Determination of isobutyl nitrite in blood by GC with liquidliquid extraction

A 11.5-p.L volume (10 mg) of isobutyl nitrite is dissolved in 5 mL pentane in a glass vial with a Teflon-septum screw cap to serve as a stock solution (2 mg mL), and kept airtightly in a refrigerator. A 5-p.L volume of the above solution is placed using a microsyringe in a glass vial containing 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), capped airtightly and mixed well to prepare the standard isobutyl nitrite solution (10 p,g mL). A 10-p.L volume (10 mg) of n-propyl nitrate (Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI,...

Relationship of a chemical agent with its precursor byproducts and decomposition products

The decomposition of chemical agents is usually rapid and the intact compounds cannot be detected in most cases. In analysis of a chemical agent, the mechanisms of its decomposition and chemical reaction should be well understood. When the purity of an agent is low, stable impurities coexisting, precursor(s) and by-product(s) can be used for specifying a chemical agent. For example, even when mustard gas is decomposed or disappears, it is possible that 1,4-dithiane, sesquimustard or O-mustard...

Cases of analysis [13

Case 1 A 22-year-old male was killed by a mysterious accident during driving a truck. Because of the high severity of injuries, blood specimens could not be obtained the analysis was made with urine and the liver tissue. Urine showed a positive result for the cannabinoid metabolite by screening with EMIT. The concentrations of A9-THC-11-oic acid measured by GC MS were 22 ng mL in urine and 0.6 ng g in the liver. Case 2 A paper factory worker was killed by being caught in a machine during...

Toxic and fatal concentrations

Benzodiazepines generally show low toxicities and the fatal doses are not clear for many drugs. However, toxic blood levels were reported to be 5-20 pg mL for diazepam, dipotassium cloraz-epate and chlordiazepoxide not lower than 2 pg mL for oxazepam, and not lower than 0.2-0.3 pg mL for flurazepam, lorazepam and nitrazepam. The fatal blood concentrations were reported to be not lower than 20 pg mL for diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, and I' *' I' I I' I' *' I' I I' ESI mass spectra of triazolam,...

Assessment of the method

> Figure 1.1 shows a TIC obtained by GC MS for the diluted original sarin specimen obtained from the Tokyo Subway Sarin Incident. By measuring mass spectra and retention times, the peaks except for sarin were identified as DFP, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, triisopropyl phosphate and DEA. The big peak appearing at the retention time of 4 min in > Figure 1.1 is due to sarin. The EI and CI mass spectra of sarin are shown in > Figures 1.2 and 1.3, respectively. In the EI mass spectrum, no...

Introduction

Y-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound present in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues 1 . It is a minor metabolite and precursor of y-aminobu-tyric acid (GABA), and also a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter 2 . GHB has a distinct presynaptic receptor in the brain 3 , and is an agonist of GABAb receptors 4-8 . GHB was first synthesized in 1960 and used as an anaesthetic adjuvant or induction agent 9 . This application is still in use in Europe. In the United...

And its metabolites

Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis 1 . Cocaine is being abused worldwide its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in...

Reagents and their preparation

Amitriptyline, carbamazepine, clomipramine, desipramine, imipramine, maprotiline, mianserin, nortriptyline and trimipramine can be purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA) pure powder of the following drugs was donated by each manufacturer amoxapine by Takeda Chem. Ind. Ltd., Osaka, Japan dosulepin by Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan lofepramine by Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan and setip-tiline by Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. A 20-g aliquot of...

II17 Toluene benzene xylene and styrene

Toluene, benzene, xylene and styrene are being widely used for chemical product materials, solvents and constituents of adhesives and paints, and thus sometimes cause poisoning incidents by inhaling their gas at chemical product-manufacturing factories. The abuse of thinner solvents, containing toluene, benzene and xylene, is now a social problem especially for young people. There are many crimes and poisoning incidents involving the thinner solvent abuse. Recently, styrene leaking from new...

II53 Hair dyes

By Kazuhiro Koyama and Takaaki Kikuno Nowadays, numerous kinds of hair dyes are being commercially available. Hair dyes are classified into reactive hair dyes with high toxicity and into adhering hair dyes with lower toxicity. The reactive hair dyes form a polymerized dye by oxidative reactions inside hair, while the adhering hair dyes only adhere to the outer surface of hair without chemical reaction. In view of poisoning, the reactive hair dyes are objects of interest and of analysis. A...

O Figure

0 C CH C C C 0 I III 0 C CH C C C C I III v Color reaction mechanism for cyanide by the pyridine-pyrazolone method. due to the individual difference, but due to different methods of analysis used. In every analytical method for cyanide in blood, a pretreatment of blood with relatively strong acid to denature hemoglobin to liberate HCN is included, prior to any type of detection. During the acid-treatment process, the oxygenated hemoglobin present in large amounts in blood (1216 ) is rapidly...

Preparation of the standard stock solution of H2S

One gram of sodium sulfide nonahydrate (Na2S 9H2O, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan and many other manufacturers) is placed in a volumetric flask (100 mL) and dissolved in purified water b, which had been degassed by bubbling with nitrogen, to make 100 mL solution. ii. A 25-mL volume of iodine solution 0.1 N ( 0.05 M) standard solution available from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, and other manufacturers is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask, fol- lowed by addition of 1 mL of...

Spectrophotometry analysis [1

Boric acid and borax can be obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). Curcumin solution 0.1 g curcumin (Sigma) is dissolved in purified water to prepare 100 mL solution. 2-Ethyl-1,3-hexanediol solution 10 mL of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA) is dissolved in chloroform to prepare 100 mL solution. A DU-70 type UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Beckman, Fullerton, CA, USA). The procedure for blood, urine and stomach contents is described here, but it is, of course, applicable to the...

Procedure

A 100- L volume of undiluted serum or urine diluted 10-fold with 0.1 M borate buffer solution (pH 8.5) is mixed with 400 L of 0.1 M borate buffer solution and 1 mL acetone. ii. The above solution is vortex-mixed and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 5 min for depro-teinization the resulting supernatant solution is subjected to the below derivatization. iii. A 50- L volume of the above solution is mixed with 200 L of 0.1 M borate buffer solution (pH 8.5) and 200 L of 0.1 FMOC-Cl acetone solution,...

Procedures

Preparation-1 the extracts obtained by the procedure i-iii of the TLC analysis section of this chapter are condensed or diluted before instrumental analysis. Preparation-2 solid-phase extraction with an Oasis MAX cartridge is made as follows i. A 0.5-mL volume of urine or serum (plasma) is mixed well with 0.1 mL phosphoric acid and 0.5 mL of purified water and poured into an Oasis MAX cartridge, which had been activated by passing 3 mL methanol and 3 mL purified water. ii. All manipulations...

II19 Components of gasoline and kerosene

By Tatsunori Takayasu and Toshikazu Kondo The petroleum fuels are a group of hydrocarbons refined and modified from the crude oil, and include more than 100 kinds of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. They are roughly classified into petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, light oil, heavy oil and others 1 . This chapter deals with analysis of hydrocarbons of C3-C16 being included in automobile gasoline, purified kerosene (No.1 kerosene), automobile light oil for a diesel engine and liquefied...

Meconium

Meconium is dark-greenish green-black and muddy, but does not smell unlike feces of children and adults. It contains meconium vesicles, downs, squamous cells, lipid droplets and cholesterol crystals. It begins to accumulate in the large intestine at week 16 of pregnancy, and is not excreted before birth it is excreted 1-3 days after birth 22 . Ostrea et al. 23 first reported that meconium was suitable as a specimen for drug analysis in newborn babies. A drug, which has been administered to a...

HPLC analysis of nicotine in cigarettes

On the packages of cigarettes, the amounts of nicotine and tar are described. The values show the amounts of nicotine and tar being contained in the smoke discharged from a piece of cigarettes, measured under a fixed condition using a smoking machine such a value for nicotine is called nicotine yield. Nowadays, the nicotine and tar yields for Japanese domestic cigarette brands are 0.1-2.4 mg and 1-24 mg, respectively the cigarettes with low nicotine yields are called low nicotine (tar)...

Poisoning cases and fatal concentrations

Case 1 2 a 74-year-old female ingested a mothball (p-dichlorobenzene ingested, 160-200 g) and fell into clouding of her consciousness and severe constipation. When an enema was given to her, strongly aromatic-smelled feces were excreted. Neither gastrolavage, intestinal lavage nor administration of an adsorbent was performed. On day 13, she died of dysfunctions of the liver and kidney. Case 2 3 a 85-year-old female ingested 40 pieces of Neoparasol (p-dichlorobenzene 140 g) due to senile...

II51 Hypochlorite

Hypochlorite a (HClO) is a weak acid, which exerts oxidative action it is being widely used in the salt forms for bleaching and other purposes. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) aqueous solution is usually used as a disinfectant, bleaching agent, fungicide and ink eraser, and is thus usually included in detergents for laundry. Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2, bleaching powder is also used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant. The kinds of household utensils containing hypochlorite are numerous...

Current situation of mushroom poisonings in Japan

According to National Record of Food Poisoning Incidents 1 , the number of mushroom poisoning incidents taking place in Japan in 1974-1997 was 1,068 it was 431 in 1988-1997 (10 years) with 1,842 poisoned people, including 20 fatal victims. Among the 431 incidents, the numbers of incidents according to causative mushrooms are Rhodophyllus rhodopolius plus Rhodophyllus sinuatus, 133 Lampteromycesjaponicus, 127 Tricholoma ustale, 42 Amanita virosa plus Amanita verna, 16 Amanita pantherina, 15...

Naphthalene

MS conditions instrument a Shimadzu QP-5050 quadrupole mass spectrometerc (connected with the above GC) ionization positive ion EI electron energy 70 eV emission current 60 pA ion source temperature 280 C accelerating voltage 1.5 kV. i. A 0.2-mL volume of a whole blood specimend, 10 pL (containing 1 pg) of IS solution and 0.8 mL distilled water are placed in a 7-mL volume glass vial with a Teflon-septum screw cap, capped and mixed gently. ii. The vial is heated at 80 C for 30 min on a heat...

HPLC analysis

Phosphoric acid used is of the special grade commercially available. An Oasis HLBf column (30 mg cc, Waters, Milford, MA, USA) is activated by passing 1 mL methanol and 1 mL distilled water. A 0.5-mL volume of methanol is mixed with 9.5 mL distilled water to prepare 5 methanol solution (v v). A 2-g aliquot of phosphoric acid is dissolved in 1,000 mL of Milli Q waterg the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.0 by adding NaOH aqueous solution. A 1.22-g aliquot of sodium dihydrogenphosphate...

Determination of breath ethanol

A close relationship exists in ethanol concentration between breath and blood the breath concentration is as low as about 2,000 times less than that in blood. Because of its extremely low concentrations, it cannot be measured by the usual capillary GC method described before. When the breath ethanol is measured by the conventional GC with FID, more than 500 mL of the vapor should be passed through a column packed with an adsorbent to collect and concentrate breath ethanol before introducing to...

HPLC conditions

HPLC column Inertsil ODS-2 (250 x 4.6 mm i. d., GL Sciences, Tokyo, Japan) or other columns of similar quality. Conditions pumps LC-10AD for both fluorescence detector RF-550 reaction box CRB-6A reaction coil in the box stainless steel tube to be used for HPLC (15 m x 0.25 mm i.d.) (all obtained from Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan) mobile phase for Pump A (flow rate) 50 mM sodium potassium phosphate buffer containing 2 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (pH 6.8) (0.4 mL min) mobile phase for Pump B (flow...

GCMS analysis of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

The pure powder of the 22 kinds of benzodiazepines was donated by each pharmaceutical manufacturers according to the authors' request a (some of benzodiazepines now obtainable from Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). 1 M Sodium bicarbonate solution a 8.4-g aliquot of sodium bicarbonate is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 100 mL solution. 2 M Sodium acetate solution a 27.5-g aliquot of sodium acetate is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 100 mL solution. Column a DB-5 fused silica capillary...

Symptoms and toxic and fatal concentrations

MDMA causes increased catecholamine (including serotonin) release and blockade of reuptake resulting in cardiac and central nervous system effects 15 . The effects of MDMA vary depending on its doses, frequency and duration of use not only acute effects but also chronic (long-term) effects have been studied 16 . Acute and chronic symptoms provoked by MDMA are summarized in > Table 7.2 15 . The effects of chronic MDMA use have not been well studied, but appear to include both toxic hepatitis...

Identification analysis

When a peak suggesting a chemical weapon-related compound appears, the mass spectrum of the peak is recorded by GC MS the spectrum is subjected to library research to identify a compound. The EI mass spectra for the main chemical weapons and their decomposition Retention index values of typical chemical weapons and their related compounds O-ethyl S-dimethylaminomethyl methylphosphono thiolate (VMM) O- ethyl S-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphono thiolate (VM) O- ethyl S-diethylaminoethyl...

Analysis of toxins of magic mushrooms Psilocybe species

For analysis of hallucinogenic toxins, such as psilocybin and psilocin, GC, GC MS, LC and LC MS are being used. The authentic standards of psilocybin and psilocin are not commercially available in Japan the solution vials of psilocin can be imported after an appropriate procedure from Sigma, USA. For HPLC, a spectrophotometric detector or an electrochemical detector (ECD)c can be used. If LC MS or LC MS MS is available, analysis with much higher sensitivity and reliability can be realized....

Poisoning symptoms and toxic and fatal concentrations

The toxicity of azide is said comparable to that of cyanide the azide, like cyanide, is bound with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase to inhibit the enzyme, causing the toxicity of azide. Its toxicity is observed after oral, percutaneous, intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. After inhalation of hydrazoic acid vapor and oral intake of azide, respiratory stimulation and tachycardia appear, followed by metabolic acidosis, hypotension, respiratory suppression,...

Lcms

LC MS is suitable for analysis of thermolabile and non-volatile compounds. The author et al. are using LC MS for benzodiazepines and sildenafil citrate (Viagra). Screening of benzodiazepines by Triage is a problem, because the cutoff level of the drug group is as high as 300 ng mL the lower levels of the drugs are overlooked. The urinary levels of a benzodiazepine are low in a short time after its intake, resulting in a negative result is the Triage test. The author et al. 13 experienced a...

Postmortem diffusion of drugs from the stomach and urinary bladder

Ethanol is best studied for its postmortem diffusion from the stomach. Pounder and Smith 7 reported that the body fluids most influenced by the diffusion of the stomach ethanol were pericardial fluid, followed by blood of the left pulmonary vein, aorta, left heart, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right heart and right pulmonary vein the blood in the femoral vein was almost not affected. The postmortem diffusion of ethanol from the stomach is dependent upon the residual...

II35 Bromisovalum

Bromisovalum (a-bromoisovalerylurea, bromovalerylurea, Brovarin) (Figure 5.1) has long been being used as a hypnotics or sedative since many years ago. It is not only prescribed as an ethical drug, but also contained in some analgesic- antipyretics and hypnotics being sold as over-the-counter drugs. Because of the easiness of getting it, bromisovalum is one of the most important drugs in poisoning in Japan. The analysis of bromisovalum is being made by GC 1, 2 , GC MS 3 , HPLC 4, 5 and LC MS...

References

1) Japan Poison Information Center (ed) (2000) Poisoning Accidents and their Countermeasures with Special Reference to Actual Cases, revised edn. Jiho Inc., Tokyo, pp 121-126 (in Japanese) 2) Knox JH, Jurand J (1977) Determination of paracetamol and its metabolites in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography using reversed-phase bonded supports. J Chromatogr 142 651-670 3) Ameer B, Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M et al. (1981) High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of...

II54 Permethrin

Pyrethroids are the general term for insecticide pyrethrins and their analogs (cinerins and jasmolins) being included in the flowers of pyrethrum or chrysanthemum. Trace concentrations of pyrethroids exert rapid toxic effects on insects, but are rapidly metabolized for detoxification in warm-blooded animals they are insecticides with very high safety for humans. On the basis of clarification of chemical structures of the effective components of the pyrethrum, many of new synthetic pyrethroids...

GCMS analysis

Haloperidol can be purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA) and other manufacturers bromperidol, reduced haloperidol and reduced bromperidol from Research Biochemical International (Natick, MA, USA). A 4-g aliquot of NaOH and 6 g NaCl are dissolved in distilled water to prepare 100 mL solution (1 M NaOH solution)b. n-Hexane isopropanol (95 5, v v) mixture solution 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid solution As internal standard (IS)c, bromperidol (500 ng mL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution) is used...

Determination of blood cyanide by headspaceGC

Concentrated phosphoric acid (85 , w v) is diluted 1.7-fold with distilled water (50 , w v, preservable at room temperature). A 1.76 g aliquot of 2-ascorbic acid is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 10 mL solution (1 M, preservable in a refrigerator). A 25.1 mg aliquot of potassium cyanide (analytical grade, designated by the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Law) is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 10 mL solution (cyanide ion 1 mg mL, preservable for a week in a...

Notes

A) When VX is absorbed into human bodies, it is rapidly hydrolyzed by chemical and enzymatic reactions with allylesterase to yield EMPA and 2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol (DAET). The DAET formed is immediately subjected to methyl-conjugation by the action of thiol S-methyltransferase being contained in the endoplasmic reticulum to produce DAEMS 18 . This reaction requires S-adenosyl-L-methionine (activated methionine) as coenzyme (> Figure 2.4). In addition, the disappearance of the...

Screening tests at the emergency rooms

It is, of course, necessary to estimate a toxin by careful monitoring of symptoms of a patient, such as miosis in case of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning but actual screening tests at the emergency rooms for causative toxins are also very useful. It seems important to simply detect alcohol and carbon monoxide, at a clinical scene for rapid and suitable treatments, because their poisoning is most frequent. The screening kit Triage is useful for detection of eight groups of drugs an...

ISimple color test methods for drugs and poisons ver

Screening or preliminary tests for drugs and poisons are essential before their instrumental analysis to narrow probable compounds for poisoning. The article was abstracted from the book Department of Legal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine (ed) (2001) Simple Detection Methods for Drugs and Poisons The Color Tests. Jiho Inc., Tokyo . It includes cyanide compounds, carbon monoxide, organophosphorus pesticides, paraquat, bromisova-lum, acetaminophen, barbiturates, tricyclic...

Representative mushrooms causing poisoning cases Rhodophyllus rhodopolius Figure

This mushroom shows the highest incidence of poisoning in Japan, because a very similar edible species Rhodophyllus crassipes is available and grows at similar locations. The poisoning symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain appearing 30 min-3 h after ingestion. The stem of Rhodophyllus rhodopolius is easily crushed by pressure with the finger, but that of the edible Rhodophyllus crassipes is not. The toxic compound being contained in the mushroom is reported to be muscarine or...

C

C9 base 482, 484, 489 Ca(ClO)2 403 cadmium 637 caffeine 229, 491, 494, 495 calcium hypochlorite 403 calcium oxalate 452 camphor 443 cannabichromene 189 cannabidiol 187 cannabinoids 187 cannabinol 187 cannabis 187 Cannabis sativa L. 187 Capcell Pak C18 MG 293 Capcell Pak C18 UG-80 259 Capcell Pak SCX 231 capillary electrophoresis 60, carbamate pesticides 559 carbamazepine 271, 272, 274, 276, 278, 351, 353, 354 354 carbaryl 529 carbendazole 563 carbinoxamine 315, 384 carbofuran 567 carbon...

Poisoning cases and toxic and fatal concentrations

In gt Table 3.1, the therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of each compound are shown 4 . For all drugs, the toxic levels were in the order of g mL. Two examples of poisoning cases are shown below. Case 1 5 A 35-year-old female was found collapsed in the morning at her house by her family member. Although she was sent to a doctor by an ambulance car, she had been dead already. Many empty packages for tablets were discovered in her room the death due to drug poisoning was suspected. As her...

Poisoning cases blood concentrations and fatal doses

Case 1 12 a 49-year-old female died during admission to a hospital for treatments of bone fracture of the right leg inflicted by a traffic accident. She had a past history of bronchial asthma. It was estimated that she had died of asthmatic attack due to ketoprofen shock. The concentration of ketoprofen in blood sampled at autopsy was 160 ng mL, and that in the liver was 10 ng g. Case 2 13 a 37-year-old male died during being mentally deranged. It was disclosed that he had ingested 9 tablets...

Magic mushrooms Figure

The magic or hallucinogenic mushroom is a popular name for ones which exhibit hallucination visual and auditory , mental derangement and muscle flaccidness. In central and south America, such mushrooms were being used in religious ceremonies since ancient times. The hallucinogenic effects vary according to different individuals they are similar to those obtained with LSD, though they are much weaker than those of LSD. They were illegally sold, in the forms of cultivation kits, dried pieces or...

Assessment and some comments on the method

Warfarin absorbed into a human body is metabolized almost entirely it is excreted into urine in the forms of 7-hydroxywarfarin, 6-hydroxywarfarin and warfarin alcohol. For analysis of such metabolites in urine, the details of the procedures were reported by de Vries et al. 6 and Maurer et al. 7 . As an elution solvent for the solid-phase extraction cartridge, dichloromethane or chloro-form isopropanol 9 1, v v was best to get good recovery rates of the 4 coumarin rodenticides they gave the...

COHb spectrophotometry Correlation between the spectrophotometry method [3 and the GC method [4 for measurements of

The time-course of CO liberation from a test blood by the action of the saponin plus potassium ferricyanide inside the plastic disposable syringe is shown in gt Figure 1.5. The liberation reaction was over in about 20 min in this method, 30 min of incubation at room temperature was adopted. The relationship between the present GC 4 and spectrophotometry 8 methods is shown in gt Figure 1.6 the correlation coefficient r was 0.998. The postmortem production of COHb should be kept in mind. The...

LCMS analysis of triazolam and its metabolites

To analyze drugs in human specimens with high protein contents, such as blood and plasma, the deproteinization procedure is generally essential. Recently, special column packing materials are being developed from some manufacturers, which enable direct application of a crude specimen without any prior deproteinization process. Internal surface reversed phase column is one of the columns of this type. In this section, a method of LC MS analysis of triazolam and its metabolites 4-hydroxytriazolam...

And their metabolites

By Nariaki Takayama and Kazuichi Hayakawa Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law...

Lampteromyces japonicus

This is one of the most common toxic mushrooms with the highest incidence of poisoning, like Rhodophyllus rhodopolius, in Japan. It is usually mistaken for the edible Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Panellus serotinus or others. The shape of Lampteromyces Japonicus is semicircular or kidney-like the size is as large as 10-25 cm. When it matures, the color of its cap part becomes purplish brown or dark brown. The stem is as short as 1.5-2.5 cm and located at a side part of the cap there...

HPLCUV analysis of cephem antibiotics in plasma with a columnswitching system [20

Cephalexin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime sodium IS can be purchased from Sigma. Cephaloridine can be obtained with request from Eli Lilly amp Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA. Standard solutions of the 4 cephem drugs are prepared by dissolving each compound in purified water and diluted to appropriate concentrations with 0.01 M acetate buffer solution pH 3.5 . IS solution is prepared by dissolving 5 mg cefotaxime in 10 mL of purified water and by diluting 100 times with 0.01 M acetate buffer...

Poisoning case and toxic and fatal concentrations Poisoning case

A 22-year-old male attempted suicide by taking 20-100 mL of 10 benzalkonium chloride solution, which had been mixed with coffee, by eating a quarter of a cigarette and then by slitting his left wrist about 4 cm long injury . His consciousness was clear and he walked to an emergency room of a hospital by himself. Upon admission to the hospital, his physical findings were blood pressure 120 60 mmHg heart beat rate 94 min body temperature 36.4 C respiration rate 16 min consciousness, clear O JCS,...

Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard is rapidly bound with nucleophilic atoms under physiological conditions. The reaction products of the sulfur mustard with nucleophilic atoms of glutathione in body fluids, of amino acids included in proteins and of DNA can be bio-markers of sulfur mustard poisoning. The sulfur mustard metabolites produced in a short period after the exposure are excreted into urine in the presence of water and glutathione. Thiodiglycol sulfoxide, mustard sulfoxide and mono- bis-conjugates of...

GC detectorApplication

Nitrogen-phosphorus detector NPD or flame thermionic detector FTD Sulfur chemilu-minescence detector SCD It is the most common GC detector, and shows good linearity in a wide concentration range. Although the sensitivity is low especially for phosgene and hydrogen cyanide, it is useful for most of chemical agents. It responds to general compounds, but sometimes show high sensitivity and specificity to certain compounds. The response is dependent on the ionization efficiency of a compound to be...