Constipation Help Relief In Minutes
The bulking agents include vegetable fiber products (such as bran), paraffin and methylcellulose (which absorbs water into the intestinal tract), agar (which expands to form a gel), and psyllium seeds or other mucilaginous plant products. Bulking agents are largely free of adverse effects, but any non-absorbable agent can aggravate symptoms associated with pre-existent intestinal stricture. Abdominal bloating due to bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrate is a common sequel to excessive intake. The sugar content of some bulk laxatives can be sufficient to impair diabetic control the vegetable matter in other preparations can cause bezoars and is potentially allergenic. Plantago seeds are widely used as bulk laxatives under the names of psyllium'' (from Plantago psyllium or Plantago indica) and ispaghula'' (from Plantago ovata). Psyllium husk combined with microencapsulated paraffin has been compared with standard psyllium for the treatment of constipation in a randomized,...
Diet pills are not the only OTC drugs that are abused in the battle to achieve weight loss. Laxatives are another substance that people use to lose weight. Normally, people use laxatives to relieve constipation, since they act to irritate intestinal linings and stimulate nerves. Abusers believe that they help them lose weight by rushing food through their bodies. However, laxatives do not actually aid in weight loss, since the nutrients and calories in food, the real culprits in weight gain, have already been taken in by the body before the medicine begins to work. Ironically, because laxatives do not actually work, users feel the need to continue to take them in increasing amounts in the hope that they do. This eventually leads to dependence. Diuretics, or water pills, are abused in a similar way to laxatives. They act by forcing the body to lose fluids, creating the feeling that the user is really losing weight. When the body naturally begins to regain the lost water, people take...
If laxatives of any type are heavily used, not necessarily to the point of abuse, diarrhea will be common, as well as a tendency to nausea and fluid and electrolyte imbalance. The possibility of laxative-induced colonic injury, with damage to the autonomic nervous innervation of the large intestine, has been much discussed and was probably a problem with the violent cathartics formerly used (podophyllin, aloes, and cascara), but is not on record with the laxatives normally used today. Chronic abuse of laxatives, such as senna, can cause changes in colonic structure and function. Habitual, usually secretive, abuse of laxatives is much more common in women than in men and there is overlap with the anorectic bulimic syndrome. Abuse of irritant agents such as senna and cascara have been the commonest varieties (SED-10, 704), but many proprietary laxatives have been abused. Abuse can lead to a condition characterized by chronic diarrhea, hypokalemia, and fluid depletion. The features also...
Saline laxatives are poorly absorbed as well they work in a similar way to lactulose, but use saline to create an increase in fluid accumulation. Isotonic solutions are recommended because hypertonic solutions have the disadvantage that they remove significant quantities of fluid from the body. The saits, which are most appropriate as saline laxatives, are sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate potassium-sodium tartrate, magnesium citrate, potassium bitartrate, and potassium citrate are also used. Generally speaking, magnesium salts can inhibit contractions (see Chapters 2.8 and 2.14), but after oral ingestion as a laxative, with its limited systemic absorption, this effect is unlikely to occur. Recommendation. After stool-bulking agents, lactulose is the first-choice laxative in pregnancy. Lactitol, mannitol, and sorbitol, as well as the saline laxative sodium sulfate, can also be used as laxatives during pregnancy. However, sodium sulfate in higher doses and magnesium sulfate are...
Constipation is common during pregnancy, occurring in up to one-third of women. Constipation during pregnancy is probably caused by progesterone-related changes in both small bowel and colon motility, and by the increased absorption of water and electrolytes during pregnancy. The subjective experience of the pregnant woman (a feeling of fullness due to the growing uterus) ccrtainly also plays a role. Therefore, before prescribing laxatives it must be determined whether there is, in fact, any constipation (hard, dry stool, painful, less than three times a week). Laxatives should only be used in pregnancy when dietary and physical measures have been unsuccessful. In this case, stool-bulking agents are the drugs of choice (Bonapace 1998).
All of the anthraquinones can cause cramping and abdominal discomfort. Chronic use can be associated with melanosis coli. The urine can be colored red. The possibility of colonic injury has been discussed (see General adverse effects of laxatives in this monograph). Hepatitis, confirmed by rechallenge, has been reported, possibly due to re-absorption of rhein anthron produced in the intestine (SEDA-16, 425). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has ruled that the stimulant laxatives aloe (including aloe extract and aloe flower extract) and cascara sagrada (including casanthranol, cascara fluidextract aromatic, cascara sagrada bark, cascara sagrada extract, and cascara sagrada fluid extract) in over-the-counter formulations are not safe and effective or are misbranded (9). In an epidemiological study, chronic abusers of anthra-noid laxatives (identified by the detection of pseudo-melanosis coli) had an increased relative risk of 3.04 (95 CI 1.18, 4.90) for colorectal cancer (10)....
The osmotic laxatives include inorganic salts and the synthetic disaccharide, lactulose, as well as magnesium salts and sodium phosphate. Osmotic agents are largely free of adverse effects, apart from flatulence, cramps, and abdominal discomfort. The most common adverse effects of lactulose are flatulence, cramps, and abdominal discomfort. Non-toxic megacolon has been seen in some elderly patients and, as with other laxatives, there is always a possibility of dependence (SEDA-11, 374). Two women aged 88 and 82 taking lactulose for constipation, developed life-threatening dilatation of the bowel (16). Both underwent surgery. One had cancer of the bowel and an uneventful postoperative recovery. No mechanical abnormalities were found in the second patient but she died in respiratory insufficiency after aspiration. Low-dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and lactulose have been compared in chronic constipation in a randomized multicenter study in 115 patients with chronic...
- Prevention of constipation in patients taking opioid analgesics (codeine, morphine, etc.) - Short-term, symptomatic treatment of constipation - Prevention of constipation in patients taking opioids start bisacodyl when analgesic treatment continues more than 48 hours. Tablets must be taken daily, at night (bisacodyl is effective 6 to 12 hours after administration), until the end of the opioid treatment. Regular follow up (frequency consistency of stools) is essential in order to adjust dosage correctly. - Treatment of constipation until the patient passes stools, maximum 7 days. - Pregnancy and breast-feeding avoid for routine prevention of constipation due to opioids, use lactulose. - To prevent constipation in patients taking opioids, use lactulose if the patient's stools are solid use bisacodyl if the patient's stools are soft.
The unwanted peripheral effects of all atropine-like drugs include flushing of the skin, dryness of the mucous membranes with fever, tachycardia, reduced salivary secretion and dryness of the mouth, drying up of the gastrointestinal secretions and decreased gastric acidity, and reduced muscle tone in the gut and constipation. Bladder tone and frequency of micturition are reduced and acute urinary retention is a risk, especially in older men with prostatic hyperplasia. Nasal, bronchial, and lacrimal secretions are reduced.
Oral barium sulfate is theoretically non-toxic, but constipation and abdominal pain are not uncommon after barium meals or barium enemas (1). The main risk is that collections of barium will remain in the colon they can persist for 6 weeks or longer in elderly patients or cases of colonic obstruction barium fecoliths may even have to be removed surgically. Prolonged stasis of barium can occur after a barium enema into the distal loop of a colostomy. Residues in the appendix have caused appendicitis. Toxic dilatation of the colon can be aggravated by barium sulfate.
Uses In Indonesia a decoction of Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. is drunk to stop dysentery and diarrhea. In Malaysia, the plant is used to heal wounds and applied to painful areas. A decoction of 30 g of the whole plant is drunk by Malays to stop dysentery, relieve the bowels of costiveness, treat jaundice, fever, urinary tract infection, tuberculosis and peptic ulcer, resolve sore throat and intestinal inflammation, and to mitigate toothache. In Taiwan, Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. is used to treat kidney diseases and haemoptysis, and to fight depression.
Constipation, caused by a decrease in intestinal motil-ity, may occur in those taking one of these drugs on a regular basis. Drowsiness may occur with the use of these drugs, but at times this adverse reaction is desirable. For example, when atropine is used preoperatively to reduce the production of secretions in the respiratory tract, drowsiness is part of the desired response.
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Named for their chemical structure, TCAs are the gold standard for treatment of depression because of their effectiveness. They need to be taken every day and take some weeks to work. They have been supplanted by other drugs, notably the SSRIs, because of their tendency to cause weight gain, dry mouth, constipation, sweating, and low blood pressure.
Transdermal clonidine (clonidine TTS) has been used with some success for the treatment of mild hypertension. Systemic adverse effects are similar to those seen after oral administration, but are less frequent and milder. They include dry mouth, drowsiness, headache, sexual disturbance, cold extremities, obstipation, and fatigue (31-33). These adverse effects rarely necessitate withdrawal of clonidine TTS.
TCAs were the mainstays of treatment until the SSRIs came out in the late 1980s. They are very effective, especially in cases of severe depression, but commonly cause weight gain, constipation, light-headedness from low blood pressure, and dry mouth, side effects that are unpleasant enough to make most people choose an alternative. TCAs are sometimes used first in severe depression in spite of their side effects because of some evidence that they are the most effective. Nortriptyline tends to make people drowsy after they take a dose, so may be the best choice if you experience insomnia.
Recreational use and abuse of codeine cough syrup is becoming more frequent. In a literature search of scientific journals and news media, complemented with in-depth interviews of 12 professionals working in the law enforcement or treatment aspects of drug abuse and 25 adults who reported using codeine syrup in the 30 days before their interview, the information provided useful insights into the different types of cough formulations, the reported reasons for their use, and the various types of administration (12). The effects of cough syrup, including their adverse effects, were reported. The most frequently mentioned negative effects included taste disturbance, prolonged sedation beyond the desired effect, loss of co-ordination, lethargy, constipation, and urinary retention. This qualitative study cannot be described as authoritative or representative, because of its limited nature, involving as it did only a small number of individuals living in the Houston area.
The drug can worsen verbal communication, causing voices to become indistinct and grammar to become garbled. Studies measuring sleep-time breathing find that the drug can exacerbate respiration problems in some experiments researchers concluded that the change has no practical effect on health, but medical literature notes an instance in which the drug's influence on breathing did cause trouble for a sleeping person. In a mice experiment flurazepam lowered body temperature. In humans long-term use of the drug is suspected of causing hallucinations and confusion, and a case report exists of a single dose creating those symptoms along with euphoria. Investigators in the 1970s found mild euphoria to be a routine effect of flurazepam. Headache, low blood pressure, eyesight trouble, nausea, vomiting, and constipation can occur. A case report relates that a woman's interest in sexual activity increased when she stopped taking flurazepam and diazepam. Flurazepam is believed to interfere with...
LAAM can produce heartbeat irregularity, and although this unwanted action has not been known to harm users, it is a factor in deciding between LAAM or methadone for drug addiction treatment. When used for addiction therapy LAAM is generally considered to produce no significant reduction in alertness, but persons new to the drug or who take high doses are told to be careful about engaging in dangerous activity such as driving a car. One study involving over 600 users found weariness to be a frequent undesired LAAM effect, also constipation, abdominal discomfort, anxiety, perspiration, and decreased male sexual ability. In one study scientists found that testosterone measurements in males declined to levels below normal when those persons used LAAM, but another study showed no change. In one study euphoria was an unusual effect, but another study typically found LAAM users to be slightly euphoric in comparison to methadone users. Researchers have noted aggressiveness in...
A carefully controlled 3-week comparison of phenelzine (up to 90 mg day, mean 77 mg) and imipramine (up to 150 mg day, mean 139 mg) showed no significant difference between the drugs in the incidence of dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary hesitancy (15).
Support of efficacy, trazodone is also the most popular choice to counter SSRI-induced insomnia. Hypnotic dosages vary markedly, from 25 to 300 mg, depending on individual susceptibility to its sedating effects. Trazodone increases slow wave sleep and total sleep time and does not appear to affect REM sleep. Its elimination half-life of between six and nine hours renders trazodone likely to cause daytime drowsiness. Using the lowest effective dosage and or taking it in late evening rather than at bedtime may minimize this effect. Side effects also include hypotension and constipation, but priapism is exceedingly rare, occurring in less than one in 40,000 cases. Since anticholinergic side effects are not common, trazodone has some advantages over TCAs.
Counteract putrefaction, to assuage pain, to combat fever, to induce vomiting and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In the Asia-Pacific, about 50 Ascle-piadaceae plant species are used for medicinal purposes. Among these are Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea (Willd.) Dry. ex WT. Ait, Cynanchum caudatum (Miq.) Maxim., Dischidia rafflesiana Wall., Marsdenia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br., Oxystelma esculentum (L. f.) R. Br., Sarcolobus globulus Wall., and Tylophora tenuis Bl.
Older adults are particularly prone to constipation when tak- Iing the bile acid sequestrants. The nurse should monitor older adults closely for hard dry stools, difficulty passing stools, and any complaints of constipation. An accurate record of bowel movements must be kept.
A patient in the medical clinic is taking cholestyramine (Questran) for hyperlipidemia. The primary health care provider has prescribed TLC for the patient. The patient is on a low-fat diet and walks daily for exercise. His major complaint at this visit is constipation, which is very bothersome to him. Discuss how you would approach this situation with the patient. What information would you give the patient concerning his constipation
Laxatives are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity and those with persistent abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting of unknown cause or signs of acute appendicitis, fecal impaction, intestinal obstruction, or acute hepatitis. These drugs are used only as directed because excessive or prolonged use may cause dependence. Magnesium hydroxide is used cautiously in patients with any degree of renal impairment. Laxatives
The nurse assesses the patient receiving one of these drugs for relief of symptoms (such as diarrhea, pain, or constipation). The primary health care provider is notified if the drug fails to relieve symptoms. The nurse monitors vital signs daily or more frequently if the patient has a bleeding peptic ulcer, severe diarrhea, or other condition that may warrant more frequent
Animal studies show pholcodine to depress breathing and heart actions more than codeine does, but impact on those functions has not been noted in humans. Unwanted effects can include sleepiness, nausea, and constipation, but medical doses normally avoid other typical adverse actions associated with opiates. In Scotland accidental poisonings of children who drank a pleasant-tasting cough syrup containing pholcodine became common enough that a call arose to sell the product in child-resistant packaging.
The adverse effects of suramin that were reported in a group of 69 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were anorexia (19 ), malaise and fatigue (40 ), paresthesia (10 ), weakness (9 ), and skin rash (6 ). In another group of patients there were higher frequencies of adverse effects fatigue occurred in 70 and neuropathy in 16 . Hematological abnormalities occurred often, but were mostly mild and consisted of neutropenia (30 ), anemia (74 ), thrombocytopenia (26 ), and coagulopathy (30 ). Other common adverse effects have included uremia (21 ), increased serum transaminase activities (19 ), nausea and vomiting (30 ), constipation (9 ), edema (33 ), dysrhythmias (7 ), mild hyperglycemia (86 ), and rash (60 ) (SEDA-20, 283).
The roots of Jeffersonia diphylla (twinleaf) and Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape) have been used to invigorate health. The dried rhizomes and roots of Hydrastis canadensis (Hydrastis, BHP) have been used to stop uterine hemorrhage. The rhizome of Podophyllum peltatum L. (May apple) has been used to remove warts and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. It contains podophyl-lotoxin, a cytotoxic lignan from which etoposide has been semisynthetically developed to treat lung cancer, lymphoma and leukemia.
Uses In Burma, a decoction of the stems and leaves is drunk to regulate menses. In Malaysia, the scraping of the roots in betel quid is used to curb vomiting and the leaves are eaten as salad by Chinese. In Vietnam, the plant is used to promote urination and recovery from childbirth. A decoction of the entire plant is used to treat pulmonary diseases and to soothe inflamed parts. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat venereal diseases. In India, the plant is used to invigorate health, relieve the bowels from costiveness, assuage pain, soothe inflammation and to stimulate venereal desire. In the Philippines, the plant is used to combat fever and to promote urination. In Taiwan, the roots are used to assuage pain in the chest. In Indonesia, the roots pounded in water are used to treat leucorrhea and anemia. The plant is used to promote urination and to combat fever. In China, the plant is used to promote urination and to soothe inflammation.
Uses In China, Taiwan and Korea, Lophaterum gracile Brongn. is used to combat fever, relieve the bowels of costiveness, promote urination, remove impurities from the lungs, check bleeding, resolve inflammation, threaten abortion, induce labour and to treat anxiety. In Malaysia, the swollen part of the roots is used to strengthen and to invigorate health. The pharmacological potentials of Lophaterum gracile Brongn. remain unexplored til to date.
Pharmaceutical interest Mulberry (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), consists of the ripe fruits of Morus alba L. which have been used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, to promote expectoration and as adjuvant in the form of syrup (Mulberry syrup, dose 2 mL-4 mL) prepared by dissolving sucrose in the expressed juice. The latex of Ficus species is often used to heal wounds, remove warts, assuage toothache, and to treat skin infection. This could be due to the fact that the latex often contains mixtures of papain-like proteases (ficin), which could be used therapeutically to expel worms or to resolve inflammation, and in the food industry to tenderize meat. The therapeutic potential of this large family is not fully known til to date. Prenylflavones and lectins of Moraceae represent an interesting reserve field of chemotherapeutic investigation and should be worth being assessed further for their cytotoxic and or antiviral properties. About 50 species of plants classified within...
Bromides were used widely in patent medicines in the around the turn of the centuries. Bromides accumulate in the body and they can build up a depression, There are serious toxic effects. It ranges from dermatitis and constipation to motor disturbances, delirium and full blown psychosis. Very low doses of bromides remained in some over the counter drugs until the 1960s.
Pharmaceutical interest A classical example of Cornaceae is the ornamental garden shrub Cornus mas L. (Cornelian cherry wood). The barks of Cornus pubescens (dogwood) are used by the Indians in the Pacific Northwest to relieve the bowels of costiveness. Cornus florida (dogwood) has long been used by American Indians to treat fever and chills. Aralidium pinnatifidum Miq., Cornus officinalis Sieb. & Zucc., Cornus macrophylla wall., Aucuba chinensis Benth., Aucuba japonica Thunb., and Helwingia chinensis Batal. are medicinal in the Asia-Pacific. The pharmacological potential of the family Cornaceae is to date practically unknown despite the fact that the tannins of Cornus canadensis (dwarf cornel) inhibit the growth of several cancer cell-lines. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on Cornaceae will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest. Are monoterpenoid indole or isoquinoline alkaloids present in this family
Psychotropic drugs that do not produce dependence, such as antidepressants and neuroleptics 2. Laxatives (misuse of which is termed the laxative habit ) 3. Analgesics which may be purchased without medical prescription, such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) 4. Steroids and other hormones 5. Vitamins and 6. Antacids.
Anorexia nervosa A mental disorder occurring predominantly in females, usually developing during adolescence, and characterised by refusal to maintain a normal minimal body weight and intense fear of becoming obese that is undiminished by weight loss, disturbance of body image resulting in a feeling of being fat even when extremely emaciated, and amenorrhea (in females). Associated features seen in many cases are denial of the illness and resistance to psychotherapy, markedly decreased interest in sex, eating binges, self-induced vomiting, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and peculiar behaviour connected with food, such as hiding food around the house. Hospitalisation to prevent death from starvation is often required.
Uses In China, the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is used to combat fever, promote urination and menses, expel impurities, relieve the bowels of costiveness, treat tonsillitis, laryngitis, asthma, gonorrhea, alleviate cough, and to assuage stomachache, spleen and liver discomfort. In Malaysia, a decoction of 10 g of the rhizome is used to promote menses, to treat mumps and to soothe sore throat. A decoction of the roots and leaves is used in baths after childbirth. In Vietnam, a decoction of 10g-20g of the rhizomes is to alleviate cough, soothe sore throat, treat tonsillitis, laryngitis, pertusis, mastitis, combat fever, regulate menses and urination, and to counteract snake poisoning.
Uses In Indonesia, the roots of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) Burk. are used to counteract poison, treat lumbago, gravel, stop diarrhea and assuage abdominal discomfort. The latex is used to make arrow-poison. In Malaysia, an infusion of leaves is bechic.The pounded roots are used to treat eye diseases. When mixed with other ingredients, they are snuffed to heal syphilitic ulceration of the nose. In Vietnam, a decoction of the roots is used to combat fever. In India, the roots are used to treat biliousness and diseases of the blood. The plant is also used to promote menses, increase venereal desire, invigorate the body, relieve the bowels of costiveness, assuage pain as well as toothache.
A wide variety of psychogenic physical problems have in the past been favorably influenced by LSD psychotherapy this applies equally to organ-neurotic manifestations, symptoms that have the dynamic structure of hysterical or pregenital conversions, and psychosomatic diseases. Painful conditions of various kinds, such as ordinary or migraine headaches, severe menstrual cramps, gastric or intestinal spasms, pains in the neck muscles or in the lumbar area, and even arthritic pains without a detectable organic basis can be traced back to their origins and worked through in the course of LSD therapy. Neurotic disorders of various organs, such as cardiac dysfunction, gastric distress, breathing difficulties, excessive sweating, muscular tremors, constipation or diarrhea, and menstrual irregularities often disappear in the course of LSD treatment. Far-reaching improvements of myopia, which occurred as an unexpected side-effect during LSD psychotherapy with two neurotic patients in Prague,...
Uses Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. is used mainly to promote urination and treat fever. In China, the wood of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. is used to promote sweating, digestion, milk secretion and menses, to treat fever, relieve the bowels from costiveness, to resolve inflammation, and to invigorate health. The stalks and fruits are used to expel impurities. The plant is used to treat rheumatism, lumbago, hernia, dropsy, cold and diabetes, to resolve inflammation of the stomach and kidneys, and to assuage headache. In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the plant is used to invigorate health.The pharmacological potential of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. remains unexplored. The plant contains saponins (Fujita M et al., 1974) which might be involved in the uses mentioned above.
Uses In Indonesia, Aneilema medicum (Lour.) Kostel. is used to treat cough, asthma, strangury and difficulty in urination. In Laos, the plant is used to treat yellow fever and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Vietnam, it is used to maturate boils. In general, the pharmacological potential of Aneilema medicum (Lour.) Kostel. and of the genus Aneilema is virtually unexplored.
Cannabis sativa probably originates from neolithic China 1 . However the exact period of its domestication is unknown. The first known record of the use of cannabis as a medicine was published in China 5000 years ago in the reign of the Emperor Chen Nung. It was recommended for malaria, constipation, rheumatic pains, absent-mindedness and female disorders. Later its use spread into India and other Asian countries, the Middle East, Asia, South Africa and South America. It was highly valued in medieval Europe. In Western Europe, particularly in England, cannabis was extensively used as a medicine during the 19th century, while in France it was mostly known as a recreational drug 2 .
Antacids, antidiarrheals, and laxatives are considered topical drugs since they work in the gastrointestinal tract which is considered an extracellular body fluid. These drugs, when used correctly, are not appreciably absorbed through the intestinal wall and do not show systemic effects. The chemical action of these substances includes neutralization of gastric HCl, which in turn affects the action of pepsin in the stomach and the binding of intestinal phosphate. Laxatives also stimulate the muscles of the lower bowel as well as absorb water themselves. All of the drugs listed above decrease the GI absorption of other drugs and therefore should not be taken with other drugs.
Dyskinesia, dry eyes, blurred vision, constipation, dry mouth, photosensitivity dizziness, vertigo, nausea, constipation, dry mouth, diarrhea, headache, restlessness, blurred vision nervousness, akathisia, constipation, fever, weight gain sedation, headache, arrhythmias, dyspepsia, fever, constipation, extrapyramidal effects
These drugs date from 1958, when the parent compound, imip-ramine (Tofranil), was invented. It is still in wide use today, along with a close relative, amitriptyline (Elavil), and a number of other similar drugs. Some depressed patients respond very well to these medications but not until after at least two weeks of regular use. On the other hand, the toxic effects begin right away sedation, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty in urinating. Normal people are likely to notice only these side effects without any positive mood changes. A newer antidepressant drug is fluoxetine (Prozac), unrelated to the older members of this group. It is currently very popular in psychiatric medicine. Fluoxetine is an effective antidepressant, but some patients cannot tolerate it, because it makes them very anxious.
Uses The dried roots of Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke were officinal in India (Saussurea, Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1955), used to counteract putrefaction, treat flatulence, promote expectoration, urination, and a widely claimed remarkable effect in controlling bronchial asthma . It has been administered as a liquid extract (1in 1 with alcohol 90 , dose 0.6 mL to 1.5 mL). In China, the roots are used to promote digestion, to treat flatulence, to stop spasms and diarrhea. In Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, the plant is used to treat respiratory infection. In Malaysia, the plant is used to invigorate health, to relieve the bowels of costiveness, combat fever and to counteract putrefaction. The roots are cut into small pieces and shipped to Rome and China where they are used as a culinary spice and a perfume as well. The price of Costus in Rome is stated by Pliny to have been 5 denarii per pound.
Most potent effects Her stomach was pumped without delay and laxatives were administered, but she still had muscle twitches, followed by hallucinations and a comatose ( ) state. The son, who had eaten the soup only, experienced hallucinations as well, because the cooking process had served to extract the water-soluble compounds from the mushrooms. hallucinations, which caused him to panic and to run a distance of about 1,200 ft. to consult the nearest doctor. The physician noted widely dilated pupils, and proceeded to have the patient's stomach pumped and then prescribed laxatives. Three hours later, the abnormal state had largely subsided by the next morning, there was no evidence of any other side effects.
Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (During the eighties, NORML was widely derided for riding the coattails of sick people to advance their drug-legalization agenda. In fact, NORML was the only nationwide voice for medical Cannabis at a time when national media spouted drug-war rhetoric with little regard to accuracy or balance.) The Rescheduling Petition slowly worked its way through legal obstructions at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), finally to land at the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). In 1987, after long and detailed hearings in the matter, DEA Administrative Law Judge Francis Young issued a landmark ruling ordering Cannabis to be rescheduled from Schedule One to Schedule Two of the Controlled Substances Act. He called the laws forbidding medical Cannabis use arbitrary and capricious. Judge Young's ruling was quickly overturned by DEA Administrator John Lawn who had no intention of backpeddaling in the War-on-Drugs. In part, this...
Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Caesalpiniaceae are Ery-throphloeum guineense G. Don (sassy bark), Hymenaea courbaril L. (locust) and Copaifera pubiflora Benth. (purple heart wood).The pods of Cassia senna L. (Alexandrian senna) and Cassia angustifolia Vahl (Tinnevelly senna) have been used from time immemorial to relieve the bowels of costiveness on account of laxative anthraquinone glycosides. Tamarindus indica L. (tamarind) has been used for the same purpose but on account of organic acids. Caroub flour, obtained from the seeds of Ceratonia siliqua L., is an effective absorbent to stop diarrhea in infants. The seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum L. (fenugreek) are of dietetic value as the galactomannans they abound with lower gly-caemia, cholesterolaemiaand lipidaemia. Of relatively recent interest is cesalin characterized from Caesalpinia gilliesi which has been scheduled for use in pharmacology as a chemotherapeutic agent. Medicinal Caesalpiniaceae often owe their...
In a prospective, open, uncontrolled study 50 patients with a history of cancer taking daily oral morphine (90-800 mg) but with uncontrolled pain with or without severe opioid adverse effects, were switched to oral 8-hourly methadone in a dose ratio of 1 4 for patients receiving less than 90 mg of morphine daily, 1 8 for patients receiving 90-300 mg daily, and 1 12 for patients receiving more than 300 mg daily (43C). Methadone was effective in 80 of the patients when comparing analgesic response with opioid-related adverse effects. Ten patients were switched because of uncontrolled pain, eight because of moderate or severe adverse effects in the presence of acceptable pain control, and 32 because of uncontrolled pain with morphine-related adverse effects. In the last 32 there were significant improvements in pain intensity, nausea and vomiting, constipation, and drowsiness, with a 20 increase in methadone dose over and above the recommended starting dose. In a 7-year, retrospective,...
Uses In India, Evolvulus alsinoides L. is used to strengthen the brain, improve memory, combat fever, promote hair growth, treat dysentery and asthma, improve complexion, rejuvenate the skin, and to expel intestinal worms. In the Philippines, the plant is used to expel intestinal worms, combat fever, and to relieve the bowels of costiveness.
Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Polygonaceae are Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. (buckwheat, bie noir), which is used in Brittany (France) to make delicious flat cakes, and Rheum raponthicum L. (garden rhubarb). A striking feature of Polygonaceae is the presence of both lan-thraquinone glycosides and tannins, the prepon-derancy of which will result in either laxative or and antidiarrheal properties. For instance, the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L. var. tanquticum Maxim. and Rheum officinale H. Bn. are laxative but in small doses the same rhizomes can stop diarrhea. Polygonum bistorta L., a tanniferous Polygonaceae, is used to stop diarrhea in Western medicine. Anthraquinone glycosides are laxative because they irritate the bowels and inhibit the active transfer of ions through the intestinal membranes. Anthraquinone glycosides decrease the resorption of water, sodium ions and chlorine ions by blockade of the sodium potassium ATPase. Of recent interest is the discovery of...
Uses In the Philippines, Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) is used to relieve the bowels for costiveness, to assuage stomachaches as well as for abortion purposes. The pharmacological potentials of Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) and of the genus Cleidion in general, still remains yet to be discovered.
Pharmaceutical interest Sabatia angularis (American centaury), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (European centaury), the dried fermented rhizome and root of Gentiana lutea L. (yellow gentian) (Gentian, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963) , Gentiana catesbaei, Gentiana macrophylla, Gentiana punctata, and Gentiana purpurea, have all been used in Western medicine to promote appetite. Their effectiveness is attributed to the presence of iridoid glucosides, which impart an intense bitterness to the drug. A classical iridoid glycoside in the Gentianaceae is gentiopicroside. The dried flowering tops of the common centaury Centaurium minus (Centaurium umbellatum, Erythraea centaurium) and other species of Centaurium (Petite Centauree, French Pharmacopoeia, 1965) have been used as a bitter tonic in the form of liquid extracts (1 in 1 dose2 mLto4mL)and infusions (1 in20 dose30mLto60mL). Centaurium beyrichii (rock centaury) and Centaurium calycosum (Buckley centaury) are poisonous to cattles. An interesting...
Electrolytes are important minerals that are required for normal functioning of the body. They are found in the bloodstream, as well as in other bodily fluids such as sweat. It is necessary to maintain normal levels of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate in order to sustain muscle functioning, nerve impulses, and normal fluid levels in the body. When laxatives and diuretics are used, water and electrolytes are removed from the body, causing an electrolyte imbalance and accompanying health problems. People who abuse ipecac syrup in order to lose weight are at risk for cardiac problems, including chest pain, irregular or rapid heartbeat, and heart attacks. Respiratory problems also occur, along with seizures and hemorrhag-ing. Laxatives, another medicine subject to abuse in hope of losing weight, are also harmful if taken in excess. Short-term effects include dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, while long-term effects can consist of permanent bowel damage and...
Uses In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the seeds are eaten to induce vomiting, stop hiccups, and relieve the bowels of costiveness. A paste made from the leaves is used to treat zona. In India, the berries are used to treat fever, expel worms from intestines, and cure biliousness, asthma, and bronchitis. In Indonesia, the leaves are used to treat fever. In Malaysia, the juice is used after childbirth.
Uses In China and Taiwan, the plant is used internally to treat sore throat, induce vomiting, relieve the bowels from costiveness, facilitate expectoration and to expel intestinal worms. A paste of the plant is applied to boils, abscesses, and the bites occasioned by insects and dogs. The shoots and leaves are eaten as salad. In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the plant is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to treat lung diseases.
Uses In Burma, the juice expressed from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. is drunk to relieve the bowels of costiveness, and to soothe inflamed eyes. The bark and roots are astringent. In China, the roots are used to lower body temperature and to expel impurities. The leaves and fruits are used to soothe inflammation and to combat fever. In Indonesia, a decoction of the fruits is drunk to check bloody flux, soothe inflammation and combat fever. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is used to soothe inflammation and to combat fever. In Vietnam, the leaves are used to combat fever. The fruits are used to stop diarrhea and colic. In India, the leaves and the fruit are used to soothe inflammation and to combat fever. The fruits are used to invigorate the liver. The flowers are used by Asians living in Britain to soothe sores, stop dysentry, promote urination, relieve the bowels of costiveness, soothe inflammation and treat scurvy.
Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to relieve the bowels of costiveness, heal hemorrhoids, expel gallstone, and to assuage liver discomfort. A paste of the leaves is applied externally to heal cuts, wounds, and ulcers, and to soothe swollen parts. The juice expressed from the plant is used to assuage earache.
Are used in Western medicine to treat intestinal colic, gastric ulcer, spasmodic asthma, whooping cough, bladder and urethral spasms, on account of hyoscyamine. Hyoscyamine is a parasympatholytic tropane alkaloid, which exerts a selective blocking action on muscarinic receptors, resulting in mydriasis, tachycardia, decreased production of saliva, sweat, gastric juice, constipation and the inability to urinate.
Case 1 2 a 74-year-old female ingested a mothball (p-dichlorobenzene ingested, 160-200 g) and fell into clouding of her consciousness and severe constipation. When an enema was given to her, strongly aromatic-smelled feces were excreted. Neither gastrolavage, intestinal lavage nor administration of an adsorbent was performed. On day 13, she died of dysfunctions of the liver and kidney.
Versicolor (blue flag), have been used since ancient times to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to induce vomiting. The roasted seeds of a number of plants classified within the genus Iris were used to adulterate coffee. Plumba-gin (monohydroxynaphthoquinones) has been characterized from the leaves and the rhizomes of a number of Iridaceae. In Southeast Asia, 10 species of plants classified within the family Iridaceae are used for medicinal purposes.
Uses Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. was first made known in Europe through Hernandez in 1513. In Indonesia, the fruit is used to promote digestion and to soothe sore throat. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the green fruit is used to threaten abortion, relieve the bowels of costiveness and to expel intestinal worms. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat venereal diseases. In Vietnam, the fruit is used to expel impurities when ripe, promote urination, expel stones from the kidneys and to treat gonorrhea.
Methadone is well-suited for use as maintenance treatment. It is effective after oral administration and has a long half-life ( 24 h) it suppresses opiate withdrawal syndrome for up to 36 h and it blocks euphoria induced by other opiates. Chronic administration is associated with minimal side effects, the most frequent of which are constipation, excess sweating, reduced sexual interest, but these rarely result in discontinuation of treatment.
The use of herbal products during pregnancy could be due to pre-existing conditions or to symptoms problems related to the new physiological state such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, fatigue, depression, urinary tract infections and itching. Women looking for natural remedies for pregnancy-associated constipation are advised to use bulk laxatives, since stimulant laxatives are contraindicated 29 . In particular, Cascara sagrada, senna and aloe contain anthroquinones that could cause contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus 8 .
All tricyclic compounds (with the possible exception of protriptyline) have sedative effects, and this may be desirable or undesirable, depending on a particular patient's state of apathy or agitation. They have a spectrum of anticholinergic activity, presenting as troublesome adverse effects, such as dry mouth, sweating, confusion, constipation, blurred vision, and urinary hesitancy, depending on individual patient susceptibility. Weight gain is a common and troublesome adverse effect it is mediated in part by histamine Hx receptor antagonism.
There are a number of side-effects of opiates that are due to their actions on opiate receptors outside the central nervous system. Opiates constrict the pupils by acting on the oculomotor nucleus and cause constipation by activating a maintained contraction of the smooth muscle of the gut which reduces motility. This diminished propulsion coupled with opiates reducing secretion in the gut underlie the anti-diarrhoeal effect. Opiates contract sphincters throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although these effects are predominantly peripheral in origin there are central contributions as well. Morphine can also release histamine from mast cells and this can produce irritation and broncho-spasm in extreme cases. Opiates have minimal cardiovascular effects at therapeutic doses.
Disopyramide phosphate. phosphate (Fig. 2) is an oral and intravenous class lA antiarrhythmic agent. Oral administration of the drug produces peak plasma levels within 2 h. the drug is approximately 50 bound to plasma protein and has a half-life of 6.7 h in humans. More than 50 is excreted unchanged in the urine. Disopyramide phosphate commonly exhibits side effects of dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, and other cholinergic-blocking actions because of its structural similarity to anticholinergic drugs.
A meta-analysis of controlled studies suggested superior efficacy of clomipramine over SSRIs in OCD (Kobak et al. 1998), but this has not been demonstrated in direct comparisons and the use of SSRIs has superseded that of TCAs because of advantages in safety and tolerability (Zohar and Judge 1996). Side-effects of TCAs include anticholinergic effects (drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision and constipation), antihistaminergic effects (drowsiness and weight gain) and postural hypotension caused by a 1-adrenoceptor blockade, as well as the side-effects common to SSRIs. Some effects are dose-related, and usual practice is to titrate the dose slowly upwards. A discontinuation syndrome similar to that with SSRIs is well-described, and withdrawal should be tapered. Overdose causes hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic aci-dosis, seizures and coma and is associated with a significant mortality. Interactions can occur with other drugs with CNS effects (particularly MAOIs), and with drugs...
Different doses of ranitidine (150 mg bd and 300 mg bd for 8 weeks) have been compared in resolving heartburn in 271 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease who had been symptomatic after 6 weeks of therapy with ranitidine 150 mg bd (24). Less than 20 of the patients in either group had complete resolution of heartburn at 4 and 8 weeks there was no significant difference in the efficacy between the two treatment groups. At least one adverse event was reported by 38 of the patients in each group. They included sinusitis, nausea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, constipation, and increased liver enzymes.
(Lioresal) to relax muscles, benzodiazapines like diazepam (Valium), sedatives and tranquilizers. Common side effects of these drugs range from minimal to incapacitating. Dantrolene can cause drooling, sweating, and pleural effusions, hepatitis and tachycardia. Xanax can cause nausea, constipation, drowsiness, benzodiazepine dependence headache and dry mouth. As with many pharmaceutical regimens, the dosage of the drug is increased as the severity of the disease increases. Thus, patients who suffer from the severest functional and sensory effects of MS also suffer from the worst effects of pharmaceuticals. The other basic line of treatment for MS involves exercise and physical therapy. Lack of mobility increases many problems and can lead to skin breakdown, gastrointestinal problems, contractures and muscle wasting. Physical therapy strengthens muscles, increases rang-of-motion, stimulates heart and lung function and decreases contractures and skin breakdown. Exercise should be...
Schum is poisonous and principally used to induce vomiting and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In India, this plant is bitter, pungent, acrid and astringent to the bowel. It is used to treat urethral discharge, expel intestinal worms, treat skin diseases, heal wounds and piles, assuage eyes discomfort and soothe inflamed parts of the body. The plant is used to combat fever in Burma, the Philippines and in the Palau.
LAXATIVES (SED-14, 1235 SEDA-23, 384 SEDA-24, 406, SEDA-25, 423) psyllium for the treatment of constipation in a randomized, double blind, study (46c). There was a significant increase in the weekly number of defecations with the combined formulation, which was well tolerated no adverse effects were reported. Pneumatosis intestinalis and pneumoperito-neum have been reported in a 57-year-old cir-rhotic man with colonic inertia who had been taking oral lactulose 30 ml tds (48A). Because of constipation the dose of lactulose had been gradually increased to 60 ml qds together with lactulose enemas. Both conditions resolved 3 days after oral lactulose was withdrawn.
Uses The leaves of Allamanda cathartica L. are used in a number of Asian countries to treat costiveness of the bowels, and to induce vomiting. In Indonesia, the latex is introduced into hollowed teeth to assuage pain. In India, the leaves are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness the bark is to treat ascite and the roots is to counteract snake-poisoning.
Uses In Burma Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons is used to combat fever, invigorate the body and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia, Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons is used to combat fever. In India, Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons is used to combat fever, expel intestinal worms, relieve the bowels of costiveness, promote the secretion of milk, resolve inflammation, heal ulcers, treat asthma, invigorate the body and assuage vomiting in pregnancy. A tincture of Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons (Tincture of Chirata, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) prepared by percolating 10 g of the dried and flowering plant with alcohol (60 ) to 100 mL, has been used in Western medicine (dose 2mL-4mL) to promote digestion and appetite.
In Burma, kamala powder is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In China, a decoction of capsules and the leaves is taken to treat cold while kamala powder is used to expel intestinal worms. In Indonesia, kamala powder is used to expel intestinal worms. In Malaysia, the leaves are used to prevent bed-wetting in children. In India, kamala powder is used to expel intestinal worms and relieve the bowels of costiveness. Kamala powder is used by Asians living in Britain to expel intestinal worms, relieve the bowels of costiveness, facilitate abortion and treat skin diseases. Kamala powder has long been used to dye red silk.
Uses In Burma, the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum L. is used to remove warts and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In China, the plant is used to resolve inflammation and treat cholera. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the latex is used to induce vomiting, promote urination and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia, the latex is used relieve the bowels of costiveness, remove warts, resolve inflamed skin and assuage toothache.The pharmacological properties of Euphorbia antiquorum L. are known. One might set the hypothesis that the acridity of the latex is attributed to the complex phorbol diterpenoid esters.
Uses In Indonesia, Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl. is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the plant is used to heal syphilitic sores. In Papua New Guinea and the Solomons Islands, the plant is used to facilitate abortion and to heal infected sores. The plant was first studied by Dutch naturalist Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1628-1702).
Uses Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1628-1702) states that the Javanese and Macassars make candles from the seeds which are either pounded and mixed with coconut, or simply strung on a piece of split bamboo. In India, where the tree was much cultivated, the seeds were known as Indian walnuts. Dr Rorke (Ann. deTherap., 1859, p. 117) reported that 1 to 2 ounces of oil acts as a mild and sure purgative . In Indonesia, the bark of Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. is used to treat dysentery. In Malaysia, the seeds or the leaves are used to assuage headaches, heal ulcers and resolve swollen joints. The oil expressed from the seeds is used to treat sciatica. In the Philippines, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and treat cholera, while the leaves are used to treat rheumatism. The seeds of Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. are used to make soap and ointments. In India, the fruit is used to promote libido, invigorate health, expel worms from the intestines and to break fever....
Euphorbiaceae contain proteins (phytoxins), which are among the most violent existing poisons. One such protein is curcin from Jatropha curcas, and ricin from Ricinus communis L. Being often toxic, Euphorbiaceae should be used with caution in herbal remedies. Minor drugs still used are Croton tiglium (croton oil), and Croton eleuteria Benn. (cascarilla bark). About 150 species of the plants classified within the family Euphorbiaceae are used for medicinal purposes in the Asia-Pacific. Most of these are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, soothe inflammation, and promote urination and expectoration. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on Euphorbiaceae will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest. Note that hydrolysable tannins and diterpenes are predominantly responsible for the medicinal properties of Euphorbiaceae.
The psychopathological symptoms that can manifest as a result of incompletely resolved LSD sessions cover a very wide range. Essentially, any aspect of an activated dynamic matrix or specific unconscious material that remains unresolved can persist after the session for an indefinite period of time, or recur at a later date. Most frequently, these are various emotional qualities, such as depression, a sense of inferiority, suicidal feelings, affective lability or incontinence, a sense of loneliness, anxiety, guilt, paranoid feelings, aggressive tension, or manic elation. Psychosomatic symptoms that can occur in this context involve nausea and vomiting, difficulties with breathing, psychogenic coughing and gagging, cardiovascular distress, constipation or diarrhea, headaches and pains in various parts of the body, chills and hot flashes, increased sweating, hangover feelings, flu-like symptoms, hypersalivation, skin rashes, and different psychomotor manifestations such as general...
The use, efficacy, and adverse effects of non-prescription H2 receptor antagonists and alginate-containing formulations obtained from community pharmacies have been evaluated in 767 customers with dyspepsia (3). Most obtained some or complete symptom relief (75 ) and were completely satisfied with the product (78 ). H2 receptor antagonists were more likely to produce complete relief of symptoms than alginate-containing formulations. Only 3 reported adverse effects diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and flatulence from alginate formulations, and dry mouth, altered bowel habit, diarrhea, and constipation from H2 receptor antagonists.
The main abdominal symptoms of SMON are diarrhea and abdominal pain, sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, constipation, a bloated feeling in the abdomen, and meteorism. The neurological symptoms are acute or subacute in nature sensory disturbances are characteristic and spread gradually from the feet up to the navel. Some 20-40 of cases have visual disturbances ranging from blurred vision to atrophy of the optic nerve and blindness. There is a wide range of mental symptoms.
Uses The dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Myrobalans, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) are astringent and contain 20 to 40 of tannins. In Burma, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to invigorate health. In China, the fruits are used to stop flatulence and promote expectoration. In India, the fruits are eaten to invigorate health, promote digestion and expectoration, soothe sore throat and inflamed areas, stop dysentery and vomiting, and to treat ascite (Ayurveda). In Indonesia, the fruits are astringent. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to check bleeding, assuage liver discomfort and stop dysentry. In Vietnam, the fruits are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness.
Uses In Indonesia, the roots of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. are chewed to stop diarrhea and the seeds are used to expel intestinal worms. In Malaysia, a poultice of the powdered leaves is applied to the abdomen to expel intestinal worms. In the Philippines, the powdered seeds are used to treat fever, invigorate health, promote digestion and relieve the bowels of costiveness. The seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. were known as Ibn Sina and were later named Frutex Globulorum by Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1628-1702). In 1868, the seeds were made official in the Indian Pharmacopoeia, and were used to invigorate health and to treat malarial fever. Clinical experiments conducted in 1886 (Jour de Phar et de Chim., Aout 1886) showed that 10-20 centigrams of seeds were as effective as quinine salt in treating malarial fever.
Opiate drugs bind to and activate a protein called mu opiate receptor (mu is the Greek letter pronounced myoo), which is located on the surface of nerve cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The dorsal horn is where sensory nerve fibers from the skin, muscle, and internal organs enter the spinal cord before sending their signals to the brain. Activation of the mu opiate receptor by opiate drugs inactivates the nerve cells on which they are located. Thus, pain signals are not sent to the brain. Mu opiate receptors are also found on neurons in various regions of the brain that process pain signals, including the thalamus and cerebral cortex. Scientists believe opiates may inhibit pain perception by acting in the brain as well as in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Mu receptors are also located in brain regions that control respiration, which is why o piate drugs cause the breathing to slow down. Finally, mu opiate receptors are also found outside the central nervous system,...
Slowing delivery to the brain does not alter all of the effects of a drug. The hours of analgesia and contentment and the degree of constipation that inevitably accompanies opiate use remain the same whether addicts inject heroin or take it by mouth. Changing the rate of drug entry to the brain alters the intensity of the initial high, the rush. Experienced drug abusers all recognize the importance of this. Drinkers, for example, may down several drinks in rapid succession because they know that if they can get a lot of alcohol into their blood quickly, the initial high will be more intense. So, the ultimate amount of drug in the blood has a crucial influence on the drug's effects, but the speed at which that amount reaches the brain will influence some of those effects.
Alosetron (1 mg bd) was well tolerated and effective in alleviating abdominal pain, urgency, and stool frequency in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 647 women with irritable bowel syndrome (26). Constipation occurred in 30 of patients taking alosetron and 3 of those taking placebo. Laboratory values, including liver function tests, were unchanged by alosetron. The efficacy of alosetron in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome has been evaluated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, dose-ranging study in 462 patients (27). In women, but not in men, alosetron 2 mg bd significantly increased the proportion of pain-free days and reduced the visual analogue scale score for diarrhea. Alosetron 0.5-2 mg bd led to significant hardening of stools and reduced stool frequency in the total population. The overall incidence of adverse effects was similar with alosetron and placebo. However, the incidence of constipation was significantly higher during treatment with...
Often the primary reason why opiate overdose results in death. A related problem is that opiates inhibit the cough reflex, which is why opiates are occasionally included in prescription cough medicines. (In fact, heroin was marketed as a cough suppressant in the late 1800s before its addicting properties led the U.S. government to ban it.) Other side effects of opiates are clouded thinking, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, lowered blood pressure, sweating, and an inability to urinate. Some opiates induce the release of histamine from immune cells (refer to Chapter 2). This can cause itching and allergic reactions. Finally, tolerance, dependence, and addiction are particularly troubling side effects of opiates.
Uses In India, the bark of Crateva magna (Lour.) DC. is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to expel intestinal worms. The flowers are used to assuage liver congestion. In Indonesia, the bark of Crateva magna DC. is pounded with water and applied to the skin to treat fever and muscular pain. The leaves and other ingredients are used to make an external remedy to cure mental illnesses. In Malaysia, the leaves, the roots and the bark are boiled in oil and the mixture obtained is applied to the body to stop flatulence. The bark is bitter and flavoring, and the juice expressed from it is drunk to stimulate appetite and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. The leaves are counter-irritant.
Uses In China, the fruits of Momordica charantia L. are eaten to reduce body temperature, invigorate health, relieve the bowels of costiveness and stop flatulence. In Cambodia, the leaves are used to combat fever and delirium. In Indonesia, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to relieve the bowels of costiveness, treat liver diseases and expel intestinal worms. In India, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and expel intestinal worms. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to treat diabetes, and a poultice of the powdered leaves is applied to burns. A decoction of Momordica charantia L. is drunk to abort a pregnancy. In the Philippines, the juice expressed from the green fruit is drunk to treat chronic colitis and dysentery In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the cooked fruit is used to stop catarrh, flux and cough.
The adverse effects of the antimuscarinic anti-cholinergic drugs in patients with incontinence and bladder overactivity has been emphasized in several recent reviews (55M, 56C, 57M, 58C). The findings are not unexpected dry mouth is by far the most commonly reported adverse effect, with a frequency of about 40 in patients taking 2 mg of the immediate-release formulation bd. The next most common effects are consistently headache, constipation, and abdominal discomfort. Hallucinations and tachycardia have also been reported. It is agreed that higher doses should not be used because of the risk of urinary retention. About 5 of patients stopped taking tolterodine because of adverse effects and in about 10 the dosage
Common side effects include dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, and less commonly narrow-angle glaucoma. These effects are usually dose-related and worse in patients with pre-existing defects. Dry mouth can be alleviated by saliva substitutes or sugar-free hard candy, over-the-counter bulk-forming laxatives can treat the constipation caused by some agents, and the cholin-ergic agonist bethanechol has been used to treat anticholin-ergic side effects, particularly urinary hesitancy and blurred vision. The usual adult dosage is 10 to 50 mg t.i.d. or q.i.d. Pilocarpine eye drops can also be used to treat blurred vision. SSRIs in general are free from these side effects, as is bupro-prion, although duloxetine and paroxetine may cause mild dry mouth and constipation.
Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Clusiaceae are Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen fruit tree), Mammea americana L. (mammee-apple), Pentadesma buty-racea Sabine (butter or tallow tree), Garcinia kola Heckle (bitter kola), Garcinia morella, Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Alexandrian laurel, Indian poon), Mesua ferrea (iron wood) and Ascyrum hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross). The yellow gum resin of Garcinia han-buryi Hook. f. (gamboges tree) was used (gamboje, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) to relieve the bowels of costiveness (dose 30 mg-60 mg). The solid fat expressed from the seeds of Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy or kokum butter (Indian Pharmacopoeia) has been used to make suppositories. The flowering tops of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) has been used to promote urination (Hypericum, Russian Pharmacopoeia, 1961, tincture prepared by
The anticholinergic effects of antipsychotic medications can induce dry mouth and constipation as well as tachycardia, urinary retention, and blurring of vision. These adverse effects are relatively commonly encountered with low-potency firstgeneration antipsychotics and may be dose related. In cases of more serious gastrointestinal adverse events, such as paralytic ileus, which has been reported following treatment with cloza-pine, medication must be discontinued immediately and relevant medical or surgical interventions may become necessary. Anticholinergic manifestations are common with poisoning from clozapine and olanzapine.
Anthraquinone derivatives with a laxative action occur in a number of plants folia sennae, rhizoma rhei, cortex frangulae, and aloe. They have a laxative effect by directly stimulating colonic smooth muscles. Anthraquinone derivatives occur as glycosides. After the sugar portion is cleaved in the intestine, these agents are partially absorbed and excreted in the urine (colored ). Anthraquinone derivatives do not appear to be teratogenic. Reported experience is the most extensive with senna laxatives. No stimulating effect on uterine contractions or other side effects relevant to pregnancy were noted when senna laxatives were used in pregnancy (Anonymous 1992).
The clinical effects of overdosage with atropine-like drugs, as recorded in a series of 119 patients, are presented in Table 2 (5). Infrequent manifestations (less than 10 of cases) included seizures, convulsions, vomiting, rash, urinary retention, abdominal distress, paralytic ileus, and constipation. Death, when it occurs, is due primarily to the effects on the central nervous system a stage of excitement is followed by drowsiness, stupor, and coma, with generalized central depression.
Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Aristolochiaceae are Aristolochia reticulata (serpentary, red river snakeroot, and Texan snakeroot) and Aristolochia serpentaria (Virginian snakeroot), both of which are used to treat dyspepsia, considering their bitterness. Other examples are Aristolochia clematis (birthwort) and Asarum europeaum which were used in European medicine. The dried rhizomes, roots and leaves of Asarum europeaum (asarabaca) are used to induce vomiting, relieve the bowels of costiveness, and assuage headache, and are listed in the Spanish Pharmacopoeia 1954.The sodium salt of aristolochic acid has been given peros to treat a number of inflammatory conditions, but it is nephrotoxic in humans and in animals, as well as carcinogenic in rodent. About 20 species of plants classified within the family Aristolochiaceae are used for medicinal purposes in the Asia-Pacific. These are often used to counteract snake-poisoning, promote urination and menses, assuage...
Drug that acts by altering the cellular environment by lubrication is sunscreen. An example of a drug that acts by altering absorption is activated charcoal, which is administered orally to absorb a toxic chemical ingested into the gastrointestinal tract. The stool softener docusate is an example of a drug that acts by altering the surface of the cellular membrane. Docusate has emulsifying and lubricating activity that causes a lowering of the surface tension in the cells of the bowel, permitting water and fats to enter the stool. This softens the fecal mass, allowing easier passage of the stool.
Neostigmine or other anticholinesterase inhibitors are regularly used in anesthesia to reverse neuromuscular block however, in patients with neuromuscular disorders, this reversal can present unforeseen difficulties. All anti-cholinesterase inhibitors must be cautiously dosed if severe adverse reactions are to be avoided. When these drugs are given orally, administration should be suspended during periods of severe constipation, in light of one reported case in which neostigmine accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract of a child during a constipative phase and was thereafter rapidly absorbed, with fatal results (SED-12, 326). Anticholinesterase drugs are con-traindicated in bronchial asthma.
Nonprescription drugs are drugs that are designated by the FDA to be safe (if taken as directed) and obtained without a prescription. These drugs are also referred to as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and may be purchased in a variety of settings, such as a pharmacy, drugstore, or in the local supermarket. OTC drugs include those given for symptoms of the common cold, headaches, constipation, diarrhea, and upset stomach.
Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.