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Amphetamine increases the firing rate of a substantia nigra pars reticulata neuron in the chronically implanted, behaving rat NOTE Action potentials are represented as a pulse output from a spike-height discriminator Each vertical line represents one action potential. The firing rate of this neuron during similar pre-and postdrug behaviors is increased by injection of 1.0 mg kg, SC, amphetamine. This increase occurs for both locomotion (from a mean of 28.3 to 39.0 spikes sec) and face...

References

Foote, W.E. and Sheard, M.H. Lysergic acid diethylamide Sensitive neuronal units in the midbrain raphe. Science 161 706-708. 1968. Aghajanian, G.K. Foote, W.E. and Sheard, M.H. Action of psychotogenic drugs on single midbrain raphe neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 171 178-187, 1970. Aghajanian, G.K. and Vandermaelen, C.P. Specific systems of the reticular core Serotonin. In Mountcastle, V.B. Bloom, F.E. and Geiger, S.R., eds. Handbook of Physiology, Volume IV. Intrinsic Regulatory...

Interactions Of Mdma With Serotonin Recognition Sites

The previous data suggest that a number of the behavioral, psychotomime-tic, and neurochemical effects of MDMA and other methylenedioxy derivatives of amphetamine may be explained by interactions of MDMA at multiple serotonin recognition sites in brain. MDMA may alter serotonergic transmission in brain through direct actions at postsynaptic as well as presynaptic serotonin recognition sites. As mentioned above, a number of hallucinogenic phenylisopropylamine derivatives exhibit potent...

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Chemical structure of MDMA Figure 4 shows that MDMA maintained responding above vehicle level in the three baboons tested, the highest levels of self-injection were maintained by 0.32 or 1.0 mg kg injection lower levels were maintained by 0.1 and 3.2 mg kg injection. During self-injection of cocaine, vehicle (saline), and low doses of MDMA, there were no unusual changes in gross behavior of the baboons. While self-injecting higher doses of MDMA, however, all three baboons engaged in...

Neuronal Actions of Amphetamine in the Rat Brain

Ryan, Marco Diana, Stephen J. Young, and Lisa J. Fisher Amphetamine and related designer drugs have widespread actions on neuronal activity in the brain. This is believed to be due in part to the enhanced release and blockade of reuptake of catecholamines (Kuczenski 1983). The sites of action of such stimulant drugs of abuse include pre-synaptic neurons, by virtue of the action of released catecholamines on autoreceptors (Tepper et al. 1985), and postsynaptic...

Attention Deficit Disorders

Reductions in aggressive behavior after treatment with amphetamine and other psychomotor stimulants are seen in children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with hyperkinesis or attention deficit disorder. There is considerable disagreement about these diagnostic categories and about whether the violent outbursts and uncontrolled episodes of aggressive behavior are limited to the early developmental period or continue into adulthood (Mendelson et al. 1971 Minde et al. 1972). The early...

Traditional Research Methodologies

Amphetamine, cocaine, and other psychomotor stimulants have been examined with traditional research methodologies involving isolation-induced aggression in mice pain-induced aggression in mice, rats, or squirrel monkeys brain stimulation-induced aggression in cats or mouse killing by rats. The results show an inconsistent mixture of increases, decreases, or no effects. Among the most important determinants of amphetamine effects on aggressive and defensive responses are the stimulus situation,...

Non Neurotoxic Entactogens

Although the problem of MDMA abuse has generated great interest because of MDMA's potential neurotoxicity, it is possible that nonneurotoxic entactogens can be developed. As in most areas of technology, this is a figure 10. The a, a-dimethyl homologues of MDA a and MDMA b figure 11. Nonneurotoxic tetralin analogue of MDMA figure 11. Nonneurotoxic tetralin analogue of MDMA figure 12. Nonneurotoxic indan analogue of MDMA figure 12. Nonneurotoxic indan analogue of MDMA two-edged sword. A major...

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Binding Affinity

Saturation of fHfMDA and 3H MDMA binding in rat NOTE lncreasing amounts of unlabeled MDA or MDMA were added to 1.0 mL of incubation buffer containing 2 nM H MDA or 2 nM H MDMA, respectively. Experiments were performed on tissue in the presence of 0.27 M sucrose. Data are expressed as percent of 3H MDA or 3H MDMA bound to tissue in the absence of added nonradioactive drug. Nonspecific binding was assessed by measuring the amount of H ligand bound to boiled synaptosomes incubated in the...

Structureactivity relationships among phenylethylamine compounds

A comparison between the chemical structures of substituted phenylethylamine compounds and their potency in producing behavioral effects reveals an inverse relationship between the size of the substituent and central activity Braun et al. 1980 . Similarly, reports of SARs among phenylethylamine compounds have suggested that the size of the ring substitution in general may decrease potency of the phenylethylamines for maintenance of self-injection behavior. Research with a series of...