Designer Drugs

Fentanyl And Its Analogues

Cut Heroin With Fentanyl

Fentanyl was introduced to the United States in 1968 by the Janssen Pharmaceutical Company and marketed under the trade name Sublimaze. Its primary purpose was for use as an intravenous anesthetic and analgesic. It is 100 times more potent than morphine in reducing pain, and its duration of action is only 30 minutes compared to morphine, which lasts several hours . Over the years, fentanyl has proved to be an extremely useful drug, and to date, it is still widely used for surgeries, childbirth,...

Ghb Analogues

Ghb Chemical Structure

After GHB was banned by the FDA in 1990 for over-the-counter use, GHB chemists tried to circumvent the ban by developing closely related chemicals called gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD). The chemical structures of GHB, GBL, and BD are shown in Figure 4.1. When GBL or BD is ingested, it is rapidly converted by the body to form GHB, and the effects become identical to that of taking regular GHB. Due to the 1990 FDA ban, manufacturers of nutritional supplements previously selling...

Psychological And Physical Effects Of Ecstasy

Ecstasy has both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. The effects of the drug begin approximately 20-60 minutes after taking it and usually last for 3-4 hours, but sometimes longer. The most well-known effect of Ecstasy is its ability to produce intense feelings of happiness, well-being, confidence, loss of inhibitions, and closeness to others. Ecstasy also produces strong feelings of empathy (the ability to identify with and share other people's feelings) and often makes the users feel...

Methamphetamine And Adolf Hitler

Methamphetamine was widely used by soldiers in World War II because its potent stimulant effects kept them awake and alert for longer periods of time and increased their physical endurance. One infamous user of methamphetamine during wartime was one of the most evil men of the twentieth century Adolf Hitler. Hitler started receiving daily injections of methamphetamine from his personal physician Dr. T. Morrell in 1942, and it was reported he could not function without his daily doses. Hitler...

Psychological And Physical Effects Of Ketamine

Ketamine Pcp Images

The chemical structure of ketamine is similar to that of the potent psychedelic PCP Figure 6.2 . Not surprisingly, ketamine produces many psychedelic effects that are similar to those produced by PCP. However, ketamine's effects are much shorter in duration a trip on ketamine may last only 30-60 minutes, whereas a trip on PCP may last several hours. The onset of ketamine's actions is quite rapid i.e., within minutes , especially if snorted or injected intravenously. Figure 6.1 Ketamine was...

Psychological And Physical Effects Of Rohypnol

Chemical Structure Rohypnol

Unlike many other designer drugs, which users take for their pleasurable and psychedelic effects, Rohypnol does not tend to produce strong feelings of well-being, euphoria, or hallucinations. It does, however, produce an intoxicated feeling, and reduces anxiety and inhibitions, similar to the effects of Valium. The chemical structures of Rohypnol and Valium are very similar (see Figure 5.2), although Rohypnol is 10 times more potent than Valium. Figure 5.2 The chemical structures of Rohypnol...

What Methamphetamine Looks Like And How It Is Taken

Forms Meth

Methamphetamine most often comes in the form of white or clear crystals, which give it its nickname ice or glass. Methamphetamine crystals can also be brown in color. These crystals are most often smoked with a pipe or snorted Figure 2.1 and can easily be dissolved in water and injected intravenously. Methamphetamine crystals are also taken rectally. Meth powder and crystals often contain contaminants and impurities including lead from the chemical synthesis process that are often toxic....

Ketamine Use In Tranquilizer Darts

The ability of ketamine to render the user unable to move or experience pain has resulted in a very effective use for the drug in animals tranquilizer darts. Through a blowgun, rifle, or similar method, a dart or syringe loaded with a high dose of ketamine can be launched from a distance toward a large animal to incapacitate it for transport, research, or veterinary care. When the dart strikes the animal, it empties its content into the muscle similar to an intramuscular injection in humans ,...

Psychological And Physical Effects Of Methamphetamine

When methamphetamine is smoked or injected intravenously, it produces a rapid intense rush, flash, or euphoria (very pleasurable sensation) within 3-5 minutes of taking the drug. This rush only lasts a few minutes and is not usually experienced after snorting the drug or taking it orally in pill form. After the rush wears off (usually after a few more minutes), the user becomes extremely alert, active, energetic, and restless, Yaba Methamphetamine From the Far East Recently there has been a...

Illegal Sale Of Rohypnol

Rohypnol is illegal in the United States. So, how does it get in the country The answer is smugglers. Since the pills are very small, Rohypnol tablets can easily be smuggled through the mail, in luggage, or on airplanes. Rohypnol is also easily available from pharmacies in Mexico, and smugglers often hide the drug in cars as they cross the border from Mexico to the United States. The year 1995 produced the largest number of Rohypnol seizures by the DEA thus far, with more than 160,000 illegal...

Psychological And Physical Effects Of

The effects of GHB usually start to take place 15-30 minutes following ingestion and can last for 3-6 hours. A typical dose of GHB can range from 1-5 grams. However, since the concentration of actual GHB in the mixture varies from batch to batch and vial to vial, it is extremely difficult for the user to know the precise dose he or she is taking. Thus, the difference between getting high and ending up in a coma can be only a few drops. GHB has effects on the brain that are very similar to that...

History And Legal Status

Ecstasy, also known by its chemical name, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), was first synthesized in 1912 by chemists at the Merck pharmaceutical company in Germany, who were searching for amphetamine analogues to use as new appetite suppressants. These chemists also synthesized a similar drug called 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), which, as it turns out, is an active metabolite of MDMA. As MDMA and MDA are very closely related to amphetamine and methamphetamine (Figure 3.1),...

Meperidine And Its Analogues

Synthesis Meperidine

Meperidine Figure 7.4 was introduced in the 1930s as an alternative to morphine for relieving pain. Its advantage over morphine was that its duration of action was shorter and it had fewer unwanted side effects such as sedation and constipation. However, meperidine turned out to be less potent than morphine as a painkiller. This inspired underground chemists to try to synthesize more potent analogues of meperidine, with hopes that increasing the potency might give heroin addicts another way to...

How Methamphetamine

In the brain, methamphetamine causes massive amounts of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be released from neurons in the brain, particularly in the limbic system and frontal cortex. Scientists believe the increased dopamine release in these brain regions is responsible for methamphetamine's ability to keep people awake, alert, energetic, active, and possibly addicted. Methamphetamine acts on a variety of brain regions to produce a number of different effects...

Statistics And Patterns Of Methamphetamine Use And Abuse

Statistics Drugs Different States

In the past, methamphetamine use and abuse in the United States was most prevalent in individuals who needed to remain awake and alert due to the nature of their occupations long-haul truckers, for example and in some fringe members of society. Today, however, it is predominantly used by white males in their 20s and 30s and is becoming more popular with teenagers at dance clubs and raves. For these reasons, methamphetamine can be considered a club drug. Methamphetamine use is also increasing...

Ecstasy Addiction

Ecstasy is mostly used as a recreational drug and is considered not as addictive as drugs like cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin. However, there is growing evidence that Ecstasy can indeed become addictive if taken repeatedly. Repeat Ecstasy users often report that they develop tolerance to its effects and require higher doses to achieve the same high as previously experienced. In addition, some heavy Ecstasy users report intense cravings for the drug when they have not taken it for a few...

Statistics And Patterns Of Ghb Use And Abuse

GHB is currently extremely popular in the dance club and rave scene. It is also popular among the gay community as well as with exotic dancers and strippers. It is primarily used for its ability to produce euphoria, intoxication, and enhanced sexual feelings. Others use it as a sleep aid or to enhance bodybuilding. Still others use it intentionally as a date rape drug. Abusers of other drugs, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, often take GHB to reduce the withdrawal ironic and paradoxical,...

Ecstasy As A Date Rape Drug

Ecstasy is not as commonly used as a date rape drug as GHB or Rohypnol, primarily because it does not incapacitate the victim or make him or her unable to ward off sexual advances. In addition, Ecstasy is relatively insolu-able in many liquids. Also, Ecstasy actually tends to make male users impotent and unable to achieve an erection. This impotence is increasingly common in men who repeatedly use Ecstasy. This has spurred the popularity of a new drug combination, Viagra (a drug that helps men...

Ghb Overdoses Inspire A Federal

Up until 2000, most laws regarding GHB and its analogues were primarily up to the legislature of each individual state. As a consequence, enforcement of laws regarding GHB was difficult. However, on February 18, 2000, President Bill Clinton signed a new federal bill into law regarding the use of GHB. The bill, HR 2130, was inspired by the lobbying efforts of the families of two teenagers, Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid, who both overdosed on GHB in the late 1990s. The bill became known as...