by nausea and vomiting in up to 85 of patients. Liver damage is as frequent as with halothane. Ether raises intracranial pressure and can cause convulsions. It can cause impaired immune responsiveness and contact dermatitis has been reported, together with a systemic allergic reaction (SEDA-5,120).

Other features of the patient

Only one patient developed erythema multiforme. These data suggest that the risk of serious skin reactions in patients with brain tumors is actually low, even though there was an increased frequency of milder rashes. Irradiation did not appear to contribute to the risk. However, it is possible that earlier publications about the risk of serious reactions resulted in the use of lower initial dosages or earlier withdrawal of medication, before the onset of more severe manifestations. The fact that skin rashes were more common in patients with glioma than metastatic disease could be related to the effects of underlying treatments (or disease) on immune function. Of 65 consecutive patients with malignant glioma started on anticonvulsants (mostly phenytoin), a skin rash developed in 26 other toxic effects occurred in 14 of patients, including three who developed an encephalopathy sufficient to require hospitalization (SEDA-20, 58).

Organs and Systems Skin

Skin reactions, including photosensitivity and contact dermatitis (when used topically), have been reported (1-7). A 67-year-old woman with pharyngitis gargled with Tantum verde, and after 3 weeks, during a holiday, developed an erythematous rash on sun-exposed skin, worsening within the next few days (8). She had not used a sunscreen. There were mainly well-demarcated areas of eczema on the face, neck, neckline, forearms, and lower legs. After oral and topical corticosteroids, the skin lesions improved within a few days.

Organs and Systems Nervous system

Irritation occurs in about 20 of patients (6). Contact dermatitis is rare. Photosensitization can occur when calci-potriol is used in patients undergoing UVB phototherapy. Contamination of the facial skin can result in frank irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis has been observed in some patients (7-10).

Psychological psychiatric

The Early Treatment of the Atopic Child (ETAC) Study has provided evidence that cetirizine may be able to halt the progression to asthma in high-risk groups of young children and infants with atopic dermatitis (9). However, the study involved giving relatively high doses of cetirizine to very young children (aged 1-2 years at study entry) over a long period of time. Therefore, the impact of prolonged use of high-dose cetirizine (0.25 mg kg bd over 18 months) on behavior and cognitive ability in young children and infants has been assessed in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study (10). Well-validated and standardized assessments of behavior or cognition were used, and the ages at which psychomotor milestones were attained were established. The authors concluded that, compared with placebo, cetirizine had no significant effects on behavior, cognition, or psychomotor milestones in young children with atopic dermatitis.

Susceptibility Factors Age

The long-term safety of cetirizine (0.25 mg kg bd) has been studied in children with atopic dermatitis (22). The mean duration of exposure to cetirizine in 399 children The effects of cetirizine 0.25 mg kg bd for 18 months have been investigated in a prospective, double-blind, parallel-group study in 817 children with atopic dermatitis aged 12-24 months (4). Dropouts and serious events, including hospitalization, were infrequent and were less common in the children who took cetirizine, although the differences were not statistically significant. Most of the adverse events were mild and were not related to medication.

Monitoring and Managing Adverse Reactions

The barbiturates can produce a hyper-sensitivity rash. Should a skin rash occur, the nurse must notify the primary health care provider immediately because the primary health care provider may discontinue the drug. The nurse carefully examines all affected areas and provides an accurate description. If pruritus is present, the nurse keeps the patient's nails short, applies an antiseptic cream (if prescribed), and tells the patient to avoid the use of soap until the rash subsides.

Pregnancy Category C

The drug was first isolated from coca plants in the mid-1800s. Cocaine apparently functions as an insecticide in the plants, but the substance has had no commercial agricultural use for that purpose. Early medical applications included administration to treat addiction to alcohol and opiates, but persons addicted to those drugs did not better on cocaine. Like many stimulants, cocaine has anorectic (weight-reducing) properties that decline as usage stretches over time but the drug's main medical use has been as a local anesthetic, particularly in ear, nose, and mouth surgery. Experimental use as an antide-pressant has been unsuccessful. Cocaine has been used to treat tonsillitis, earache, toothache, burns, skin rash, hay fever, asthma, hemorrhoids, nerve pain, nausea, and vomiting. It makes the body's immune system more active. For medical purposes cocaine has been largely superseded by drugs having less potential for abuse, but it is still called an excellent anesthetic for nose...

CysLTl Antagonist Clinical Studies

Yanase and David-Bajar have reported that Singulair has a modest but significant effect in treating atopic dermatitis (253). Asero (254) has reported that in NSAID-induced uticaria ithat Singulair may also have an effect. Acco-Hate has also been reported to have an effect in atopic dermatitis (255).In addition, Zyflo has shewn efficacy in significantly improving the symptoms in a small open label study in atopic dermatitis (256). There have been, however, no large clinical trials to date to define the potential activity of these agents in the treat- ment of atopic dermatitis.

Antihistamines H1 receptor antagonists

Histamine release from mast cells and basophils makes a major contribution to the allergic response, and antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of certain symptoms of allergic disease. However, histamine also functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, being particularly important in maintaining a state of arousal or awareness (1R). First-generation H1 receptor antagonists easily cross the blood-brain barrier, and their consequent well-documented sedative and an-ticholinergic effects, together with short half-lives, greatly limit their use in the treatment of allergic symptoms. However, despite these deficiencies it must be remembered that firstgeneration drugs are still widely used, mainly as over-the-counter products, often in combination with other drugs. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have major advantages over the earlier drugs most notably they lack significant CNS and anticholinergic adverse effects. They have proved to be important...

Drug Administration Drug administration route

Allergic contact dermatitis from transdermal estrogen has been described in Korea, where the reaction was found to be due to 17-b-estradiol itself and not to an excipient (196). In some cases, allergic reactions and systemic contact dermatitis are clearly attributable to the patch material or to excipients. Even natural estradiol given in this way can occasionally cause hypersensitivity reactions, as determined by patch tests (197).

Local adverse effects

Contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common derma-tological condition that affects the eyelids. Allergic contact dermatitis was found in a retrospective study in 151 (74 ) of 203 patients with persistent or recurrent eyelid dermatitis with or without dermatitis elsewhere (11) 46 had protein-contact dermatitis, but only 14 had protein-contact dermatitis without concurrent allergic contact dermatitis 23 patients had atopic eczema, of whom 16 also had allergic contact dermatitis, protein-contact dermatitis, or both. Other conditions included seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, dry eyes, and dermatomyositis or overlapping connective tissue disease. Important sources of contact sensitivity were topical ocular medications, including glucocorticoids, cosmetics, metals, dust mites, animal dander, and artificial nails only five cases were caused by nail lacquer.

Monitoring and Managing Adverse Drug Reactions

If uncontrolled bleeding is noted or the bleeding appears to be internal, the nurse stops the drug and immediately contacts the primary health care provider because whole blood, packed red cells, or fresh, frozen plasma may be required. Vital signs are monitored every hour or more frequently for at least 48 hours after the drug use is discontinued. The nurse contacts the primary health care provider if there is a marked change in one or more of the vital signs. Any signs of an allergic (hyper-sensitivity) reaction, such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, hives, skin rash, and hypotension, are reported immediately to the primary health care provider.

Herbal Alert Chamomile

Chamomile has several uses in traditional herbal therapy, such as a mild sedative, digestive upsets, menstrual cramps, and stomach ulcers. It has been used topically for skin irritation and inflammation. Chamomile is on the US Food and Drug Administration list of herbs generally recognized as safe (GRAS). It is one of the most popular teas in Europe. When used as a tea, it appears to produce an antispasmodic effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to protect against the development of stomach ulcers. Although the herb is generally safe and nontoxic, the tea is prepared from the pollen-filled flower heads and has resulted in mild symptoms of contact dermatitis to severe anaphylactic reactions in individuals hypersensitive to ragweed, asters, and chrysanthemums.

Adverse Reactions

Adverse reactions may occur if the dosage is too high or prolonged, or if withdrawal is too rapid. Administration of fludrocortisone may cause edema, hypertension, congestive heart failure, enlargement of the heart, increased sweating, or allergic skin rash. Additional adverse reactions include hypokalemia, muscular weakness, headache, and hypersensitivity reactions. Because this drug has glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activity and is often given with the glucocorticoids, adverse reactions of the glucocorticoids must be closely monitored as well (see Display 50-2).

Drugs Active Against Herpesviruses

Skin Aciclovir was the first compound effective against herpesvirus to be introduced. While it is still commonly used, its usefulness is limited by the frequency of dosing, particularly in Varicella zoster infections. Although allergy is unusual, it can occur in one case it resulted in a skin rash (13A).

Pharmaceutical interest

Uses In China, the seeds of Impatiens balsamina L. are used to facilitate difficult labor, assuage puerperal pain, regulate menses, combat cough, stop hiccups and counteract poisoning. Mixed with arsenious acid, the seeds are used in extracting teeth. A decoction of the older parts of the plant is drunk to dispel humors, clean abscesses, and soothe swollen parts of. The stems are used to promote blood circulation, assuage pain, and to treat rheumatism and cramp. In Malaysia, the seeds are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and to dislodge fish or chicken bones lodged in the throat. A decoction of the flowers is used to counteract putrefaction, stop vomiting, promote urination and to invigorate the body. A lotion of the fresh leaves is used to treat eczema and soothe irritated skin. In India, the flowers are used to combat fever, invigorate the body, and heal burns and scalds. In Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, a paste of the leaves is used to treat whitlow and...

See also Proton pump inhibitors General Information

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor. Headache, skin rash, and diarrhea have all been recorded by adverse event registries sufficiently often to suggest causal relations (1). Omeprazole is a modest inhibitor of CYP iso-forms. Interactions are less likely than with cimetidine and are probably of no practical importance. However, omeprazole reduces the absorption of drugs that require a low gastric pH (ketoconazole, iron salts, ampicillin) and can inhibit the hepatic clearance of some drugs (diaze-pam, warfarin, phenytoin) (2).

Pregnancy Category X

Nandrolone is used to treat breast cancer and anemia, and the drug has improved asthma and Sjogren's syndrome, a disease that destroys salivary, sweat, and tear glands. Healing action on cornea afflictions has been observed, and rat experiments have explored nandrolone's potential for speeding recovery from tooth extractions. A skin cream containing nandrolone is used against eczema. Human research indicates that the drug can improve osteoporosis, a disease causing brittle bones, although results conflict on how long the improvement lasts. Among some diabetics with a kidney condition called Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome, nandrolone has helped both renal and eyesight difficulties. In kidney dialysis, patients' experimental use of nandrolone was able to improve weariness, increase muscle mass, and fight malnutrition. The compound has helped AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients build up weight, muscles, and strength. The substance has also been given in hopes of...

Family Asclepiadaceae R Brown 1810 nom conserv the Milkweed Family

Pharmaceutical interest Examples of medicinal Asclepiadaceae are Calotropis gigantea (Willd.) Dry. ex WT. Ait. (yercum or madar fiber), and Mars-denia tenacissima W. and A. (bahjmahalhemp).The dried roots of Hemidesmus indicus (Hemidesmus, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) have been used to treat syphilis, rheumatism, psoriasis and eczema in Western medicine.

Organs and Systems Immunologic

Parabens can cause allergic contact dermatitis that can run an insidious course, especially when the parabens are in glucocorticoid ointments. In such cases, treatment leads to a protracted dermatitis without acute exacerbation, so that neither the patient nor the physician suspects parabens as a possible cause. A sensitization index of 0.8 was found in 273 patients with chronic dermatitis (1). In 1973, in a multicenter study of 1200 individuals carried out by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, there was a 3 incidence of delayed hypersensitivity reactions to parabens. General allergic reactions have also been reported after the injection of parabens-containing formulations of lidocaine and hydrocortisone and after oral use of barium sulfate contrast suspension, haloperidol syrup, and an antitussive syrup, all of which contained parabens (SEDA-11, 484).

Organs and Systems Respiratory

Although soft paraffin has been used to treat irritant contact dermatitis (17) and to protect the skin from other sensitizers (18), hypersensitivity reactions can occur, but are rare (19-26). Yellow soft paraffin is slightly more antigenic than white soft paraffin (24). Contact sensitization to a neat cutting oil containing chlorinated paraffin occurred in 12 men (27). Contact urticaria mimicking dermatitis has also been reported (28). A 31-year-old woman with a long history of presumed atopic dermatitis actually had contact dermatitis due to the soft white paraffin that was present in the several medicaments (glucocorticoids, tacrolimus, pimecroli-mus, and ciclosporin) that she had used to treat the skin (30).

Asian Herbal Mixtures

Nervous system An 8-year-old boy became agitated, vomited repeatedly, and became un-rousable (17A). His mother had applied a homemade paste topically for his eczema, according to a recipe in a Bangladeshi book. The paste was made from a mixture of ground tobacco leaves, lime, and lyophilized coffee. Acute nicotine poisoning was confirmed through blood and urine analyses. The boy recovered fully within 2 days.

Side and Adverse Effects of Some Phytocompounds

Many adverse drug-herb interactions constitute a great danger for patients and might adversely affect the monitoring of certain drug therapies, such as an increase in bleeding time (garlic and ginseng both interact with warfarin) 95, 96 . Other examples include the action against standard immunosuppressants, life-threatening allergic reactions such as contact dermatitis and anaphylaxis (Echina-cea), interference with the monitoring of digoxin (ginseng, hawthorn, licorice, etc.), and hepatotoxicity (kava-kava with alprazolam) 5, 44, 95, 97-109 .

Cynanchum caudatum Miq Maxim

Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Dischidia imbricata (Bl.) Stend. are heated and applied externally to heal feet injuries, whereas gonorrhea, Dischidia nummularia R. Br. is used to heal painful wounds caused by certain poisonous fish the leaves and latex are used to treat sprue. In Malaysia, the roots of Dischidia rafflesiana Wall. are chewed with Areca catechu L. (betel nut) to alleviate cough. In Vietnam, an infusion of Dischidia acuminata Cost. is used to treat blenorrhoea and to promote urination. In the Philippines, the leaves of Dischidia platyphylla Schltr. are used to counteract putrefaction, and a poultice of Dischidia purpurea Merr. or an oily preparation obit is used to treat eczema and herpes infection. A paste of Dischidia vidalii Becc. is mixed with salt to treat goiter.

Diethylstilbestrol stilbestrol

Skin Transdermal administration of estrogens for HRT continues to be used in a minority of patients and is generally well tolerated. Exceptional is an instance of allergic contact dermatitis described in Korea, where the reaction was found to be due to 17-beta-estradiol itself and not to an excipient (37A).

Pesticides polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

Toxic symptoms in the infant as a result of organochlorine compounds in the mother's milk have been described only after extreme exposure. The Turkish porphyria (Pemba-Yarda syndrome) occurred after consumption of seed grain treated with hexachlorbenzene. Apart from skin rash and weight loss, there were also lethal consequences for breastfed babies (Peters 1982). Yusho disease was caused by polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated cooking oil. It caused muscular hypotonia, hyperexcitability, and apathy in the infants. The illness continued for many years (Miller 1977).

Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn

Dryobalanops Aromatica

The man who should collect the camphor should speak in a very respectful language, known only to old folks. Oil of camphor known to the Malays by the name of minyah kapur is obtained by making a small cut penetrating into the wood about 10 cm. The resin of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. consists of borneol, camphor, terpineol and other terpenes. The wood contains among other things, dipterocarpol, p-sitosterol, and dryobalanone. Borneol and camphor are known to be responsible for contact dermatitis.

Contact allergy in the anogenital region

Allergic contact dermatitis is a common anogenital disease. The predominant complaints are itching and burning. Scratching, mainly at night, and lichenification can lead to painful erosions. Topical medicaments, body care products, popular remedies, and sanitary products are the main sources of contact allergens in the anogenital area. During 1992-1997, 1008 patients with anogenital complaints (2 of the whole test population of 54 500 patients) were patch-tested in the Departments of Dermatology of the Information Network of Dermatological Clinics (IVDK). The standard series recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) was tested in 978 of these patients. Other specific allergens were tested according to each patient's history. In most cases topical drugs, ointment bases, and preservatives were included, and in 466 cases patients' own products were also patch-tested. In 351 patients (35 ), the final diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed (15)....

Vitamin B6 pyridoxine

Occupational systemic contact dermatitis with photosensitivity has been attributed to vitamin B6 (30A). A 45-year-old man developed eczema over the backs of his hands, the backs and sides of his fingers (sparing the little fingers), the forearms, and the face. This lasted for 6 years, with recurrences and remissions. He was tested with allergens, supplemented with a drop each of various injectable medicaments (streptomycin, benzylpeni-cillin, ampicillin-cloxacillin, oxytetracycline, vitamins B1, B2, and B12, gentamicin, amikacin, and analgesics). Patch tests were positive to nitrofu-razane and three different B vitamins. Reactivation of lesions on the hands, face, and neck was noted during patch testing, and subsided within 1 week. After a further 6 weeks he was tested on the forearms with B1, B6, and B12, each in 10 propylene glycol, resulting in a ++ reaction for B6. Prick testing with B1, B2, and B6 gave negative results. Another 2 months later oral provocation with two tablets...

Family Geraniaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Geranium Family

Pharmaceutical interest A large number of Geraniaceae are ornamental. The so-called bedding and greenhouse Geranium is in fact a Pelargonium. In regard to pharmaceutical interest, the volatile oil obtained by distillation of the aerial part of various Pelargonium species, including Pelargonium grave-olens., has been used in Western countries to make perfumed cosmetics (Geranium Oil, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1959). The very distinctive fragrance of geranium oil is attributed to a subtile mixture of terpenes, including geraniol, linalool, citronellal and limonene, which cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. To date, the pharmacological potentials of Geraniaceae are virtually unexplored and one might say that antiviral and cytotoxic principles are yet awaiting discovery. Erodium stephanianum Willd., Geranium

Cobalt in metal implants and prostheses

Metals from prostheses can continue to be released into the system for many years. The development of hyper-sensitivity takes time, and allergic reactions are usual delayed for weeks, months, or 1-2 years. The symptoms can assume a variety of forms. Local reactions can cause loosening of the device or local pain. Dermatological reactions include eczema, bullous pemphigoid, urticaria, and muscle tumors.''

Amaranthus spinosus L

Uses In the Asia-Pacific, Amaranthus spinosus L. is principally used internally to promote urination. In Cambodia, the roots are used to treat rheumatism and fever, and these are added to mustard plasters to treat uterine tumors. In Indonesia, the roots of Amaranthus spinosus L. are used to stimulate menses and its crushed leaves are used to heal festering wounds. In Malaysia, Amaranthus spinosus L. is used to promote urination whereas a decoction of the roots is drunk to promote expectoration and to stimulate menses. The leaves are used internally to treat bronchitis and externally to heal boils. In the Philippines, its crushed leaves are applied to eczematous areas. In Vietnam, Amaranthus spinosus L. is used to promote milk secretion and urination and a poultice of the powdered leaves is applied to heal dog bites. In India, the roots of Amaranthus spinosus L. are used to treat gonorrhea, menorrhagia and eczema.

Topical administration to the skin

Although glucocorticoids are used to treat eczema, they can sometimes exacerbate it (363). A 74-year-old man developed worsening eczema 24 hours after he applied clobetasol (Decloban) to treat chronic eczema of his external ear. Twelve years earlier he had noted exacerbation of a cutaneous lesion after he had applied a topical glucocorticoid. He had also had generalized erythema after an intra-articular injection of paramethasone. Patch tests to a series of glucocorticoids were positive for all drugs except flupa-metasone, fluocortine, and tixocortol. In addition, intradermal tests were positive to hydrocortisone and prednisolone, despite negative patch tests. Chronic lichenified eczema has been attributed to prolonged use of topical methylprednisolone aceponate and budesonide (strength and duration of therapy not stated) in a 26-year-old woman (364). Patch tests were positive for methylprednisolone aceponate and budeso-nide cream, but negative for all other topical glucocor-ticoids.

Other topical antifungal drugs

Contact dermatitis has been rarely reported with clodantoin. Contact dermatitis has been reported with fluonilide (26). Contact dermatitis has been reported with hachimycin. KP-363 No cases of contact dermatitis were described in industrial workers in frequent contact with natamycin (29). Contact dermatitis, with facial edema and a generalized erythema, has been described in the partner of a woman treated with nifuratel vaginal suppositories (SED-11, 578) (30). Skin irritation has been reported in 2-6.5 of patients treated with pecilocin. Contact dermatitis has been described in a few cases (31,32). Of 44 patients treated with pecilocin who were patch-tested with pecilocin, 7 were allergic to it in three of them the skin disease had been caused or exacerbated by pecilocin (33). Contact dermatitis with pyrrolnitrin and cross-reactivity with dinitrochlorobenzene has been reported in one case (34). Photoallergic contact dermatitis has been described with sulbentine, probably through a...

Titanium in metal implants and prostheses

Metals from prostheses can continue to be released into the system for many years. The development of hypersen-sitivity takes time, and allergic reactions are usually delayed for weeks, months, or 1-2 years. The symptoms can assume a variety of forms. Local reactions can cause loosening of the device or local pain. Dermatological reactions include eczema, bullous pemphigoid, urticaria, and muscle tumors.''

Hair Growth Disorders

The side effects of topical minoxidil are mainly local, caused by skin irritation and contact dermatitis. Systemic side effects are uncommon because of limited percutaneous absorption, but diffuse hypertrichosis of the face and limbs has been reported with the 5 solution and was attributed to systemic absorption of the drug (84). Although topical minoxidil does not change blood pressure in healthy subjects, it increases heart rate by 3-5 beats min and slightly increases the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular mass (85). These effects are not considered clinically significant, and the potential for cardiovascular side effects is very low.

Nickel in metal implants and prostheses

Metals from prostheses can continue to be released into the system for many years. The development of hypersen-sitivity takes time, and allergic reactions are usually delayed for weeks, months, or 1-2 years. The symptoms can assume a variety of forms. Local reactions can cause loosening of the device or local pain. Dermatological reactions include eczema, bullous pemphigoid, urticaria and muscle tumors.''

Topical administration to the eye

Glucocorticoid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many skin disorders, and their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. Three patients developed advanced glaucoma while using topical facial glucocorticoids. Two other patients developed ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial glucocorticoids (367).

Coal tar and slate oil preparations

Coal tar as treatment for neurodermatitis has not been suspected of having a teratogenic effect. A retrospective study of 23 exposed women revealed nothing notable (Franssen 1999). Experimentally, coal tar products have, to some extent, demonstrated mutagenic or carcinogenic properties, but there has not yet been any indication of this in the longstanding and well-tried use of the group of substances employed therapeutically in humans.

Antiviral Activity Of Piperaquine

Contact dermatitis from topical antiviral drugs. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44(5) 265-9. 24. Wollenberg A, Baldauf C, Rueff F, Przybilla B. Allergic contact dermatitis and exanthematous drug eruption following aciclovir-cross reaction with ganciclovir. Allergo J 2000 9 96-9. 25. Lammintausta K, Makela L, Kalimo K. Rapid systemic valaciclovir reaction subsequent to aciclovir contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis 2001 45(3) 181.

Anticholinergic Drugs

Allergy to inhaled corticosteroids a review. Am J Contact Dermatitis 1995 6 1-3. 19. Isaksson M, Bruze M, Hornblad Y, Svenonius E, Wihl JA. Contact allergy to corticosteroids in asthma rhinitis patients. Contact Dermatitis 1999 40 327-8. 29. Poon E, Fewings JM. Generalized eczematous reaction to budesonide in a nasal spray with cross-reactivity to triamcinolone. Australas J Dermatol 2001 42 36-7. 30. Bennett ML, Fountain JM, McCarty MA, Sher-ertz EF. Contact allergy to corticosteroids in patients using inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids for allergic rhinitis or asthma. Am J Contact Dermatitis 2001 12 193-6.

Miscellaneous Drugs Griseofulvin

Foti C, Bonamonte D, Mascolo G, Tiravanti G, Rigano L, Angelini G. Aminoethylethanolamine a new allergen in cosmetics Contact Dermatitis 2001 45 129-33. 3. Salim A, Orton D, Shaw S. Allergic contact dermatitis from Basic Red 22 in a hair-colouring mousse. Contact Dermatitis 2001 45 123. 4. Saxena M, Warshaw E, Ahmed DDF. Eyelid allergic contact dermatitis to black iron oxide. Am J Contact Dermatitis 2001 12 38-9. 5. Orton DI, Shaw S. Allergic contact dermatitis from pharmaceutical grade BHA in timodene, with no patch test reaction to analytical grade BHA. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44 191-2. 6. Lauerma AI. Simultaneous immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine digluconate. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44 59. 7. Barraza V. Connubial allergic contact balanitis due to chlorhexidine digluconate. Contact Dermatitis 2001 45 42. 9. Hansson C, Thornbey-Andersson K. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-chloro-p-phenylenedi-amine in a cream dye for eyelashes and eyebrows. Contact Dermatitis...

Coptis japonica Thunb

Uses In Japan, the rhizome of Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Mak. is used to promote appetite and digestion. In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Mak. is used to assuage headaches, soothe itchiness and treat eczema marginatum. In Malaysia, Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Mak. is used to resolve eye inflammation.

Secondgeneration antihistamines

Second-generation antihistamines have proved to be important therapeutic tools in the treatment of atopic disease, including both seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and atopic dermatitis (20). Several studies have shown that the use of second-generation anti-histamines as adjunctive therapy can benefit patients whose allergic asthma co-exists with allergic rhinitis (21).

The Medical Use Of Cannabis Sativa

Ganja is the dried pistillate flowering top of the cultivated plant, which is coated with a resinous exudation. It contains an oily principle, cannabinol. As an antidote to orpiment poisoning, Ganja smoke is swallowed through the mouth. In cases of strangulated hernia and the griping pains of dysentry, Ganja smoke is passed through the rectum. It is classed as one of the best of the anodyne, hypnotic, and anti-spasmodic drugs. It is administered with advantage for inducing sleep in those suffering from hallucinations. It is applied locally to relieve pain and itching in eczema, pruritis, etc. Ganja is given in doses from one-fourth to two grains. Charas is the resinous exudation that collects on the leaves and flowering tops of the plants. It is the most active part of the plant and is a valuable narcotic, especially in cases where opium cannot be used. It is of great value in malaria, chronic headache, migraine, acute mania, whooping cough, asthma, anaemia of the brain, nervous...

Eosinophiliamyalgia syndrome

No severe or irreversible adverse effects of tryptophan were reported until 1989, when an eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome was described, and l-tryptophan-containing products were withdrawn from the market (SEDA-15, 518). This syndrome was characterized by an eosinophil count of at least 1 x 109 l and intense generalized myalgia. Other relatively frequent signs and symptoms were fatigue, arthralgia, skin rash, cough and dyspnea, edema of the limbs, fever, scleroderma-like skin abnormalities, increased hair loss, xerostomia, neuropathy, and pneumonia or pneumonitis with or without pulmonary vasculitis. About one-third of the cases required hospitalization, and a substantial number of patients died. The syndrome is suspected to have been due to an unidentified impurity in products from one manufacturer (SEDA-18, 22).

Paraphenylenediamine Mehindi tattooing

For 30-40 minutes leaves a temporary tattoo. The most probable cause of contact dermatitis due to mehindi is the presence of para-phenylenediamine, which is added to the paste to strengthen its color. Among numerous mixtures that contain henna and chemical coloring agents, there is the so-called black henna used to perform skin drawings it may contain natural henna, a rare and weak sensitizer, which probably contains para-phenylenediamine.

Use of methadone in opioid withdrawal

The major adverse effects during treatment occur during the initial stabilization phase. In addition to constipation and sweating, the most frequently reported adverse effects are transient skin rash, weight gain, and fluid retention. Since the main metabolic pathway of methadone is CYP3A4, numerous drug interactions can be expected. Drugs that interact with methadone are listed in the table in the monograph on opioids.


A generalized rash has sometimes been seen in patients taking albendazole (SEDA-15, 334), and skin complications (including urticaria and contact dermatitis) are a potential problem in employees in the pharmaceutical industry if they undergo heavy exposure to the drug (26).

Contrast media

More frequent allergic reactions to iodinated and non-ionic contrast media injection were observed when radiological examination was performed within a period ranging from 2 to 6 weeks up to 2 years after withdrawal of aldesleukin in patients who had previously tolerated contrast media well (124,125). These reactions usually appeared within 1-4 hours after contrast media injection, but delayed reactions up to 24 hours were sometimes noted. The most frequent symptoms were diarrhea, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, skin rash, pruritus, and facial edema, and rarely included hypotension, dyspnea, and oliguria. The overall incidence was 5-15 , but as high as 28 of patients receiving aldesleukin via arterial infusion (126). This incidence is therefore about 3-4 times higher than in the general population undergoing contrast media examination. Recall'' reactions to alde-sleukin have been suggested as an explanation, since these complications more closely resemble immediate adverse effects...

Bee products

Propolis can cause allergic contact dermatitis (4), and have been reported in HIV-infected patients (5-7). It has been associated with allergy after its use in cosmetics and in the self-treatment of various diseases. Although most cases involve allergic contact dermatitis arising from topical application, a few reports have described an allergic reaction after oral ingestion. Adulteration of propolis capsules with excessive amounts of lead has been reported from New Zealand (8). Royal jelly (SEDA-21, 494) is a viscous secretion produced by the pharyngeal glands of the worker bee, Apis mellifera. It is widely used in alternative medicine as a health tonic. Its internal use by atopic individuals can cause severe, sometimes even fatal, asthma and anaphylaxis (9-11). Topical application can lead to contact dermatitis (12). Of 1472 hospital employees of a teaching hospital in Hong Kong, 461 had taken royal jelly in the past (14). Nine subjects reported 14 adverse reactions to royal jelly,...

Gerontologie Alert

The nurse inspects the skin every 4 hours for redness, rash, or lesions that appear as red wheals or blisters. When a skin rash or irritation is present, the nurse administers frequent skin care. Emollients, antipyretic creams, or a topical corticosteroid may be prescribed. An antihistamine may be prescribed. Harsh soaps and perfumed lotions are avoided. The nurse instructs the patient to avoid rubbing the area and not to wear rough or irritating clothing.


Abdominal pain, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, and blood dyscrasias may be seen with the use of the lincosamides. These drugs also can cause pseudomembranous colitis, which may range from mild to very severe. Discontinuing the drug may relieve mild symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis.

Pregnancy Category D

Clonazepam is not recommended for persons suffering from narrow-angle glaucoma. The compound may worsen respiratory disease. The substance increases saliva production. It often makes people tired, interferes with muscular coordination, and can impede decision making such effects hinder ability to operate dangerous machinery. Dozens of less common adverse effects are described, ranging from skin rash to painful gums. One case report concludes that clonazepam may promote porphyria, a body chemistry disorder that can make a person violent and supersensitive to light, but such a result is virtually unheard of. A review of medical records of men being treated for posttraumatic stress disorder suggested that the drug may commonly inhibit sexual performance in such a population. Some persons suffer from a disquieting affliction called apnea in which they temporarily stop breathing case reports say clonazepam can cause apnea attacks. An experiment noted a rebound effect when people...

Drug contamination

Unregulated Chinese herbal products adulterated with glu-cocorticoids have been detected (357). Dexamethasone was present in eight of 11 Chinese herbal creams analysed by UK dermatologists. The creams contained dexametha-sone in concentrations inappropriate for use on the face or in children (64-1500 micrograms g). The cream with the highest concentration of dexamethasone was prescribed to treat facial eczema in a 4-month-old baby. In all cases, it had been assumed that the creams did not contain gluco-corticoids. The authors were concerned that these patients received both unlabelled and unlicensed topical glucocorti-coids. They wrote that ''greater regulation and restriction needs to be imposed on herbalists, and continuous monitoring of side effects of these medications is necessary.''

Contact allergy

Nasal glucocorticoids and inhaled glucocorticoids can have adverse effects on the nose and mouth, including pruritus, burning, dryness, erythema, edema, dry cough, and odynophagia less commonly, they can cause eczema and urticaria, particularly on the face. Contact dermatitis to glucocorticoids can be facilitated by impaired epithelial barriers, and has been found in 4.7 of patients receiving topical hydrocortisone (67). Inhaled glucocorticoids can cause hypersensitivity reactions, especially in patients with chronic eczema who have been sensitized to local glucocorticoids. Contact allergy to glucocorticoids is not rare in patients with atopic dermatitis. In patients with known contact allergy to budesonide, allergic skin reactions can also occur when inhaled forms of the drug are used, as shown by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 15 non-asthmatic patients with budesonide hypersensitivity on patch testing (74). In four of seven patients who used inhaled...

Antiviral drugs

Topical antiviral drugs rarely cause contact dermatitis. Skin reactions are mostly mild and transitory, including pruritus, pain, rashes, contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. However, serious reactions occasionally occur (31R). Antiviral drugs that have been implicated include topical aciclovir, cidofovir, idoxuridine, imiquimod, lamivudine, penci-clovir, podophyllin, podophyllotoxin, trifluri-dine, tromantadine, vidarabine, intralesional and ophthalmic solutions of interferon, intravit-real injections of fomivirsen and foscarnet, and intraocular implants of ganciclovir. Patch testing in these cases only rarely caused positive reactions to the antiviral drug.


Pimecrolimus is a non-steroidal ascomycin derivative with topical anti-inflammatory activity. In a 1 cream it is effective and safe in atopic dermatitis in infants, children, and adults (42C). Tacrolimus ointment, another cal-cineurin inhibitor, has similar efficacy in atopic dermatitis. The main adverse effect of both drugs is local skin irritation with a stinging or burning sensation, which occurs in 30 of patients who use pimecrolimus and 50 of patients who use tacrolimus. Typically, children have less skin irritation than adults. Adverse effects such as local immunosuppression and an increased risk of local bacterial and viral infections (notably eczema herpeticum) are less common than with topical corticosteroids


Topical NSAIDs can cause allergic contact dermatitis (including erythema multiforme-like reactions), as well as phototoxicity, photoaller-gic contact dermatitis, immediate contact reactions (contact urticaria), and contact vasculitis (SEDA-18,163 SEDA-22,170). A case of contact pemphigus has now been reported.


The arylpropionic acid derivatives often cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic dermatitis to ketoprofen, with cross-photosensitivity to benzophenone and tiaprofenic acid, has been reported (60A). Photopatch tests to these substances were positive but patch tests were negative. A case of photoallergic contact dermatitis from aceclofenac has recently been reported (61a). Photopatch tests were positive with ace-clofenac 10 in petrolatum, but not with either aceclofenac 1 or 5 in petrolatum or with a series of NSAIDs and other analgesics (ben-zydamine hydrochloride 3 and 5 , bufexamac

Xanthinol Nicotinate

Precautions People with ulcers, cardiovascular problems, or liver problems (xanthinol nicotinate can cause liver dysfunction) should avoid taking it. There may be minor reactions such as blurred vision, diarrhea, headaches, heartburn, heart palpitations, itchy skin, muscle cramps, nausea, skin flushing or a sense of warmth, skin rash, skin-color changes, or vomiting these generally disappear with continued use or when use is discontinued. It may cause postural hypotension, or a sudden drop in blood pressure when going from a sitting to a standing position.


Local hypersensitivity reactions to chlor-hexidine-impregnated patches in neonates are known to occur (SEDA-23, 248). A randomized comparison of povidone-iodine and a chlorhex-idine gluconate impregnated dressing for the prevention of central venous catheter infections in neonates showed that the risk of local contact dermatitis limited the use of the chlorhexidine dressing (4c).


Immunologic Occupational allergic contact dermatitis has been attributed to azithromycin (165a). A 32-year-old pharmaceutical worker had been loading reactors at three different stages of azithromycin synthesis for the past 3 years and had been exposed to airborne powders. He wore overalls and latex gloves. His symptoms had persisted for 1 year in the form of pruritus, erythema, vesicles, and scaling of the face and forearms. A positive patch test and a positive workplace challenge were considered reliable in the diagnosis of occupational allergic contact dermatitis induced by azithromycin. After transfer to another work station that excluded exposure to azithromycin, he had no further work-related symptoms. A 79-year-old man developed fever, mental changes, a rash, acute renal insufficiency, and hepatitis after he had completed a 5-day course of oral azithromycin (500 mg initially then 250 mg day). With intravenous hydration only, his fever abated and his urinary output and renal and...


It has been used to speed the healing of wounds, and to treat headaches, skin rashes, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, vaginal infections, and acne. Precautions Yarrow should only be used in its diluted state, as it is quite powerful. When applied to the skin, it can make it more susceptible to skin rash when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light.

Metallic mercury

Metallic mercury (SEDA-21, 239) is poisonous, and prolonged or acute inhalation can be fatal organic damage results in a severe chemical pneumonitis. Gingivitis, sometimes proceeding to loss of the teeth, is a well-recognized consequence of prolonged low-level exposure to the metal. Inhalation of vapor from broken thermometers by persons allergic to mercury or even skin exposure can give rise to allergic contact dermatitis (10). If the liquid metal enters the system, even a small amount can cause complications (SEDA-22, 248), although much of the metal is likely to remain at the site of entry and some will be trapped by the lymphatic system.


Among juveniles the compound has caused skin rash, stomach distress, mild headaches, and sleep difficulties. In juveniles the compound can at least temporarily reduce appetite, although in elderly users the drug has been observed to increase appetite. Controversy exists about whether the drug affects growth. The substance is associated with stroke suffered by two boys.


Drinking milk can counteract phendimetrazine's anorectic quality. The drug can dangerously increase blood pressure by interacting with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs, found in some antidepressants and other medicine). After highly publicized incidents of adverse effects associated with combination therapy of phentermine and fenfluramine, medical practitioners became especially alert to any problems associated with diet drugs. Someone taking phendimetrazine two times a day developed heart and lung difficulty that substantially improved when dosage was halted, and a case of temporary skin rash and kidney inflammation is reported from someone who was taking phendimetrazine and phentermine. The latter drug combination is also suspected of responsibility for temporary trouble with blood circulation in the brain (leading to a stroke in at least one instance). Whether these isolated cases can be extrapolated into general principle is questionable, but such reports...

Emerging Strategies

Two approaches have been developed for inhibition of EGFR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors and inhibiting antibodies, such as C225 (cetuximab). Only few clinical data are available for normal tissue effects of treatment with EGFR antagonists, which include cetuximab-related toxicities, such as acneiform skin rash and hypersensitivity reactions (Burtness 2005). Association of early radiation reactions, such as oral mucositis, with changes in the expression of EGF and EGFR, as demonstrated in preclinical studies (Kase 2001 D rr 2003a), render this tissue a potential target for EGFR inhibition however, detailed studies using a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Fehrmann and D rr 2005) did not show an effect on the mucosal response to fractionated radiotherapy. Further studies are required into the effect of other EGFR antagonists on early radiation effects.


Levovist has been assessed in 5073 patients. In addition, spontaneous reporting of adverse events in 100 000 patients given injections of Levovist has been analysed (6). The incidence of adverse events (12 ) was similar in the Levovist group and in the controls, who were given isotonic saline. The adverse events included sensations of pain, cold, and warmth during injection, abnormal taste sensations, headache, nausea, and vomiting. There were no serious adverse events. The overall adverse event rate in spontaneous reports was 0.02 . One patient developed bronchospasm, another had a generalized skin rash, and two other patients had urticaria. The other reported adverse events were not serious and may not have been caused by the contrast agent.


The USPIO contrast agent ferristene (Abdoscan, Amersham) is effective and safe in delineating the gastrointestinal tract after oral ingestion. Different rectal formulations of ferristene with different viscosities and iron concentrations have been evaluated in a phase II clinical study, in which ferristene enemas (200-500 ml) and intravenous gadodiamide (0.1 mmol kg) were used in the evaluation and staging of rectal cancer in 113 patients (1). Five patients had 10 adverse events, including rectal pain, diarrhea, edema, a phobic reaction, nausea, and a skin rash all recovered without further therapy. The high-viscosity formulation (70 g of granules l) was better than the low-viscosity formulation in tumor staging, but the

Use in dentistry

Dental gold alloys continue to be used and remain a source of contact hypersensitivity (7), including contact stomatitis and skin eruptions at sites not usually associated with dentistry. Contact dermatitis to metallic gold, for example in jewellery, has also repeatedly been observed (SED-8, 510) (SEDA-22, 245). A gold surgical clip has also caused an apparently allergic reaction, characterized by sterile abscess formation (8). However, such reactions are rare and may in part be due to other metals contained in the alloy.


Ephedrine can cause skin rash, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, hepatitis, rise in body temperature, jitteriness, insomnia, hyperactivity, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, seizures, kidney stones, visual and auditory hallucinations, and paranoid psychosis. Ephedrine can worsen muscle tics animal experimentation shows the drug causing brain damage that can lead to the tics seen in Parkinson's disease. During strong physical exertion, such as bodybuilding, ephedrine may increase danger of heart attack. Suspicion exists that persons who stop taking ephedrine may be more sensitive to it if they start using the drug again.


Skin Allergic contact dermatitis of the ophthalmic mucous membranes has previously been reported. Now sensitization to propara-caine via the cutaneous route has also been described (46C). 33. Roos TC, Merk HF. Allergic contact dermatitis from benzocaine ointment during treatment of Herpes zoster. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44 104. 35. Hayashi K, Kawachi S, Saida T. Allergic contact dermatitis due to both chlorpheniramine maleate and dibucaine hydrochloride in an over-the-counter medicament. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44 38-9. 36. Kearney CR, Fewings J. Allergic contact dermatitis to cinchocaine. Australas J Dermatol 2001 42 118-19. 37. Eredmann SM, Sachs B, Merk HF. Systemic contact dermatitis from cinchocaine. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44 260-1. 44. Blaschke V, Fuchs T. Periorbital allergic contact dermatitis from oxybuprocaine. Contact Dermatitis 2001 44 198. 46. Dannaker CJ, Maibach HI, Austin E. Allergic contact dermatitis to proparacaine with subsequent cross-sensitization to tetracaine...


Aromatherapy is a highly popular form of complementary medicine usually entailing the application of essential plant oils to the skin by gentle massage. It has been shown to have relaxing effects but other claims have not been substantiated by reliable trial evidence (121). Allergic airborne contact dermatitis occurred in a patient who had previously used several essential oils for aromatherapy (122). The toxicity of essential oils has been reviewed (123). Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by essential oils used in aromatherapy have been described (124). A survey of UK aromatherapists (no details provided) yielded 11 reports of adverse effects (125). Most of these cases seemed to relate to allergic reactions to the essential oils. A therapist also reportedly developed an allergy to ylang-ylang oil used in aromatherapy (126).

Inositol And Ip6

Effects Inositol acts as a cell membrane stabilizer. It also helps redistribute body fat, keep cholesterol low, prevent eczema, and keep hair healthy. Claims that myoinositol lowers triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood, protects against cardiovascular disease, promotes sleep, or relieves anxiety are, as yet, unproven, though these last two effects may result from its effects on phosphatidylinositol levels in brain cells. It has been shown to provide some benefit in improving sensory nerve function in those with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, though more research is needed to determine its exact role in this disease.


Mazindol increases pulse rate, may cause hallucinations, and disrupts sleep. In one study users complained of headache, skin rash, dry mouth, perspiration, tremor in heart and other muscles, nausea, and difficult urination and bowel movements. Users also report being wired, edgy, and dizzy. In human males mazindol can make the testes painful, interfere with erection and ejaculation, and cause urine retention. The latter effect has been exploited to treat incontinence. Mazindol may interfere with production of human growth hormone, a consideration when juveniles take the drug. When tested as a treatment for schizophrenia the drug at best had no effect and even worsened some symptoms. A medical journal article published in 2000 linked mazindol to pulmonary hypertension, the first time such an association was reported. Earlier reports noted development of heart disorder after taking mazindol in combination with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine, but such affliction has been...

Anorectic Class

Abusers of stimulant anorectics exhibit symptoms similar to those found among abusers of amphetamines, from skin rash to psychosis. Some persons using anorectics properly under medical supervision experience muscle pain and cramps, weariness, peevishness, depression, difficulty in thinking. That group of symptoms is the same as those undergone by persons trying to cope with lack of food regardless of drug use, a coincidence raising question about whether some undesired effects attributed to anorectics are simply undesired effects of being hungry.

Jatropha curcas L

Jatropha Curcas Latex

Uses The oil expressed from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Oleum Infernale) was formerly used in Western medicine to relieve the bowels of costiveness, to treat bleeding, and to heal wounds. In Burma, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia, the latex is used to alleviate itchiness, control bleeding, and treat eczema and ringworms. In the Philippines, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and the latex, to assuage toothache. The plant is also used to treat cough and to stop diarrhea. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, Jatropha curcas L. is used to facilitate abortion, alleviate itchiness and heal ulcers. In Malaysia, the latex is used to treat bleeding and heal wounds.


Skin Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to thiuram compounds in rubber products, such as disposable rubber gloves, is well recognized (41R). Contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis Skin rash, respiratory reaction, Contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis A 49-year-old man developed acute pruritic dermatitis of the hand, which settled quickly with oral corticosteroids and antibiotics (42c). Six months later he developed a similar eruption, which became more widespread, involving the trunk and limbs. He had no personal or family history of atopy, and had no known allergies or previous history of skin disease. He had a widespread dry eczematous eruption, most marked in exposed areas. The rash had developed soon after he had handled plants that had been sprayed with a fungicide. The safety data sheet for this product indicated that it contained 80 thiuram. Full blood count and...


Skin Rosacea, accompanied the use of Mirena in a 36-year-old woman for 2 years and disappeared within 6 months of removal (78A). Although, as the authors noted, skin complications (acne, alopecia, and pruritus) have been associated with Mirena, one is bound to wonder whether this was a direct reaction to levonorgestrel or a stress reaction to the absence of menstrual periods. Like many other Mirena users, this woman had amenorrhea associated with facial flushing and pustules conditions such as urticaria, eczema, pompholyx, and erythema multiforme occur cyclically in some women in the second half of the menstrual cycle, irrespective of contraceptive use.

Specific allergens

The incidence of adverse systemic reactions during immunotherapy for perennial allergic rhinitis using standardized extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae has been estimated in 386 patients who received 22 722 injections. The incidence of systemic reactions was 6.22 per patient and 0.12 per injection. Systemic reactions began 3-30 minutes after an injection (average 11 minutes). Asthma, atopic dermatitis, and a high concentration of IgE (but not specific IgE) in serum were identified as important risk factors for severe systemic reactions. Systemic reactions occurred in 12 of 18 patients who had an IgE concentration over 100 U ml and asthma and or atopic dermatitis. In patients who had none of these risk factors the incidence of systemic reaction was 1.64 per patient. The authors estimated that the rate of systemic reactions could be reduced by 75 if patients with identified risk factors were strictly excluded from immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis (11).

Cassia tora L

Senna Leaf

Uses In China, the seeds of Cassia tora L. are used to treat herpes infection, diseased eyes, and to heal infected sores. In Malaysia, the seeds are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and lower blood pressure. A decoction of about 10 g of seeds is used to treat acute conjunctivis. In Vietnam and in the Philippines, the plant is used to expel intestinal worms. In Vietnam, 10 g to 15 g of raw seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, and the roasted seeds are ingested to assuage headache, relieve the bowels of costiveness, control excessive urination, treat cough, insomnia, ophthalmia and ocular congestion, and to lower blood pressure. An alcoholic or vinegar maceration of the seeds is applied externally to treat eczema and mycosis. In India, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to relieve the bowels of costiveness. The seeds and leaves are used to treat ringworm infection and irritated skin. The gum (panwar gum) expressed from the seeds of Cassia tora L. has been tried...

Safety Data

Most herbal products have not been subjected to rigorous clinical trials, and there remains a dearth of knowledge concerning how children are affected by these substances. Paediatric subjects are physiologically more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of herbs than adults. For example, some herbs such as senna and aloe are known cathartics and some herbal teas contain powerful diuretic compounds these actions may cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances quickly in an infant or young child. Moreover, some subpopulations are more susceptible to certain adverse effects of herbs than other children. Subjects with allergies may be at increased risk, since the allergic potential of some plants commonly used in children that could cause contact dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and wheezing is well known. For example, chamomile can cause anaphylaxis and other herbs such as angelica and rue are capable of photosensitization 95 . Thus paediatricians must be cautious regarding the...

Oenothera biennis

The seeds of Oenothera biennis (evening primrose, fever plant, king's cure-all, night willow herb, scabish, sundrop, tree primrose) yield evening primrose oil, which contains gamma-linolenic acid and has been used in various disorders, such as atopic eczema, premenstrual syndrome, and benign breast pain, but is probably not efficacious (1,2).

Euphorbia hirta L

Uses In Indonesia, the latex is used to treat ringworm infection and heal wounds. A decoction of this herb is used to treat asthma and assuage bronchial discomfort. The leaves are chewed to facilitate abortion, and the flowers are used to treat barrenness. In Malaysia, the latex is used to treat diseased eyes, heal wounds and soothe bruises. A decoction consisting of about 70 g of the fresh herb is drunk to promote urination, stop dysentery, remove blood from urine, assuage urethral pain and treat asthma. The plant is applied externally to treat dermatitis, eczema and irritated skin. A paste is used to soothe sores, and heal boils. In the Philippines, the leaves are mixed with those of Datura metel L. to make cigarettes which are smoked treat asthma. The plant is used to check bleeding, to calm a person, and stimulate the secretion of sweat. In Vietnam, Euphorbia hirta L. is used to stop dysentry. The dried entire Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbia, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1954) was...

Rhus species

Contact dermatitis has been attributed to Rhus species (1,2), including a case that followed exposure to a homeopathic remedy (3). Oral or parenteral exposure to certain contact allergens can elicit an eczematous skin reaction in sensitized individuals. This phenomenon has been called systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) and is relatively rare compared with classical contact dermatitis. In 42 patients with systemic contact dermatitis caused by ingestion of Rhus (24 men and 18 women, average age 44 years, range 24-72), 14 of whom had a history of allergy to lacquer, there were skin lesions such as generalized maculopapular eruptions (50 ), erythroderma (29 ), vesiculobullous lesions (14 ), and erythema mul-tiforme-like lesions (7 ) (4). Many patients (57 ) developed a leukocytosis with a neutrophilia (74 ). In some patients (5 ) there were abnormalities of liver function. The lymphocyte subsets of 12 patients studied were within the reference ranges with no differences between patients...

Boric acid

Boric acid penetrates even intact skin, but it is readily absorbed through inflamed or otherwise damaged skin and through mucous membranes. After the application of wet compresses of boric acid to intact and eczematous skin in 21 patients over several days, blood concentrations of boric acid were generally not raised (3). One patient, however, did have a significant rise in blood boric acid concentration, which the authors ascribed to pre-existing kidney insufficiency. Prolonged absorption of boric acid causes anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, mild diarrhea, skin rash, diffuse alopecia, convulsions, and anemia.

Myroxylon species

Contact dermatitis has been reported after oral administration (66). In one case an allergic contact dermatitis in a patient sensitive to balsam of Peru caused a primary eruption on the face with secondary purpuric vasculitis-like eruptions on both legs (67). In 60 patients with positive patch-test reactions to a fragrance mix or M. pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) there were positive immediate contact reactions to M. pereirae resin in 57 and to the fragrance mix in 12 (68). In a control group (n 50) of eczematous, patch test-negative patients there were positive immediate reactions to M. pereirae resin in 58 and to the fragrance mix in 12 . The authors commented that the absence of a significant difference between the fragrance-allergic group and the control group was in keeping with a non-immunological basis for the immediate contact reactions.

Organic salts

Organomercurials have been a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis or rash (22) and even exfoliative dermatitis has been described (23). Some reagents for intra-cutaneous testing (tuberculin, etc.) may contain thiomersal, which can cause sensitization and thus elicit false-positive delayed-type skin reactions. Mercury compounds inhibit most lymphocyte functions (SEDA-21, 240). An early indicator of an immunological response to mercury exposure, for example in occupational medicine, appears to be a change in the lymphocyte count with a differential increase in T helper cells and a rise in the T helper T suppressor ratio (24). Thiomersal is one of the most frequent sensitizers in the world (3,35). It is used as a preservative in vaccines, test solutions, and topically administered applications, for example creams and solutions used on eczematous skin, ear-drops, eye-drops, and cleanser solutions for ocular contact lenses. The concentration of thiomersal varies between 0.0005 and...

Vitamin B12

Precautions It should not be taken by those with Leber's disease (optic nerve atrophy). Those with gout should consult a physician before taking supplements. The RDA for adults is 3 micrograms, yet no toxicity was observed in tests where individuals took 500 to 1000 micrograms (0.5 to 1 mg) for up to five years, or took 100,000 micrograms in a single dose. Allergies to this vitamin are rare, and reactions (the symptoms for which include acne, eczema, and a swelling or crusting of skin around the lips) usually occur with injections, rather than tablets. Rare side effects consist of itchy skin, wheezing, and diarrhea. Life-threatening symptoms, usually resulting from overdose, consist of faintness (from anaphylaxis), hives, itching, and rash.

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