Children With Down Syndrome Can Learn

Teaching Down Syndrome

Although Home is Where the Smart Is is packed with information in its 104 pages, it is not an exhaustive work. It's a consideration of the basics of teaching your child with Down syndrome, starting from birth through the foundational elementary years. What's inside: Why Down syndrome is Not mental retardation .page 14 How you really can reat Down syndrome. . page 17 How you can save frustration and diapers with an old method of potty training . pg 49 How you can keep that tongue from sticking out . page 38, 69 The fastest way to teach your child to read . page 60 Developmental milestones, word lists, websites and resources . page 90 And, if you must be involved with the public school system, basic guidelines for Individual Educational Plans (Ieps) and 15 snippy questions to ask educators.

Teaching Down Syndrome Summary

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Author: Helen Middlebrooke

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Albendazole and thiabendazole

Albendazole is a highly effective broad-spectrum anthelmintic, structurally related to mebendazole. It also kills the parasite through inhibition of the glucose uptake. It is the first-line drug for the treatment of alveolar forms of echinococcosis (Echinococcus multilocularis), and also for the advanced cystic forms (Echinococcus granulosus). During a mass drug administration for lymphatic filiriasis in Ghana, 50 women were inadvertently (because their pregnancy was not recognized) treated with ivermectin and albendazole their pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of 293 women with a recognized pregnancy who were not treated. Of the 39 children who were exposed during the first trimester, 1 congenital malformation (a hearing impairment), versus 5 of the untreated group, was reported. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of increased risk after exposure to ivermectin and albendazole (Gyapong 2003). One Down syndrome was observed in a small prospective study of...

Susceptibility Factors Other features of the patient

Three patients with Alzheimer's disease associated with Down syndrome were treated with donepezil (40). One became agitated and aggressive the other two developed urinary incontinence. In all three cases donepezil was withdrawn. These results are important, because many individuals with Down syndrome develop clinical and neuropathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. Also, patients with Down syndrome were excluded from donepezil clinical trials. Therefore, lesser data on the efficacy or safety of donepezil are available for this population.

Organs and Systems Nervous system

Piracetam 80-100 mg day for 4 months has been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 25 children with Down syndrome (4). Piracetam did not enhance cognition or behavior but was associated with adverse events 18 children completed the study, 4 withdrew, and 3 were excluded at baseline. The adverse events were related to the nervous system and included aggression (n 4), agitation irritability (n 2), sexual arousal (n 2), poor sleep (n 1), and reduced appetite (n 1).

Gout interval therapy

Apart from the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, colchicine is the classic medication for gout attacks. Colchicine is a mitotic spindle poison, and is by this action capable of blocking cell division. It has mutagenic and genotoxic properties and. in various animal studies, an embryotoxic action. Mutagenic effects on lymphocytes have been described in patients who are treated with colchicine. Colchicine is the only effective therapy to prevent attacks of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) and to treat the renal amyloidosis that often accompanies FMF and which may itself cause several maternal and fetal complications (Ben-Chctrit 2003, Mordel 1993), However, to date, teratogenic damage or other adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with long-term colchicine treatment for FMF have not been observed in several reports. In one study, evaluating the outcome of 225 completed pregnancies in mothers with FMF, the authors also did not find an unusual frequency of...

Piracetam

Piracetam has received significant attention in the media for its purported beneficial effect on cognition in children with Down syndrome. Piracetam 80-100 mg day for 4 months has been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 25 children with Down syndrome (60c). Piracetam did not enhance cognition or behavior, but was associated with adverse events 18 children completed the study, four withdrew, and three were excluded at baseline. The adverse events were CNS related, such as aggression (n 4), agitation irritability (n 2), sexual arousal (n 2), poor sleep (n 1), and reduced appetite (n 1).

Estrogens

Several studies have analyzed the relationship between oral contraceptives and Down syndrome, some of them with negative results (Kallen 1989, Harlap 1985B, Ericson 1983), but others have suggested that women who take oral contraceptives during the month just before conception (Mikkelsen 1991) or who fall pregnant following oral contraceptive failure (Harlap 1980) have an increased risk for Down syndrome. A more recent case-control study has demonstrated an increased risk of 2.8-fold for infants with Down syndrome in women younger than 35 years of age if the mother became pregnant while she was taking oral contraceptives (Martincz-Frias 2001).

Fluoride

Whether a fluoride supplement during pregnancy of about 1 mg day in tablet form (equivalent to about 2mg sodium fluoride), or ingested via fluoridated drinking water (about 1 mg l), actually reduces the incidence of caries in the baby is somewhat controversial. However, such fluoride prophylaxis does not appear to harm the fetus. Earlier suspicions regarding the possible toxic effect of regular fluoride on reproduction - for example, an increased rate of Down syndrome -is biologically implausible. Even high fluoride doses as a result of environmentally contaminated drinking water (above 10mg l) do not apparently cause any increase in birth defects. Prenatally induced fluorosis of the teeth and bones in the second half of pregnancy is theoretically possible, and has been described in individual cases after extreme continuous exposure, but would nol be expected after (as has occasionally happened) accidental intake of an osteoporosis preparation containing about 25 mg of fluoride.

Pathology

Microscopically the brains of AzD patients often show neuronal loss and some atrophy, much as in Down Syndrome, as well as widened sulci and narrowed gyri. Since, Appropriate silver staining and immunohistochemical localisation of -amyloid show these to be extracellular lesions which in their typical neurite form are roughly spherical in shape (10-50 diameter) with a central core of amyloid surrounded by glial processes and a rim of neurites. The amyloid can sometimes exist alone (compact plaque), when the neurites no longer react to silver staining or in a diffuse state (primary plaque) before neurites have formed. It is unclear whether the development of neuritic from diffuse plaques causes neurofibrillary pathology and neuronal dysfunction or results from those processes. Plaques are, however, indices of neuronal death, generally of large pyramidal cells. They are found mostly in the cerebral cortex, especially the hippocampus and frontal temporal area, and while most common in AzD...