Concepts of Combinatorial Chemistry in Process Development 831

Markus Eckert and Ulrich Notheis

30.1 Introduction 831

30.1.1 General 831

30.1.2 Subject of this Chapter 831

30.1.3 Literature 832

30.2 Process Development 834

30.2.1 Overview and Definition 834

30.2.2 Combinatorial Chemistry in Process Development 835

30.2.3 Demands on Process Development 835

30.2.4 Process Development for Different Applications 837

30.3 Parallelization in Process Development 838

30.3.1 Number of Experiments Compared with Scale of Experiment 838

30.3.2 Requirements and Equipment for Parallelization in Different Development Phases 840

30.3.2.1 Route Scouting 840

30.3.2.2 Process Screening 841

30.3.2.3 Process Optimization 847

30.3.2.4 Process Characterization and Validation 849

30.3.3 Requirements for Analytical Instruments 850

30.4 Planning of Parallel Process Development 851

30.4.1 Screening Strategies 851 30.4.1.1 Experimental Design 852

30.4.2 Strategies for the Selection of the Equipment 853

30.4.2.1 Automation versus Manual Work? 853

30.4.2.2 What is the Right Distribution and Number of Pieces of Apparatus for Different Stages? 855

30.4.2.3 Buying Commercially Available Systems or Carrying out In-house Development? 856

30.5 Case Studies 857

30.6 Summary 861 References 861

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