We are discussing the peripheral nervous system at this point Many of the NTs mentioned now will appear in the section

ASIDE INVASIONS OF THE SECOND MESSENGER SYSTEM The Actions of Cholera and Pertussus Toxins Cholera is a condition caused by a protein exotoxin produced by the bacterium vibrio cholerae. This protein toxin consists of six subunits one A subunit and five B subunits. The B subunits are responsible for the binding of the toxin to cAMP-functioning cells in small bowel of the intestines. The A subunit penetrates the cell and has catalytic activity which attaches the ADP portion of naturally occurring...

Gout A Disorder Affecting Uric Acid Excretion

Nucleic acid metabolism results in the prodution of the burine base derivatives adenosine and guanosine. These bases can be reused or oxidized to uric acid for elimination from the body. Uric acid is secreted into the urine by the kidney tubules by an active transport system and is reabsorbed to a great extent. The total body uric acid content is about 1.1 grams, one-sixth of which is in the blood, the rest residing in tissues. Uric acid has two ionizable hydrogens. Its first pKa is 5.75 so at...

Excretion of Drugs and Poisons

The Effects Teenage Pregnancy

The main factor in determining whether or not a drug or poison will be excreted via the urinary tract is its lipophilicity. If the material is lipophilic it can be reabsorbed by passive diffusion. The glomerular filtration rate, individual tubule secretory systems, and tubule exchange systems will help to establish excretion rates. Because a molecule's lipophilicity can be pH-dependent the acidity of the urine is extremely important. Aspirin was once the leading cause of poisoning in young...

Nephrotoxicity

Because just about every kind of molecular species except highly plasma-protein-bound molecules will be forced into the kidney tubules through the cells lining the tubules and then possibly reabsorbed further down the line, drugs and poisons can become concentrated in the cells of the tubules during their passage. Many of these materials can be extremely toxic to the functioning of the active transport systems, carrier proteins and metabolic proteins in those cells. The end result is...

Mgkg iv Uses treatment of chronic wideangle glaucoma

Bethanechol and carbachol are synthetic muscarine agonists which are fairly persistent in the nervous system because they are not susceptible to breakdown by acetylcholineesterase. Carbachol also stimulates nicotinic receptors slightly. Of course, you have ascertained that the nicotinic receptor was identified as such because nerve cells as well as neuromuscular cells responded to being treated with nicotine. Because of the prevalence of nicotinic receptors in both the parasympathetic and...

The Function of the Kidneys

We are each born with two functioning kidneys, 6 inch long, bean-shaped organs located in the abdomen behind the other organs. The three general parts of each kidney are the pelvis, where the blood supply enters and leaves the organ, and the medulla and the cortex, where the process of filtration takes place. The flow of blood becomes diffused as it enters the kidney and so flow is lowest in the pelvic region and the highest in the cortex. The medulla and cortex contain the working filtration...

Ethylene diamine tetraacetate

Median Lethal Dose

The membrane of the cell can be disrupted by a variety of nonpolar substances. It is currently believed that this may be the site and mechanism of action of anesthesia gases such as diethyl ether and halothane. If the orderly arrangement of protein receptors and channels is disturbed nerve signal transmission will also be disrupted and unconsciousness can occur. Many fungicides are bacterial membrane disruptors. And recall that antibiotics like penicillin prevent the cell wall from being...

CH2CNH2 stimulatory activity

An antihypertensive and a2-adrenergic agonist 3. Huntington's Chorea (Disease) is an inherited condition of neurotransmitter hyperabundance as far as dopamine is concerned, with a decrease of GABA and Substance P. The result is a hyperkinetic state (chorea) with mental degeneration ending in dementia. The first signs of the disease do not usually appear until middle age (35-50). Walking becomes difficult as does swallowing. Psychiatric disturbances range from personality changes or apathy to...