Jan-Gerd Hansel and Stephan Jordan
9.1 Introduction 270
9.2 Electrophilic Substitution at Aliphatic Carbons 271
9.2.1 Halogen Electrophiles 271
9.2.2 Nitrogen Electrophiles 271
9.2.3 Carbon Electrophiles 272
9.3 Electrophilic Substitution at Aromatic Carbons 272
9.3.1 General Remarks 272
9.3.2 Halogen Electrophiles 273
9.3.3 Nitrogen Electrophiles 274
9.3.4 Carbon Electrophiles 275 References 277
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.