Penalties for Possession and Sale of MDMA in the United States

The average newspaper article about MDMA prior to 2001 frequently quoted up to fifteen years in prison or a 125,000 fine as the penalty for MDMA possession. This penalty has been cited repeatedly in articles about MDMA since its initial emergency scheduling in 1985. The penalties for MDMA possession or intent to distribute are complex. No mandatory minimum sentence exists for MDMA, as it does for some other drugs, such as crack cocaine. The maximum penalties are found in the statutes, but they...

Mdma Myths And Rumors Dispelled

The only way to remove spinal fluid from the body is with a surgical intervention called a lumbar puncture, better known as a spinal tap. In the mid-1980s, ongoing research required spinal taps on Ecstasy users. It is possible that this rumor began because of this practice. MDMA research may drain your spinal fluid, but recreational Ecstasy use does not. Parkinson's disease is a neurological illness that affects one's ability to move fluidly and causes a tremor when a person is sitting still....

Serotonin and Schizophrenia

Support for the involvement of the serotonergic system in schizophrenia has been gathering in the literature since it was first observed almost forty years ago that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) causes a syndrome evocative of schizophrenia in normal controls and that the structure of LSD shares similarities with serotonin (Gaddum and Hameed 1954). Although the dopamine hypothesis dominated the literature for the next three decades, further evidence to reassert serotonergic abnormalities in...