Deafness Ebooks Catalog
Hearing Aids Inside Out
Have you recently experienced hearing loss? Most probably you need hearing aids, but don't know much about them. To learn everything you need to know about hearing aids, read the eBook, Hearing Aids Inside Out. The book comprises 113 pages of excellent content utterly free of technical jargon, written in simple language, and in a flowing style that can easily be read and understood by all.
The aminoglycosides are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides. The amino-glycosides should not be given to patients requiring long-term therapy because of the potential for ototoxic-ity and nephrotoxicity. One exception is the use of streptomycin for long-term management of tuberculosis. These drugs are contraindicated in patients with preexisting hearing loss, myasthenia gravis, parkinson-ism, and during lactation or pregnancy. Neomycin, amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, and tobramycin are Pregnancy Category D drugs the remainder are Category C.
Albendazole is a highly effective broad-spectrum anthelmintic, structurally related to mebendazole. It also kills the parasite through inhibition of the glucose uptake. It is the first-line drug for the treatment of alveolar forms of echinococcosis (Echinococcus multilocularis), and also for the advanced cystic forms (Echinococcus granulosus). During a mass drug administration for lymphatic filiriasis in Ghana, 50 women were inadvertently (because their pregnancy was not recognized) treated with ivermectin and albendazole their pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of 293 women with a recognized pregnancy who were not treated. Of the 39 children who were exposed during the first trimester, 1 congenital malformation (a hearing impairment), versus 5 of the untreated group, was reported. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of increased risk after exposure to ivermectin and albendazole (Gyapong 2003). One Down syndrome was observed in a small prospective study of...
Deafness occurred after 5 days' treatment with dan-trolene 25 mg day in a patient who was also taking long-term baclofen and diazepam (8). This may have been coincidental, but the authors suggested that dan-trolene may have caused the effect by interfering with the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticu-lum. It is therefore interesting that one hypothesis that explains the ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics involves disturbance of calcium ion binding and phosphorylation processes (SED-11, 549).
The most important adverse effect of eflornithine is a natural consequence of its mode of action, myelosuppres-sion, which is frequent and sometimes treatment-limiting. Gastrointestinal toxicity is also common, and is more marked with oral administration. Seizures, hearing loss, alterations in liver function tests, and rash have been described in the treatment of P. jiroveci infections in patients with AIDS (SED-13, 835). In 31 patients with AIDS and P. jiroveci pneumonia, intolerant of and or unresponsive to co-trimoxazole or pentamidine, about 50 reacted favorably to eflornithine. The adverse effects were no different from those seen in patients without AIDS, but the frequency of adverse effects was higher. The most common effects in this group were myelosuppression, thrombo-cytopenia being the most serious, with hepatitis (3 ) and hearing loss (9 ) among the others (SEDA-17, 332).
Furosemide increases the ototoxic risks of aminoglycoside antibiotics (30,31) by reducing their clearance by about 35 (32) permanent deafness has resulted from the use of this combination. A 60-year-old woman developed moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally after receiving five doses of gentamicin and one of furosemide 20 mg (33).
Clarithromycin 2 g plus pyrimethamine 75 mg day has been given for 6 weeks to a few AIDS patients with encephalitis (SEDA-13, 814). The adverse effects were many and severe severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, neu-tropenia, liver toxicity of varying degree, nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, and hearing loss were found in two of three patients tested in a group of 13. The dose of clari-thromycin in this study was the maximum dosage used in an earlier investigation of the treatment of mycobacterial infections in HIV-infected patients.
The adverse effects of once-daily or twice-daily vanco-mycin were not significantly different in 121 hospitalized patients (9). Nephrotoxicity developed in 11 and 7.7 of the patients respectively hearing loss in 3.2 and 16 phlebitis in 14 and 23 and red man syndrome in 14 and 9.6 .
Aldosterone antagonists, in heart failure, 24.246 Aluminium, in albumin solutions, 23.359 Aminoglycoside antibiotics, 17.304 deafness, 18.268 deafness, aminoglycosides, 18.268 eye effects, muscle relaxants, 21.145 visual field defects, vigabatrin, 21.78, 24.95, 25.98 Psychiatric
A hearing loss, or so-called sudden deafness, occasionally appears in the weeks after the birth. Therapeutically, intravenous hydroxy ethyl starch and other medications are prescribed that are said to promote circulation in the inner ear, None of these therapeutic measures have, as yet, been proven effective.
The rediscovery of Mendel's laws about a century ago, and the knowledge that some congenital abnormalities were passed from parents to children, led to attempts to explain abnormalities in children based on genetic theory. However, Hale (1933) noticed that piglets born to sows fed a vitamin A-deficient diet were born without eyes. He concluded that a nutritional deficiency leads to a marked disturbance of the internal factors which control the mechanism of eye development. During a rubella epidemic in 1941, the Australian ophthalmologist Gregg observed that embryos exposed to the rubella virus often displayed abnormalities, such as cataracts, cardiac defects, deafness and mental retardation (Gregg 1941). Soon after it was discovered that the protozoon Toxoplasma, a unicellular parasite, could induce abnormalities such as hydrocephaly and vision disturbances in the unborn. These observations proved undeniably that the placenta is not an absolute barrier against external influences.
Abnormalities described include abnonnalities of the central nervous system, e.g. agenesis of the corpus callosum, schizencephaly, meningocele, Dandy-Walker malformation, and optic atrophy, as welt as microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, hydrocephaly or ventriculomegaly, hearing loss, retardation, or slow development. Furthermore, there were a few cases reporting dysgenesis of the eye, cardiac defects (tetralogy of Fallot, persistent truncus arteriosus, and atrial septal defects), asplenia syndrome, absence of a kidney, cleft lip and palate, hypoplasia of the lungs with absence of the right diaphragm, and situs inversus. In addition, 13 cases of minor physical anomalies were reported, including low-set or poorly developed ears, a high-arched palate, hypertelorism, antimongoloid palpebral fissures, and widely spaced nipples.
Drug toxicity can be reversible or irreversible, depending on the organs involved. Damage to the liver may be reversible because liver cells can regenerate. However, hearing loss due to damage to the eighth cranial nerve caused by toxic reaction to the anti-infective streptomycin may be permanent. Sometimes drug toxic-ity can be reversed by the administration of another drug that acts as an antidote. For example, in serious instances of digitalis toxicity, the drug Digibind may be given to counteract the effect of digoxin toxicity.
Patient taking aminoglycosides is at risk for ototoxicity. Auditory changes are irreversible, usually bilateral, and may be partial or total. The risk is greater in patients with renal impairment or those with preexisting hearing loss. It is important for the nurse to detect any problems with hearing and report them to the primary health care provider because continued administration could lead to permanent hearing loss.
There are about 28 publications about treatment during the second and third trimesters, administered as mono-drug Lherapy as well as multi-agent chemotherapy. Han (2005) reports two cases with apparently normal outcome after therapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin. Ferrandina (2005) describes a healthy male premature baby after prenatal exposure to six cycles of cisplatin. Tomlinson (1997) reports a normal pregnancy using cisplatin and cyclophosphamide, and gives a summary on nine further cases, including a premature birth with neutropenia and reversible hair loss from day 10 onwards which had been exposed to cisplatin, bleomycin, and etoposide until 6 days prior to birth. At the age of 1 year, the child was apparently normal except for a moderate sensineural hearing loss bilaterally (Raffles 1989 see also case description in section 2.13.4). One case report describes a premature infant that developed cerebral atrophy with enlargement of the cerebral ventricles its mother had...
Sensory systems Analysis of families with two or more members with streptomycin-induced hearing loss has shown that increased susceptibility of the cochlea to streptomycin is transmitted primarily through women, by autosomal dominant inheritance, although transmission was not explained by the Mendelian inheritance rule (22M).
Recently, the possibility of a transgenerational effect of DES has been under discussion. Some studies have found an increased risk of hypospadias in the sons of women exposed to DES irt utero (Pons 2005, Klip 2002), but the results of an ongoing study of DES-exposed persons, with data from 3916 exposed and 1746 unexposed women, do not support this potential transgenerational effect (Palmer 2005). Likewise, following intrauterine exposure to DES there have been three cases of newborns with limb-reduction defects reported, and two cases with deafness in the second generation after intrauterine exposure to DES (Stoll 2003). Several mechanisms could be involved in this possible transgenerational effect, such as a genotoxic effect of DES upon the germ cells, or imprinting, or genetic or epigenetic changes in the primordial oocytes, among others. Nevertheless, more studies should be conducted to confirm this potential effect.
Cephalitis who received azithromycin 900, 1200, or 1500 mg day plus pyrimethamine, 28 responded to therapy during the induction period (158C). Six patients withdrew during the induction period because of reversible toxic effects (three with raised liver enzymes, two with hearing loss, one with neutropenia). Treatment-terminating adverse events occurred most often among the patients who took 1500 mg day. Sensory systems Azithromycin rarely causes ototoxicity, mostly after prolonged high-dose therapy in patients with AIDS, and it results in a reversible sensorineural hearing loss. However, low-dose exposure to azithromycin has also been associated with irreversible sen-sorineural hearing loss in otherwise healthy subjects (163a).
Uses The rhizome of Acorus calamus L. has been used since ancient times to promote appetite and digestion, to invigorate health and to stop spasms and flatulence. Ibn Sina called this herb waj and Dioskurides aKopov. A description of Acorus calamus L. is given in the Theatrum Botanicum of J. Parkinson (1640). The rhizome has since been listed in a number of Western Pharmacopoeia and Codices. Calamus (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) has been used to promote appetite and digestion in the form of an infusion (1 to 10 of boiling water dose of 15mL-30mL) or tincture (1 in 5 dose of 2 mL-4 mL). The volatile oil is used in perfumery. In the Asia-Pacific, the rhizome is principally used to invigorate health, soothe inflammation and to treat skin infection and lumbago. In China, it is used to combat fever, to stop spasms and to treat anxiety. The juice expressed from the rhizome is used externally to heal buboes, carbuncles, treat deafness and to soothe inflamed eyes. In Indonesia, the...
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses. Viruses cause more diseases than any other group of parasites. They can cause blindness, deafness, paralysis, mental retardation, various birth defects, and in at least a few plants and animals, cancer. Of all the most well-known viral diseases, the ones that should be stated are measles, mumps, smallpox, chicken pox, influenza, poliomyelitis, and yellow fever. There is suspicion that viruses are the cause of multiple sclerosis, Hodgkin's disease, Down's syndrome, and possibly even schizophrenia. However, along with the significant progress made in the area of treating bacterial infections, the development of chemotherapy of viral diseases has been relatively modest. There is only a small selection of attainable drugs for treating a very limited number of viral infections.
Quinine is the oldest antimalarial agent. It has a good and rapid sch-izonticide activity against the erythrocytic forms of all Plasmodium species. In spite of relatively high toxicity and a narrow therapeutic range, it is used more often for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria today. Concentrations in the fetus are just as high as in the mother, and arc potentially toxic. There are some reports describing eye defects and hearing loss in children after use of quinine in pregnancy. However, in those cases considerably higher doses had generally been administered than are used nowadays for the treatment of acute malaria. There is no evidence of an increased risk of abortion or preterm delivery with the use of a standard dosage of quinine for treatment of acute malaria (Philips-Howard 1996). In a study on the use of quinine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection during the first trimester of pregnancy (n 165) these findings were confirmed, as no increased rates...
Renal elimination of aminoglycosides is more rapid in pregnant women, and has been reported for gentamycin in obstetric patients by Zaske (1980). This may lead to subtherapeutic serum concentrations. Congenital hearing loss has been documented in association with prenatal exposure to streptomycin and kanamycin, but not with the use of gentamycin and tobramycin. However, a case of severe hearing loss after maternal use of gentamycin has been reported (Sanchez-Sainz-Trapaga 1998). The most sensitive period is the first 4 months of pregnancy.