adulterant pharmacologically active material such as caffeine that is added to an illicit drug to dilute it alkaloid basic molecule obtained (or at one time obtained) from a plant. Alkaloids are basic due to the presence of an amine group. Caffeine, cocaine, and the opiates are examples of alkaloids. anabolic steroid steroid, natural or synthetic, that encourages muscle growth and purportedly improves athletic performance analgesic drug that alleviates pain, such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or morphine anesthetic substance that when administered to a person causes the person to enter a state of semiconsciousness or unconsciousness barbiturate family of drugs once widely used as sleeping aids. The introduction of benzodiazepines has reduced illicit use of barbiturates.

benzodiazepine group of synthetic alkaloids used to treat anxiety, depression, and related ailments biotransformation chemical transformation of a substance that occurs within a biological system. Metabolism is a type of biotransformation. Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act (CDTA) federal law passed in 1986 designed to limit access to precursor chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs used in clandestine synthesis chromatography process of separation of compounds in a mixture by means of selective partitioning between two phases. In gas chro-matography compounds interact with a solid phase while gas flows through or over this solid phase. The compounds that interact more with the solid phase (i.e., partition selectively into it) will move slower than compounds that have greater affinity for the gas phase.

clandestine secret or illegal. A clandestine laboratory is one that is used to make illegal drugs such as methamphetamine. classification the assigning an exhibit of evidence or other object to a group of like objects based on descriptors such as chemical and physical properties. Drugs, for example, can be classified as sedatives, hallucinogens, etc. club drug informal term describing drugs such as ecstasy (MDMA), GHB, LSD, and methamphetamine, used by people at clubs and parties cocaine alkaloid and central nervous system stimulant used medically as a topical anesthetic codeine opiate alkaloid found in the milky latex of opium poppies in concentrations of about 1-2 percent of the latex by weight. colorimetry form of spectroscopy in which information about a sample is obtained based on the color (wavelengths) of light that it absorbs

Controlled Substances Act (CSA) federal law first passed in 1970 that places abused drugs on five schedules based on acceptable medical uses and potential for abuse crystal test presumptive test for drugs performed on a microscope slide. A reagent is added to a small sample, and the analyst studies any crystals that are formed using a microscope. Many drugs form crystals that are distinctive enough to aid in its identification. cutting agent substance used to dilute a drug. The substance can be pharmacologically active (adulterant, such as caffeine) or inactive (diluent, such as baking soda). cystolithic hair fine hairlike structure on the leaves of marijuana informally referred to as bear claw date rape drug See predator drug depressant class of drugs that causes depression of the central nervous system. Depressants cause slowed breathing and heart rate and sleepiness, among other symptoms. Alcohol is an example of a depressant diluent material added to dilute a drug. Unlike an adulterant, a diluent is pharmacologically inactive. Cornstarch and sugars are diluents. drug substance that is capable of inducing a physiological change when ingested. In contrast, a medicine is a combination of drugs.

Ecstasy street name for the stimulant MDMA, a predator drug and a club drug entomotoxicology study of drugs, poisons, and their metabolites found in insects that have fed on a corpse. The goal of such analysis is to infer a possible cause of death for the person based on what is found in the insects. ephedrine natural or semi-synthetic alkaloid that is used as a decon-

gestant and a precursor in methamphetamine synthesis exhibit piece or individual item of physical evidence GHB gamma hydroxybutyric acid or gamma hydroxybutryate, a small acidic predator drug gravimetric method older method of analytical chemistry in which the amount of a substance is determined through a weight. In other words, the detection system is a scale or analytical balance. half-life amount of time for half of the original amount of a substance ingested or existing in the body to be eliminated or converted to another substance hallucinogen drug that illicits a hallucination. LSD is an example of a hallucinogen.

hashish oily resin of the flowering tops of marijuana plants. Hashish has a high concentration of the active ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol. heroin potent narcotic prepared by acetylation of morphine. It is also called diacetylmorphine and diamorphine. human performance drug drug that alters human performance. The term is most often associated with sports, where athletes may take substances such as steroids to improve their athletic abilities. immunoassay group of analytical methods that rely on antigen-

antibody reactions to detect drugs or other target analytes ingestion See mode of ingestion inhalant volatile substance that is abused by inhalation and that produces effects similar to anesthetics intravenous into a vein, referring to a method of injection or drug delivery ketamine veterinary anesthetic diverted for abuse as a dissociative anesthetic and club drug LSD lysergic acid diethylamide, an ergot alkaloid and hallucinogen lysergic acid ergot alkaloid and precursor to LSD MDMA See ecstasy medicine formulation that contains more than one drug. For example, liquid preparations used to alleviate the symptoms of a cold are medicines that contain mixtures of drugs such as aspirin, decongestants, and antihistamines. mescaline alkaloid obtained from the peyote cactus. Mescaline is an example of a hallucinogen. metabolite product of metabolic reaction and conversion methamphetamine synthetic alkaloid and central nervous system stimulant that is highly addictive miscible soluble. For example, table salt is miscible in water. mode of ingestion route or pathway by which a drug or poison enters the body. Common modes of ingestion are swallowing and injection morphine principal active opium alkaloid extracted from the opium poppy, found at approximately 10 percent levels in the milky latex narcotic class of drugs that relieves pain and encourages sleep. Morphine and heroin are narcotics. natural drug or natural product drug that is derived directly from a plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine are natural products. NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as aspirin, that relieves pain by reducing inflammation at the site of injury opiate alkaloid alkaloid derived from the opium poppy. Codeine and heroin are examples of opiate alkaloids. OxyContin a time-released form of oxycodone that is widely abused.

Users crush the tablets and take the entire dose at once. pharmacodynamics study of effects of drugs over time. Pharmacodynamics is concerned with the interaction of the drug with its target pharmacokinetics study of the movement of the drug and metabolic products through the body; typically divided into stages of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination pharmacology study of how drugs behave once ingested. The field can be broadly divided into pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. postmortem toxicology field that analyzes biological materials collected at autopsy precursor chemical compound, including pharmaceuticals that are used as the starting point for clandestine synthesis of controlled substances. A precursor can be immediate (one step from product) or distant (several steps). predator drug class of drugs used in date rape. These drugs render victims incapable of resisting unwanted sexual advances. presumptive test test used to narrow down the possible identity of a sample or to classify it. Results are not conclusive, and a positive result is best phrased as "more likely than not." profiling chemical analysis of substances found along with the drug of interest in a sample. The goal of profiling is to assist investigators in determining where a drug came from and how it was handled. Profiling analyses include stable isotope analysis and characterization of impurities found in the drug sample. spectrophotometry or spectroscopy class of analytical instrumental methods that are based on the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter. Colorimetry is an example, in which visible light interacts with samples to reveal information about what is found in that sample.

spot test another term for a color test or screening test used in drug analysis stable isotope isotope of an element that is found in stable ratios in nature. An isotope of an element is one that has the same number of protons in the nucleus but a different number of neutrons. Stable isotopes are useful for profiling. steroid class of compounds that act as hormones. The function of hormones is to transmit chemical messages within the body. stimulant class of drugs that stimulates the central nervous system resulting in elevated heart rate and less need for sleep. Methamphet-amine is an example of a stimulant. testosterone male sex hormone that is produced in the testes. It plays a central role in the development of secondary sex characteristics. It is a steroid hormone derived from cholesterol. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) principal active ingredient in marijuana; more completely called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol thin-layer chromatography (TLC) form of chromatography in which the liquid phase is a solvent and the solid phase is a plate coated with a layer of material that can interact with compounds in the sample tropane alkaloid alkaloid characterized by a bridged structure across a ring. Cocaine is a tropane alkaloid.

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