Drugs and Poisons

Representative mushrooms causing poisoning cases Rhodophyllus rhodopolius Figure

This mushroom shows the highest incidence of poisoning in Japan, because a very similar edible species Rhodophyllus crassipes is available and grows at similar locations. The poisoning symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain appearing 30 min-3 h after ingestion. The stem of Rhodophyllus rhodopolius is easily crushed by pressure with the finger, but that of the edible Rhodophyllus crassipes is not. The toxic compound being contained in the mushroom is reported to be muscarine or...

Poisoning case

Data Extraction Poison Center Case Notes

Numerous fatal cocaine poisoning cases were reported in USA, but in Japan the number of such cases is limited. The author et al. experienced a fatal cocaine poisoning case and measured concentrations of cocaine and its metabolites in body fluids and various organs. A 41-year-old male was found dead in a hotel room. The clothes on the corpse were not disordered no external wounds could not be found. However, the skin around both nostrils was reddened erosively. In his room, nine small empty...

GCMS analysis

Halopeidol For Being Very Sensitive

Haloperidol can be purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA) and other manufacturers bromperidol, reduced haloperidol and reduced bromperidol from Research Biochemical International (Natick, MA, USA). A 4-g aliquot of NaOH and 6 g NaCl are dissolved in distilled water to prepare 100 mL solution (1 M NaOH solution)b. n-Hexane isopropanol (95 5, v v) mixture solution 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid solution As internal standard (IS)c, bromperidol (500 ng mL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution) is used...

Current situation of mushroom poisonings in Japan

Rhodophyllus Sinuatus

According to National Record of Food Poisoning Incidents 1 , the number of mushroom poisoning incidents taking place in Japan in 1974-1997 was 1,068 it was 431 in 1988-1997 (10 years) with 1,842 poisoned people, including 20 fatal victims. Among the 431 incidents, the numbers of incidents according to causative mushrooms are Rhodophyllus rhodopolius plus Rhodophyllus sinuatus, 133 Lampteromycesjaponicus, 127 Tricholoma ustale, 42 Amanita virosa plus Amanita verna, 16 Amanita pantherina, 15...

II25 Pentazocine

Pentazocine

Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC 1-4 , HPLC 5-7 and GC MS 8 . In this chapter, a simple method for GC MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented. Structures of pentazocine and...

Lampteromyces japonicus

Mushrooms Mistaken For Psilosyben

This is one of the most common toxic mushrooms with the highest incidence of poisoning, like Rhodophyllus rhodopolius, in Japan. It is usually mistaken for the edible Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Panellus serotinus or others. The shape of Lampteromyces Japonicus is semicircular or kidney-like the size is as large as 10-25 cm. When it matures, the color of its cap part becomes purplish brown or dark brown. The stem is as short as 1.5-2.5 cm and located at a side part of the cap there...

And its metabolites

Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis 1 . Cocaine is being abused worldwide its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in...

II35 Bromisovalum

Aliquot Hplc

Bromisovalum (a-bromoisovalerylurea, bromovalerylurea, Brovarin) (Figure 5.1) has long been being used as a hypnotics or sedative since many years ago. It is not only prescribed as an ethical drug, but also contained in some analgesic- antipyretics and hypnotics being sold as over-the-counter drugs. Because of the easiness of getting it, bromisovalum is one of the most important drugs in poisoning in Japan. The analysis of bromisovalum is being made by GC 1, 2 , GC MS 3 , HPLC 4, 5 and LC MS...

Classification of representative chemical agents

Nerve agents G agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA), V agents VX Blister agents sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN), lewisite (L) Incapacitant 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ) Emetics (sternutators) adamsite (DM), diphenylchloroarsine (DA), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC) (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN) Suffocating agents phosgene (CG), PFIB, chloropicrin Blood agents cyanogen chloride (CK), hydrogen cyanide (AC)

GC detectorApplication

Nitrogen-phosphorus detector NPD or flame thermionic detector FTD Sulfur chemilu-minescence detector SCD It is the most common GC detector, and shows good linearity in a wide concentration range. Although the sensitivity is low especially for phosgene and hydrogen cyanide, it is useful for most of chemical agents. It responds to general compounds, but sometimes show high sensitivity and specificity to certain compounds. The response is dependent on the ionization efficiency of a compound to be...

Identification analysis

When a peak suggesting a chemical weapon-related compound appears, the mass spectrum of the peak is recorded by GC MS the spectrum is subjected to library research to identify a compound. The EI mass spectra for the main chemical weapons and their decomposition Retention index values of typical chemical weapons and their related compounds O-ethyl S-dimethylaminomethyl methylphosphono thiolate (VMM) O- ethyl S-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphono thiolate (VM) O- ethyl S-diethylaminoethyl...

Methylenedioxypheny Propanone Mdma Mda Mdea Mdoh Mail

Dual Mechanism Digitalis

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs), which were described as a new drug class entactogensa by Nichols 1 , are being abused to enhance mutual understanding, communicativeness and empathy together with their hallucinogenic effects 1-3 . They are known as a group of designer drugs, and include 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine(MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and (> Fig. 7.1). Ofthe MDAs, MDA, MDMA and MDEA are strictly controlled by laws b. These drugs are being usually sold in...

Toxic and fatal concentrations

Benzodiazepines generally show low toxicities and the fatal doses are not clear for many drugs. However, toxic blood levels were reported to be 5-20 pg mL for diazepam, dipotassium cloraz-epate and chlordiazepoxide not lower than 2 pg mL for oxazepam, and not lower than 0.2-0.3 pg mL for flurazepam, lorazepam and nitrazepam. The fatal blood concentrations were reported to be not lower than 20 pg mL for diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, and I' *' I' I I' I' *' I' I I' ESI mass spectra of triazolam,...

Symptoms and toxic and fatal concentrations

MDMA causes increased catecholamine (including serotonin) release and blockade of reuptake resulting in cardiac and central nervous system effects 15 . The effects of MDMA vary depending on its doses, frequency and duration of use not only acute effects but also chronic (long-term) effects have been studied 16 . Acute and chronic symptoms provoked by MDMA are summarized in > Table 7.2 15 . The effects of chronic MDMA use have not been well studied, but appear to include both toxic hepatitis...

Postmortem diffusion of drugs from the stomach and urinary bladder

Ethanol is best studied for its postmortem diffusion from the stomach. Pounder and Smith 7 reported that the body fluids most influenced by the diffusion of the stomach ethanol were pericardial fluid, followed by blood of the left pulmonary vein, aorta, left heart, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right heart and right pulmonary vein the blood in the femoral vein was almost not affected. The postmortem diffusion of ethanol from the stomach is dependent upon the residual...

Pounder Postmortem Diffusion Of Alcohol From Stomach

1) Kalow W (1952) Hydrolysis of local anesthetics by human serum Cholinesterase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 104 122-134 2) Baselt RC (1983) Stability of cocaine in biological fluids. J Chromatogr 268 502-505 3) Nanikawa R (1977) Legal Medicine. Nippon-iji-shinpo-sha, Tokyo, pp 239-260 (in Japanese) 4) Oliver JS, Smith H, Williams DJ (1977) The detection, identification and measurement of indole, tryptamine and 2-phenethylamine in putrefying human tissue. Forensic Sci 9 195-203 5) Stevens HM (1984)...

GCMS analysis of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

Rohypnol Pippette Image

The pure powder of the 22 kinds of benzodiazepines was donated by each pharmaceutical manufacturers according to the authors' request a (some of benzodiazepines now obtainable from Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA). 1 M Sodium bicarbonate solution a 8.4-g aliquot of sodium bicarbonate is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 100 mL solution. 2 M Sodium acetate solution a 27.5-g aliquot of sodium acetate is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 100 mL solution. Column a DB-5 fused silica capillary...

Reagents and their preparation

Amitriptyline, carbamazepine, clomipramine, desipramine, imipramine, maprotiline, mianserin, nortriptyline and trimipramine can be purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA) pure powder of the following drugs was donated by each manufacturer amoxapine by Takeda Chem. Ind. Ltd., Osaka, Japan dosulepin by Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan lofepramine by Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan and setip-tiline by Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. A 20-g aliquot of...

HPLC analysis

Phosphoric acid used is of the special grade commercially available. An Oasis HLBf column (30 mg cc, Waters, Milford, MA, USA) is activated by passing 1 mL methanol and 1 mL distilled water. A 0.5-mL volume of methanol is mixed with 9.5 mL distilled water to prepare 5 methanol solution (v v). A 2-g aliquot of phosphoric acid is dissolved in 1,000 mL of Milli Q waterg the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.0 by adding NaOH aqueous solution. A 1.22-g aliquot of sodium dihydrogenphosphate...

Assessment and some comments on the method

> Figure 7.2 shows an example of mass chromatograms of GC MS for the extract of urine, into which p-blockers and their metabolites had been spiked. In the automatic searching system of the author, the presence or absence of a p-blocker is displayed after calculating the expected retention time of a candidate drug from the actually measured retention time of IS and the relative retention time of the compound listed in > Table 7.1. Isopropylamino p-blockers and their metabolites, such as...

Poisoning case and toxic and fatal concentrations Poisoning case

A 22-year-old male attempted suicide by taking 20-100 mL of 10 benzalkonium chloride solution, which had been mixed with coffee, by eating a quarter of a cigarette and then by slitting his left wrist about 4 cm long injury . His consciousness was clear and he walked to an emergency room of a hospital by himself. Upon admission to the hospital, his physical findings were blood pressure 120 60 mmHg heart beat rate 94 min body temperature 36.4 C respiration rate 16 min consciousness, clear O JCS,...

II53 Hair dyes

Toluene Diamine

By Kazuhiro Koyama and Takaaki Kikuno Nowadays, numerous kinds of hair dyes are being commercially available. Hair dyes are classified into reactive hair dyes with high toxicity and into adhering hair dyes with lower toxicity. The reactive hair dyes form a polymerized dye by oxidative reactions inside hair, while the adhering hair dyes only adhere to the outer surface of hair without chemical reaction. In view of poisoning, the reactive hair dyes are objects of interest and of analysis. A...

Assessment of the method

> Figure 6.2 shows total ion chromatograms (TICs) for the authentic cresol isomers and related compounds (10 p,g mL each). When non-polar and slightly polar columns (HP-1 or HP-5) are used, p-cresol cannot be separated from m-cresol. With use of a DB-WAX column, such separation can be achieved (> Figure 6.2, lower panal). The relative recovery rate of cresol isomers as compared with that of IS was 98 their detection limit in the scan mode is about 1 ng on-column. Time--> 4.50 5.00 5.50...

HPLCUV analysis of cephem antibiotics in plasma with a columnswitching system [20

Cephalexin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime sodium IS can be purchased from Sigma. Cephaloridine can be obtained with request from Eli Lilly amp Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA. Standard solutions of the 4 cephem drugs are prepared by dissolving each compound in purified water and diluted to appropriate concentrations with 0.01 M acetate buffer solution pH 3.5 . IS solution is prepared by dissolving 5 mg cefotaxime in 10 mL of purified water and by diluting 100 times with 0.01 M acetate buffer...

Segmental analysis of methamphetamine in hair and nails obtained from a habitual abuser at autopsy by mass spectrometry

* Cited from reference 9 methamphetamine could not be detected from any body fluid or organ. * Cited from reference 9 methamphetamine could not be detected from any body fluid or organ. first to detect opiate from hair of a heroin abuser by radioimmunoassays in 1979. Thereafter, many kinds of drugs were reported to accumulate in hair. Nowadays, hair analysis is recognized to be a useful tool for detection of drugs use or abuse. It is possible to detect drug use history of several months by...

II17 Toluene benzene xylene and styrene

Toluene, benzene, xylene and styrene are being widely used for chemical product materials, solvents and constituents of adhesives and paints, and thus sometimes cause poisoning incidents by inhaling their gas at chemical product-manufacturing factories. The abuse of thinner solvents, containing toluene, benzene and xylene, is now a social problem especially for young people. There are many crimes and poisoning incidents involving the thinner solvent abuse. Recently, styrene leaking from new...

References

1 Tsunoda N 1990 Phosphorus-containing amino acid type herbicides. Jpn J Forensic Toxicol 8 100-111 in Japanese 2 Koyama K, Hirose Y, Taze C et al. 2000 An indicator of aggravation in poisoning by intake of BASTA Fluid comparison of estimated intake amounts with serum glufosinate concentrations GLF s . Jpn J Toxicol 13 469 in Japanese 3 Koyama K, Hirose Y, Okuda T et al. 1997 Relationship between aggravation of poisoning by intake of a glufos-inate-containing herbicide BASTA Fluid and serum...

Amanita virosa Figure

It is a very beautiful white mushroom growing in mountain areas it is thus being called destroying . Only with one mushroom of Amanita virosa, 2 or 3 adult subjects can be killed. The Amanita genus mushrooms should be watched most carefully also in the forensic toxicological point of view. The main toxin of this genus is considered to be amanitin ( Figure 2.4) or phalloidin ( Figure 2.5). The amanitin is subdivided into a-, p- and y-amanitins. In Japan, Amanita virosa and Amanita verna glow...

Screening tests at the emergency rooms

It is, of course, necessary to estimate a toxin by careful monitoring of symptoms of a patient, such as miosis in case of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning but actual screening tests at the emergency rooms for causative toxins are also very useful. It seems important to simply detect alcohol and carbon monoxide, at a clinical scene for rapid and suitable treatments, because their poisoning is most frequent. The screening kit Triage is useful for detection of eight groups of drugs an...

Introduction

Phenothiazine drugs, including chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, have been being widely used as neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), antiparkinsonian drugs and antihistaminics for a long time 1 . > Table 1.1 shows chemical structures of representative phenothiazines. These drugs show blocking action on D2 receptors of dopaminergic neurons there is close relationship between the receptor blocking and tranquilizing actions. The dopamine D2 receptor-blocking actions provoke extrapyramidal...

O Figure

0 C CH C C C 0 I III 0 C CH C C C C I III v Color reaction mechanism for cyanide by the pyridine-pyrazolone method. due to the individual difference, but due to different methods of analysis used. In every analytical method for cyanide in blood, a pretreatment of blood with relatively strong acid to denature hemoglobin to liberate HCN is included, prior to any type of detection. During the acid-treatment process, the oxygenated hemoglobin present in large amounts in blood (1216 ) is rapidly...

Poisoning cases and toxic and fatal concentrations

In gt Table 3.1, the therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of each compound are shown 4 . For all drugs, the toxic levels were in the order of g mL. Two examples of poisoning cases are shown below. Case 1 5 A 35-year-old female was found collapsed in the morning at her house by her family member. Although she was sent to a doctor by an ambulance car, she had been dead already. Many empty packages for tablets were discovered in her room the death due to drug poisoning was suspected. As her...

And their metabolites

By Nariaki Takayama and Kazuichi Hayakawa Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law...

II26 Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically...

Poisoning cases blood concentrations and fatal doses

Case 1 12 a 49-year-old female died during admission to a hospital for treatments of bone fracture of the right leg inflicted by a traffic accident. She had a past history of bronchial asthma. It was estimated that she had died of asthmatic attack due to ketoprofen shock. The concentration of ketoprofen in blood sampled at autopsy was 160 ng mL, and that in the liver was 10 ng g. Case 2 13 a 37-year-old male died during being mentally deranged. It was disclosed that he had ingested 9 tablets...

II19 Components of gasoline and kerosene

Gcms Profile Pure Kerosene

By Tatsunori Takayasu and Toshikazu Kondo The petroleum fuels are a group of hydrocarbons refined and modified from the crude oil, and include more than 100 kinds of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. They are roughly classified into petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, light oil, heavy oil and others 1 . This chapter deals with analysis of hydrocarbons of C3-C16 being included in automobile gasoline, purified kerosene (No.1 kerosene), automobile light oil for a diesel engine and liquefied...

Magic mushrooms Figure

The magic or hallucinogenic mushroom is a popular name for ones which exhibit hallucination visual and auditory , mental derangement and muscle flaccidness. In central and south America, such mushrooms were being used in religious ceremonies since ancient times. The hallucinogenic effects vary according to different individuals they are similar to those obtained with LSD, though they are much weaker than those of LSD. They were illegally sold, in the forms of cultivation kits, dried pieces or...

Therapeutic and toxic concentrations of warfarin

The poisoning symptoms by warfarin do not appear shortly after its administration, but appear 12-48 h after and last for 48-75 h 13 . The symptom most frequently observed is bleeding necrosis of skin tissues was occasionally reported 1 . Nakahata et al. 13 reported that doses ofwarfarin to be required for controlling the blood coagulation system differed greatly (about 14-fold) among different patients. Also for poisoning symptoms, great variations are expected among individuals. Since there is...

LCMS analysis of triazolam and its metabolites

To analyze drugs in human specimens with high protein contents, such as blood and plasma, the deproteinization procedure is generally essential. Recently, special column packing materials are being developed from some manufacturers, which enable direct application of a crude specimen without any prior deproteinization process. Internal surface reversed phase column is one of the columns of this type. In this section, a method of LC MS analysis of triazolam and its metabolites 4-hydroxytriazolam...

Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard is rapidly bound with nucleophilic atoms under physiological conditions. The reaction products of the sulfur mustard with nucleophilic atoms of glutathione in body fluids, of amino acids included in proteins and of DNA can be bio-markers of sulfur mustard poisoning. The sulfur mustard metabolites produced in a short period after the exposure are excreted into urine in the presence of water and glutathione. Thiodiglycol sulfoxide, mustard sulfoxide and mono- bis-conjugates of...

Analysis of toxins of magic mushrooms Psilocybe species

For analysis of hallucinogenic toxins, such as psilocybin and psilocin, GC, GC MS, LC and LC MS are being used. The authentic standards of psilocybin and psilocin are not commercially available in Japan the solution vials of psilocin can be imported after an appropriate procedure from Sigma, USA. For HPLC, a spectrophotometric detector or an electrochemical detector (ECD)c can be used. If LC MS or LC MS MS is available, analysis with much higher sensitivity and reliability can be realized....

II51 Hypochlorite

Hypochlorite a (HClO) is a weak acid, which exerts oxidative action it is being widely used in the salt forms for bleaching and other purposes. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) aqueous solution is usually used as a disinfectant, bleaching agent, fungicide and ink eraser, and is thus usually included in detergents for laundry. Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2, bleaching powder is also used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant. The kinds of household utensils containing hypochlorite are numerous...

IDB for analytical methods

The papers describing analytical methods for drugs and poisons in human specimens were searched by the Medline. The papers were selected by the eleven scientists, who were the members of a joint study project supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan. Chemical compounds listed were natural toxins, organic solvent toxic gases, anaesthetics (local anaesthetics, inhalation anaesthetics, intravenous-injection anaesthetics...

Postmortem changes in the level Mgg of nitrazepam and 7aminonitrazepam during in vitro storage of specimens obtained

The reductive reaction for nitrazepam proceeds upon storage of specimens at 4 C, but such reaction can be completely suppressed at -20 C 22 . Clozapine, an antipsychotic drug, is easily metabolized antemortem to an N-oxide form, which accumulates in blood of living subjects the metabolite can be conversely reduced to form the precursor clozapine in a cadaver and in blood stored in a vial by the action of bacteria. The concentration ratios of each free form to each glucuronate-conjugated form of...

II34 Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines show antianxiety, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle-relaxant effects. This group of drugs has wide safety dose ranges it means that the ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 (therapeutic index) is high. Because of its safety, benzodiazepines are being widely used in the world. Some of benzodiazepines are also being abused or used for so-called drug facilitated sexual assault , and thus they are under the control of the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law in Japan, triazolam abuse...

Procedure

Phthalaldehyde Derivatization

A 100- L volume of undiluted serum or urine diluted 10-fold with 0.1 M borate buffer solution (pH 8.5) is mixed with 400 L of 0.1 M borate buffer solution and 1 mL acetone. ii. The above solution is vortex-mixed and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 5 min for depro-teinization the resulting supernatant solution is subjected to the below derivatization. iii. A 50- L volume of the above solution is mixed with 200 L of 0.1 M borate buffer solution (pH 8.5) and 200 L of 0.1 FMOC-Cl acetone solution,...

II14 Methanol and formic acid

Methanol (methyl alcohol) poisoning accidents take place most frequently by drinking it in mistake for ethanol. Methanol poisoning is not due to the effect of methanol itself, but due to toxicity of its metabolites. Methanol is rapidly absorbed into human body through the airway mucous membranes, digestive tract mucous membranes or the skin it is metabolized into formaldehyde (formalin, HCHO) and then formic acid (HCOOH) by the actions of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase,...

Poisoning cases and toxic and fatal concentrations A chloroformpoisoning case [6

A 27-year-old male was found in an unconscious state it was estimated that he had ingested 4 ounces (114 mL) of chloroform orally. On arrival at a hospital, he was comatose, snoring and cyanotic. His physical conditions were the pupils dilated and not responsive to light heart beat 70 min blood pressure 140 90 mmHg and respiration rate 40 min. He was intubated and subjected to oxygen inhalation, and his stomach was lavaged. The gastric lavage solution gave a strong smell of chloroform. One hour...

Poisoning symptoms and toxic and fatal concentrations

The toxicity of azide is said comparable to that of cyanide the azide, like cyanide, is bound with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase to inhibit the enzyme, causing the toxicity of azide. Its toxicity is observed after oral, percutaneous, intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. After inhalation of hydrazoic acid vapor and oral intake of azide, respiratory stimulation and tachycardia appear, followed by metabolic acidosis, hypotension, respiratory suppression,...

Analysis of toxins of Amanita mushrooms

The toxins of Amanita mushrooms are usually analyzed by HPLC. As toxins, a-amanitin, p-amanitin, y-amanitin and phalloidin are known. Their authentic standards can be purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). i. HPLC conditions Figures 2.10 and 2.11) Column Inertsil OD-3 (150 x 4 mm i.d., particle size 5 p,m, GL Sciences, Tokyo, Japan) mobile phase 0.01 M ammonium acetate-acetic acid buffer solution (pH 5.0) acetonitrile (84 16) its flow rate 1.0 mL min detector diode array detector (DAD)...

Cases of analysis [13

Case 1 A 22-year-old male was killed by a mysterious accident during driving a truck. Because of the high severity of injuries, blood specimens could not be obtained the analysis was made with urine and the liver tissue. Urine showed a positive result for the cannabinoid metabolite by screening with EMIT. The concentrations of A9-THC-11-oic acid measured by GC MS were 22 ng mL in urine and 0.6 ng g in the liver. Case 2 A paper factory worker was killed by being caught in a machine during...

Analysis of drugs and poisons

Blood and urine are the common specimens for drug analysis in both antemortem and postmortem cases. Usually, urine is used for drug screening using immunoassays at the first step secondly, the drug detected is chromatographically quantitated with blood. The data obtained are carefully assessed with taking the values reported in references into consideration together with clinical and postmortem findings the judgement of poisoning and its degree is made comprehensively. The periods between...

HPLC analysis of nicotine in cigarettes

On the packages of cigarettes, the amounts of nicotine and tar are described. The values show the amounts of nicotine and tar being contained in the smoke discharged from a piece of cigarettes, measured under a fixed condition using a smoking machine such a value for nicotine is called nicotine yield. Nowadays, the nicotine and tar yields for Japanese domestic cigarette brands are 0.1-2.4 mg and 1-24 mg, respectively the cigarettes with low nicotine yields are called low nicotine (tar)...

ISimple color test methods for drugs and poisons ver

Screening or preliminary tests for drugs and poisons are essential before their instrumental analysis to narrow probable compounds for poisoning. The article was abstracted from the book Department of Legal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine (ed) (2001) Simple Detection Methods for Drugs and Poisons The Color Tests. Jiho Inc., Tokyo . It includes cyanide compounds, carbon monoxide, organophosphorus pesticides, paraquat, bromisova-lum, acetaminophen, barbiturates, tricyclic...

A poisoning case [4

An unidentified male was found naked from the waist up in a park at about 10 00 p. m. he was suffering from some difficulty in breathing. He was sent to a nearby clinic and diagnosed as exsiccosis he was brought to a hospital, but he was found dead in the bed of the hospital in the next morning 7 h after admission. On the day of his death, autopsy was performed there are no notable disorders, but the colors of all organs and blood were chocolate-brown. The blood methemoglobin concentration was...

II54 Permethrin

Pyrethroids are the general term for insecticide pyrethrins and their analogs (cinerins and jasmolins) being included in the flowers of pyrethrum or chrysanthemum. Trace concentrations of pyrethroids exert rapid toxic effects on insects, but are rapidly metabolized for detoxification in warm-blooded animals they are insecticides with very high safety for humans. On the basis of clarification of chemical structures of the effective components of the pyrethrum, many of new synthetic pyrethroids...

I9 Analysis of chemical warfare agents and their related compounds

The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are...

Poisoning cases and fatal concentrations

Case 1 2 a 74-year-old female ingested a mothball (p-dichlorobenzene ingested, 160-200 g) and fell into clouding of her consciousness and severe constipation. When an enema was given to her, strongly aromatic-smelled feces were excreted. Neither gastrolavage, intestinal lavage nor administration of an adsorbent was performed. On day 13, she died of dysfunctions of the liver and kidney. Case 2 3 a 85-year-old female ingested 40 pieces of Neoparasol (p-dichlorobenzene 140 g) due to senile...

Procedures

Each Sep-Pak C18 cartridge Waters, Milford, MA, USA is washed with 10 mL of chloro-form isopropanol 9 1 , 10 mL acetonitrile, 10 mL of acetonitrile distilled water 1 1 and 10 mL distilled water. ii. A 1-mL volume of plasma or urine is diluted 10-fold with distilled water, and mixed with ISb the mixture solution is poured into the above pretreated cartridge at a flow rate of 5 mL min to trap target compounds including IS in the cartridge. iii. The cartridge is washed with 10 mL distilled...

Naphthalene

MS conditions instrument a Shimadzu QP-5050 quadrupole mass spectrometerc (connected with the above GC) ionization positive ion EI electron energy 70 eV emission current 60 pA ion source temperature 280 C accelerating voltage 1.5 kV. i. A 0.2-mL volume of a whole blood specimend, 10 pL (containing 1 pg) of IS solution and 0.8 mL distilled water are placed in a 7-mL volume glass vial with a Teflon-septum screw cap, capped and mixed gently. ii. The vial is heated at 80 C for 30 min on a heat...

Spectrophotometry analysis [1

Boric acid and borax can be obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). Curcumin solution 0.1 g curcumin (Sigma) is dissolved in purified water to prepare 100 mL solution. 2-Ethyl-1,3-hexanediol solution 10 mL of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA) is dissolved in chloroform to prepare 100 mL solution. A DU-70 type UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Beckman, Fullerton, CA, USA). The procedure for blood, urine and stomach contents is described here, but it is, of course, applicable to the...

Determination of isobutyl nitrite in blood by GC with liquidliquid extraction

A 11.5-p.L volume (10 mg) of isobutyl nitrite is dissolved in 5 mL pentane in a glass vial with a Teflon-septum screw cap to serve as a stock solution (2 mg mL), and kept airtightly in a refrigerator. A 5-p.L volume of the above solution is placed using a microsyringe in a glass vial containing 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), capped airtightly and mixed well to prepare the standard isobutyl nitrite solution (10 p,g mL). A 10-p.L volume (10 mg) of n-propyl nitrate (Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI,...

Alkyl nitrites

GC column a polar fused silica capillary column (HP-Wax, 30 m x 0.25 mm i. d., film thickness 0.25 p,m, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA). GC conditionsc an HP 6890 Series gas chromatograph (Agilent Technologies) injection mode split with its ratio 30 injection temperature 200 C detector FID detector temperature 220 C carrier gas He its flow rate 0.67 mL min column (oven) temperature 40 C (3 min) - 15 C min - 115 C. MS conditions transfer line temperature 280 C ion source temperature...

Determination of breath ethanol

A close relationship exists in ethanol concentration between breath and blood the breath concentration is as low as about 2,000 times less than that in blood. Because of its extremely low concentrations, it cannot be measured by the usual capillary GC method described before. When the breath ethanol is measured by the conventional GC with FID, more than 500 mL of the vapor should be passed through a column packed with an adsorbent to collect and concentrate breath ethanol before introducing to...

Analysis of formic acid

Formic acid cannot be analyzed by GC in its underivatized form it should be esterified 10 prior to the analysis. Usually, formic acid is methylated to be detected as formic acid methyl ester. Reagents and their preparation (in common with both methods) IS a 0.128 mL volume of acetonitrile of special grade is dissolved in 100 mL distilled water to prepare 1 mg mL solution. Detection of methanol from human blood by headspace SPME-GC. To 0.5 mL blank blood, 200 g methanol and 2 g IS had been...

Determination of blood cyanide by headspaceGC

Concentrated phosphoric acid (85 , w v) is diluted 1.7-fold with distilled water (50 , w v, preservable at room temperature). A 1.76 g aliquot of 2-ascorbic acid is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 10 mL solution (1 M, preservable in a refrigerator). A 25.1 mg aliquot of potassium cyanide (analytical grade, designated by the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Law) is dissolved in distilled water to prepare 10 mL solution (cyanide ion 1 mg mL, preservable for a week in a...

Preparation of the standard stock solution of H2S

One gram of sodium sulfide nonahydrate (Na2S 9H2O, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan and many other manufacturers) is placed in a volumetric flask (100 mL) and dissolved in purified water b, which had been degassed by bubbling with nitrogen, to make 100 mL solution. ii. A 25-mL volume of iodine solution 0.1 N ( 0.05 M) standard solution available from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, and other manufacturers is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask, fol- lowed by addition of 1 mL of...

Cryogenic oven trapping GC

A microcomputer controlling cryogenic oven temperatures below 0 C became widely available for modern types of GC instruments. It had been originally designed for rapid cooling of an oven to reduce analysis time. The authors et al. 7, 8 used it to trap volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in gas samples, and named it cryogenic oven trapping (COT). By use of this method, a large volume of headspace vapor (5 mL or more) can be introduced, in the splitless mode, into a medium-bore capillary...

Thinlayer chromatography TLC

TLC is a method of chromatography in which a thin-layer made of silica gel, alumina, florisil or cellulose is coated on glass or aluminum plates. Numerous types of TLC ready for use without the need of pretreatments are commercially available. An extract fluids is spotted onto a bottom area of a plate. After drying the spot, the plate is developed with a mobile phase consisting of various ratios of organic solvents, acids and or water. During the development with a mobile phase, a compound...