Mdma And Spirituality

An Interview with Rabbi Zalman Schachter JH How did you first hear about MDMA ZS In 1956 I read Aldous Huxley's Doors of Perception, and in 1962 Timothy Leary took me on my first acid trip. I got to MDMA via the other psychedelics. I really can't remember from whom I first heard about it. It was in the air, not before the late seventies or perhaps the early eighties. I can't remember the circumstances surrounding the first opportunity I had to take it, but I felt the great delight of loving the...

MDMA and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Much has been written about the therapeutic uses of MDMA, specifically concerning its potential for people who have suffered some type of traumatic experience. Greer and Tolbert, pioneers in therapeutic work with MDMA, published reports of their patients' positive experiences with the substance. They write, Results from eighty patients indicate that MDMA seems to decrease the fear response to a perceived threat to a patient's emotional integrity, leading to a corrective emotional experience...

Psychological Effects of MDMA

When we started our research with MDMA, most reports available on its psychological effects were retrospective and anecdotal and lacked drug and dose identification. This situation was pardy due to the fact that using MDMA for prospective clinical studies was illegal in most countries and that Ecstasy tablets sold for recreational use often contained other psychoactive compounds, so that their effects could not be ascribed reliably to MDMA alone. To avoid these limitations and to obtain robust...

Psychedelic Psychotherapy

The possibility that psychedelic drugs could help facilitate the modern psychotherapeutic process was virtually ignored in the United States and Europe until about 1950. Between then and the mid-1960s, more than one thousand clinical papers describing forty thousand patients who had taken part in psychedelic therapy or other research trials were published, as well as several dozen related books six international conferences on psychedelic drug therapy were held (Grinspoon and Bakalar 1983). Two...

History Timeline

Merck in Darmstadt, Germany, on December 24. 1914 Patent is issued as number 2 743 50 on May 16. 1924 Paper is published mentioning MDMA as intermediate in chemical synthesis. 1953 U.S. Army Chemical Center (contract no. DA-18-108-CML-5663) gives MDMA (code EA 1475) to laboratory animals at the University of Michigan. 1953 New York State Psychiatric Institute clinical research subject inad-vertendy killed with lethal dose of MDA (450 mg intravenous). 1960 Paper...

Tolerance and Dependence

The use of almost any substance can become compulsive and excessive in some people, and there are certainly a few people who have taken Ecstasy on a daily basis, regardless of tolerance, for prolonged periods (McGuire and Fahy 1991 Jansen 1998). I have described the case of a person who injected 250 mg of MDMA powder intravenously, up to four times a day for six months. Eventually, 250mg taken orally had almostno effect at all (Jansen 1998). Itis far more common, however, for habitual and...

Clinical Experience With Mdmaassisted Psychotherapy

JH I think that I would like to start by having you explain what sort of work you do. GG I'm a psychiatrist in private practice. I have a small outpatient psychotherapy practice, and I also work half-time in a residential treatment center for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mosdy with patients who have experienced sexual or physical abuse in childhood. They also generally have depression and other mood disorders, eating disorders, attention-deficit...

JH With MDA not MDMA

Bob Schuster wasn't alarmist he simply noted that there were some small effects of MDA on serotonin levels. He thought MDMA should be on Schedule HI, which made any nonmedical use criminal but still allowed physicians to administer the drug legally to patients. When I came back from Geneva in February, there was starting to be some publicity about MDMA and about the upcoming DEA hearings. For several years starting in the early 1980s, Sasha and others had been able to dissuade the...

Ecstasy Introduction

Every weekend around the world, nearly a million people are taking a drug they call Ecstasy They hear from friends and the media that this love drug is an aphrodisiac, capable of creating feelings of love and empathy with others, or that it induces a blissed-out state, marketed as euphoria. The British government estimates that more than half a million hits of Ecstasy are sold every weekend in the United Kingdom, and authorities calculate that the use of Ecstasy increased by more than 4,000...

Serotonin and Schizophrenia

Support for the involvement of the serotonergic system in schizophrenia has been gathering in the literature since it was first observed almost forty years ago that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) causes a syndrome evocative of schizophrenia in normal controls and that the structure of LSD shares similarities with serotonin (Gaddum and Hameed 1954). Although the dopamine hypothesis dominated the literature for the next three decades, further evidence to reassert serotonergic abnormalities in...

Mental Health Problems Associated With Mdma

Like other mind-altering drugs, MDMA was perceived as one with few adverse effects when it was first introduced. However, as its use spread from psychotherapy into the general community, it became linked with a variety of mental health problems. When MDMA was used as an aid to psychotherapy in the late 1970s, therapists characterized the effects as feelings of empathic understanding for others and a release of emotions. Since then, however, there have been reports of confusion, anxiety,...

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (American Psychiatric Association 1994), defines PTSD as an anxiety disorder generated when a person has experienced or witnessed a stressful event that involves death, the threat of death, or serious bodily injury to the self or to another person and which causes reactions characterized by intense fear and feelings of helplessness or of terror (American Psychiatric Association 1994). PTSD is a disorder classically associated...

How Mdma Works In The Brain

Malberg, Ph.D., and Katherine R. Bonson, Ph.D. The pharmacology of MDMA primarily involves two brain chemicals serotonin and dopamine. These neurotransmitters help nerve cells communicate with each other (as described below) and each of them have their own complex neural systems and behavioral responses. MDMA acts in the brain through three main neurochemical mechanisms blockade of serotonin reuptake, induction of serotonin release, and induction of dopamine release. With these...

United States

Manuel Tancer and Chris-Ellyn Johanson from the Research Division on Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine (Detroit, Michigan) have been involved in various investigations examining the subjective effects of MDMA. As part of a study program designed to gain a better understanding of the behavioral pharmacology of MDMA, they plan to compare the effects ofMDMA with those of prototypical stimulants and with...

Mdma Myths And Rumors Dispelled

The only way to remove spinal fluid from the body is with a surgical intervention called a lumbar puncture, better known as a spinal tap. In the mid-1980s, ongoing research required spinal taps on Ecstasy users. It is possible that this rumor began because of this practice. MDMA research may drain your spinal fluid, but recreational Ecstasy use does not. Parkinson's disease is a neurological illness that affects one's ability to move fluidly and causes a tremor when a person is sitting still....

The Chemistry Of Mdma

Holland what she wanted me to present in this chapter, she replied, Explain the molecule to the masses. . . . Keep it elementary. That is a somewhat daunting task, because for many people who attended college or university, organic chemistry is a subject that is best forgotten. Those of you who have never had the experience of a basic organic chemistry course may still have heard horror stories about the subject or you are at least aware that it instills a kind of instinctive...

Extent and Nature of Depression

Epidemiological studies of depression have shown that the lifetime risk for major depression in the adult population ranges from 10 percent to 25 percent for women and from 5 percent to 12 percent for men (American Psychiatric Association 1994). The occurrence of depression appears to be unrelated to ethnicity, education, income, or marital status. Major depression is twice as common in women as in men (American This chapter is based in part on a previous publication, Psychedelic and...

The History Of Mdma

Although MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) has been in the public spotlight only since the mid-1980s, its history extends back to the beginning of the twentieth century. MDMA was synthesized some time before 1912. The German pharmaceutical giant Merck was attempting to create a new medication to stop bleeding when it stumbled across MDMA as an intermediate step in the synthesis. On Christmas Eve in 1912, Merck filed the patent for this styptic medication, called hydrastinin MDMA was included...

Dependence of the Extent of Neurotoxicity on Dose Route of Administration and Species

The extent of neurotoxicity is dose-dependent. Long-term changes occur in rats at doses approximately five to ten times higher than those known to be psychoactive Commins et al. 1987 O'Shea et al. 1998 . Most MDMA neurotoxicity studies have used regimens involving multiple doses, usually giving eight doses over a four-day period. These studies show that binge use of MDMA carries a greater risk of neurotoxicity than single doses. When administered repeatedly, a non-neuro toxic dose of MDMA can...

Recent MDMA Legal Maneuvers

Senate bill 2612, proposed by Senator Robert Graham D of Florida and Senator Charles Grassley R of Iowa which was modified and rolled into the Children's Health Act of 2000 Public Law 106-310 , called for the United States Sentencing Commission to amend the federal sentencing guidelines to provide for higher penalties associated with the manufacture, distribution, and use of Ecstasy. Those penalties would be comparable to the base levels for offenses involving any methamphetamine mixture....

International Law Regarding MDMA

The World Health Organization and the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs placed MDMA in Schedule I internationally on February 11, 1986. MDMA is classified as a Schedule II dangerous drug as part of the Drugs Misuse Act 1990. Commonwealth penalties for possession are two years plus a 2,000 approximately 1,000 U.S. fine for a small quantity less than half a gram . Possession of half a gram receives twenty-five years and a 100,000 approximately 50,000 U.S. fine. A traffickable quantity...

Cu

Methylenedioxy amphetamine MDA on the left and methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA on the right. Relative molecular sizes are exaggerated to emphasize the basic amine portion of the molecule. The letter 0 represents an oxygen atom. The straight lines represent chemical bonds, and the vertex of each angle between the bonds represents a carbon atom. Hydrogen atoms have been omitted from these structures except at the nitrogen atom, for greater clarity. By now the reader may be wondering,...

Penalties for Possession and Sale of MDMA in the United States

The average newspaper article about MDMA prior to 2001 frequently quoted up to fifteen years in prison or a 125,000 fine as the penalty for MDMA possession. This penalty has been cited repeatedly in articles about MDMA since its initial emergency scheduling in 1985. The penalties for MDMA possession or intent to distribute are complex. No mandatory minimum sentence exists for MDMA, as it does for some other drugs, such as crack cocaine. The maximum penalties are found in the statutes, but they...

The Legal Status Of Mdma Around The World

In the United States, MDMA currendy is listed in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act CSA , tide II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 United States Code, tide 21, chapter 13, section 813 . The CSA places all substances that are regulated under existing federal law into one of five schedules. This placement is based upon the substance's medicinal value, harmfulness, and potential for abuse or addiction. Schedule I is reserved for the most dangerous drugs...

Ecstasy Induced Hyponatremia

Another problem seen in Ecstasy users is acute hyponatremia, a low plasma sodium level due to dilution of the blood with water. Sodium levels are often 125 mmol L or lower 137-147 mmol L is a normal plasma sodium range . This complication occurs among patients who have taken Ecstasy and who also have drunk large amounts of water without losing as much fluid by sweating. This raises a theoretical concern for those users of Ecstasy who are commonly advised by friends to drink plenty of fluids,...