Chronic Bronchitis Ebook
Dealing With Bronchitis
If you're wanting to know more about dealing with bronchitis... Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read! You are About To Read The Most Important Information That Is Available To You Today, You Will Achieve A Better Understanding About Bronchitis! It doesn't matter if you've never had bronchitis before or never known anyone who has, This guide will tell you everything you need to know, without spending too much brainpower!
Pharmaceutical interest Belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae are several very valuable timber trees such as Shorea robusta Gaertn. (Saul tree). Dipterocarpaceae often produce resins Vateria indica L. (piny resin, Indian copal, white dammar), Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. (Sumatra camphor tree), Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn. (gurjun basalm, garjan or kanyin oil) and Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (eng oil). The resin obtained from Vateria indica L., is used to make ointments, stop flatulence, treat bronchitis and piles, heal boils and to invigorate health. The resins (gurjun) obtained from
During the ongoing assessment, the nurse assesses the respiratory status every 4 hours and whenever the drug is administered. The nurse notes the respiratory rate, lung sounds, and use of accessory muscles in breathing. In addition, the nurse keeps a careful record of the intake and output and reports any imbalance, which may indicate a fluid overload or excessive diuresis. It is important to monitor any patient with a history of cardiovascular problems for chest pain and changes in the electrocardiogram. The primary health care provider may order periodic pulmonary function tests, particularly for patients with emphysema or bronchitis, to help monitor respiratory status.
In phase II trials oral gemifloxacin 320 mg day produced bacteriological responses in 94 of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (6-8) and in 95 of patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Adverse events included nausea, abdominal pain, headache, and a mild rash in both patients and healthy volunteers.
Ipratropium has established a place in the therapy of asthma as an alternative to beta2-adrenoceptor agonist aerosols for patients who fail to respond adequately to these agents. Ipratropium may be more effective than beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for patients with non-atopic asthma and chronic bronchitis. It has been reported to augment the effects of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists when given by nebulized inhalation in acute asthma (2).
There has been concern that ipratropium and other antimuscarinics may cause drying and inspissation of sputum with resulting sputum retention. In vitro studies show no effect on ciliary activity. In healthy subjects and patients with chronic bronchitis, inhaled ipratropium did not affect the rate of tracheobronchial clearance of a previously inhaled radioactive carrier aerosol. In studies using therapeutic doses for 2-14 days sputum volume and viscosity did not change (1).
Pulmonary concerns remain paramount in relation to chronic cannabis smoking. Excellent recent reviews are available (Zimmer and Morgan 1997 Tashkin 2001 Tashkin 2001). In brief, cannabis smoking produces an increase in cough and bronchitis symptoms, but to a lesser degree than in tobacco smokers (Sherrill et al. 1991). Daily cannabis The Greek studies did not closely examine pulmonary function, and although an increase in bronchitis symptoms was noted in hashish smokers over abstainers, the former group also smoked more tobacco. Differences were not statistically significant in any event (Boulougouris, Antypas, and Panayiotopoulos 1977).
Pharmaceutical interest The roots of Polygala nyikensis in Malawi, Polygala tenuifolia in China and Japan, and Polygala senega L. in North America have been used to treat skin diseases, alleviate cough, counteract snake-poison and invigorate the body since many decades ago. The roots of Polygala senega L. were first used in 1734 to treat pneumonia in several Western countries. In the Asia-Pacific, about 10 species of plants classified within the family Poly-galaceae are medicinal. Note that these plants are often used to counteract putrefaction, treat cough, asthma, bronchitis, promote fertility and to treat cerebral dysfunctions.
A bronchodilator is a drug used to relieve bron-chospasm associated with respiratory disorders, such as bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. These conditions are progressive disorders characterized by a decrease in the inspiratory and expiratory capacity of the lung. Collectively, they are often referred to as COPD. The patient with COPD experiences dyspnea (difficulty breathing) with physical exertion, has difficulty inhaling and exhaling, and may exhibit a chronic cough. The two major types of bronchodilators are the sym-pathomimetics and the xanthine derivatives. The anti-cholinergic drug ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) is used for bronchospasm associated with COPD, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Ipratropium is included in the Summary Drug Table Bronchodilators. Chapter 25
Because the bronchodilators or antiasthma drugs may be given for asthma, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis, the preadministration assessment of the patient requires careful observation and documentation. The nurse takes the blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate before therapy with a bronchodilator or antiasthma drug is initiated. Respiratory rates below 12 min or above 24 min are considered abnormal. It is important to assess the lung fields and carefully document the sounds heard before therapy is begun. The nurse notes any dyspnea, cough, wheezing (a musical sound of the respiratory tract caused by air passing through a narrowed bronchial tube), noisy respirations, or use of accessory muscles when breathing. If the patient is raising sputum, the nurse records a description of the sputum. The nurse notes and records the patient's general physical condition. It is important to record any signs of hypoxia (eg, mental confusion, restlessness, anxiety, and cyanosis bluish...
Regarding the pulmonary respiratory consequences, chronic heavy smoking of marijuana is associated with increased symptoms of chronic bronchitis, coughing, production of sputum, and wheezing (16,17) and with impairment of pulmonary function, pulmonary responsiveness, and bronchial cell characteristics in marijuana-only smokers. Tashkin and co-workers (17) further show that chronic marijuana smoking is associated with poorer lung function and greater abnormalities in the large airways of marijuana smokers than in nonsmokers. In 1997, Tashkin and colleagues (18) reported that the rate of decline in respiratory function over 8 years among marijuana smokers did not differ from that in nonsmokers of any substance marijuana or tobacco. However, in another cohort there was a greater rate of decline in respiratory function among marijuana-only smokers than in tobacco-only smokers (19). Both studies showed that long-term smoking of marijuana increased bronchitis symptoms. Starr and Renneker...
Rabeprazole 10 or 20 mg bd and omeprazole 20 mg day have been compared in the healing of erosive gastro-esophageal reflux disease in a double-blind, multicenter study in 310 patients (18). Overall healing rates for rabe-prazole (both dosage regimens) and omeprazole at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment were equivalent. The drugs were equally well tolerated, and there was no significant difference in reported adverse events. The more frequent were abdominal pain, pharyngitis, bronchitis, headache, and diarrhea.
Uses In China, the juice expressed from the leaves of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. is used to keep the hair black and to stimulate its growth. The pounded plant is used to check bleeding, to heal wounds and burn, and to soothe contusion. A decoction of the plant is used to check bleeding and to invigorate health. In India, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. is used to invigorate health and to assuage hepatic and spleen discomfort. In Malaysia, the plant is used to promote recovery from childbirth. In the Philippines, the plant is used to assuage liver discomfort. In Vietnam, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. is used to treat mycosis, assuage lung discomfort, treat asthma, bronchitis and to invigorate breathing.
Chronic marijuana smoking is clearly related to lung injury, although there is nothing diagnostic about the resultant pattern of injury (23). Because of the way marijuana is smoked, more particulate matter is generated than by smoking tobacco, which means that damage to the respiratory tract is more likely than with tobacco smoking. The effects of cannabis and tobacco smoking are additive and independent. The resultant histopathological effects include changes consistent with acute and chronic bronchitis but are in no way diagnostic. In the only published autopsy series, lungs were examined in 13 known marijuana smokers with sudden death. Decedents ranged in age from 15 to 40 years. There were accumulations of pigmented monocytes within the alveoli and variable, spotty, infiltrates of monocytes and lymphocytes within the intersititum. The study authors suggest that the degree of infiltrate was dose-related, with heavier smokers having heavier infiltrates (24).
Fluid extracts of Echinacea purpurea are widely used for the prevention and treatment of colds and respiratory infections, although the clinical efficacy of this agent has not been proven. It has been used in high doses for short period of time for treatment of the common cold, coughs, flu or acute cold, bronchitis, upper respiratory infections, and in low doses over an extended time to build immune function
As emetine, has been used in small dosages as expectorant in acute bronchitis and in large dosages to induce vomiting in the treatment of poisoning. Emetine has been used as hydrochloride to treat amebiasis. Mitragynine from Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil., may also be of help in fighting opioid addiction.
Uses A number of plants classified under the genus Aganosma are used to invigorate the body, promote urination and combat fever in the Asia-Pacific. In Malaysia, a decoction of the roots of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is drunk to combat fever, regulate menses, promote urination and aid recovery from childbirth. In India, Aganosma dichotoma K. Schum. is emetic, anthelmintic, and useful for treating bronchitis, leprosy, and diseases of the mouth. The flowers are used for treating eyes diseases and biliousness. Aganosma calycina A. DC. is heaty, used as a tonic to treat bile and blood disorders. In Thailand, an infusion of the leaves, flowers and fruits of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is drunk to treat flatulence and to promote urination. The plant is used to combat fever. The therapeutic potential of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is still yet to be discovered.
Besides the danger of nicotine addiction, cigarette use poses a wide range of threats to the user's health. The main health dangers include increased risk of heart attack, respiratory diseases such as emphysema and lung cancer, cancer of the mouth and throat, and pancreatic cancer. About one in six men who continue to smoke tobacco will develop lung cancer compared to one in 75 nonsmokers. Male smokers are also 85 percent more likely to suffer from impotence than nonsmokers are. Other diseases linked to smoking include various forms of cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, cataracts,
Acetabarb Phenobarbital. Acetaldehyde CH3CHO, also called acetic aldehyde ethanol and ethylaldehyde, is an organic compound belonging to the aldehyde group. A colourless flammable liquid with a pungent, fruity odour, it is important as an intermediate in the manufacture of many chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics, including acetic acid, butyl alcohol, chloral, and pyri-dine and is used in the manufacture of perfumes and flavours. Acetaldehyde is widely used as a starting material for the synthesis of many organic compounds. Acetaldehyde may cause irritation of mucous membranes, lacrimation, photophobia, conjunctivitis, corneal injury, rhinitis, anosmia, bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, headache, and unconsciousness.
Origin certain chronic infections such as cystitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis are examples of this. A possible therapeutic mechanism is suggested by the fact that such physical changes immediately follow the resolution and integration of a psychological gestalt in which the corresponding area is meaningfully involved. The experience of Tanya described in a later section can be mentioned here as an illustration of this. (p. 288) This suggests that the infectious agent is just one element in the development and perpetuation of the condition, and possibly even a secondary one. A much more important factor seems to be decreased vitality of the organ or tissue, which accounts for the ineffective defense against the bacterial invasion. It is not difficult to see how psychological factors could play an important role in this situation. One of the possible mechanisms could be, for example, psychogenic constriction of the afferent vessels resulting in limited blood supply to and reduced...
There has been a systematic review of published randomized studies of the use of N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis (2). A total of 39 trials were considered, of which only nine were included in the meta-analysis. In all cases, oral N-acetylcysteine had been used in a dosage of 200-300 mg bd for 4-32 weeks. There were gastrointestinal adverse effects (dyspepsia, diarrhea, and heartburn) in 10 of 2011 patients, and 6.5 withdrew because of their symptoms. However, the rate of gastrointestinal adverse effects was higher in the placebo group (11 with a withdrawal rate of 7.1 ). There was no exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in 49 of patients treated with acetylcysteine compared with 31 of placebo-treated patients, a relative benefit of 1.56 (95 CI 1.37, 1.77). There was also symptom improvement with treatment 61 reported improvement in symptoms with acetylcysteine compared with 35 with placebo.
Stimulant drugs are often based on caffeine, cathine, theobromine and theophylline. Caffeine is a component of more than 300 different drugs. It is also a minor component in many other pharmaceuticals. Analgen or Panax are examples of caffeine-based drugs. Cathine is found in drugs such as Amorphan or Recatol. They have an anorectic influence of the liver. More than 25 different drugs have been developed from theobromine, for example Atrofed and Seominal. These drugs serve many clinical purposes including treating asthma and Angina pectoris. Moreover, 200 different drugs have been developed from theophylline. Theochron and Euphyllin are examples. Theophylline-containing drugs are used to treat bronchitis and asthma.
Smoked cannabis causes bronchodilation (probably by THC) (42), pulmonary irritation from inhalation of the smoke, and increased absorption of carbon monoxide (43,44). The latter leads to elevated blood carboxyhemoglo-bin levels, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to tissues. These effects rarely cause clinically significant adverse events with the limited exposure usually involved in cannabis administration research studies (45). However, even a single cannabis cigarette may trigger coughing or breathing difficulty (dysnpea) in a susceptible subject, e.g., one with active asthma or bronchitis.
Since tobacco smoking is known to be the most important cause of chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, it is reasonable to be concerned about the adverse effects of cannabis smoke on the lungs. There have been several attempts to address this question by exposing laboratory animals to cannabis smoke. After such exposure on a daily basis for periods of up to 30 months, extensive damage has been observed in the lungs of rats (120E), dogs (121E), and monkeys (122E), but it is very difficult to extrapolate these findings to man, as it is difficult or impossible to imitate human exposure to cannabis smoke in any animal model. The various studies that have been undertaken in human cannabis smokers seem to be far more relevant, although here the problem is confounded by the fact that many cannabis smokers take the drug with tobacco, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of the two agents. In 144 volunteers who were heavy smokers of cannabis only, 135 who smoked tobacco...
Uses In the Asia-Pacific, Amaranthus spinosus L. is principally used internally to promote urination. In Cambodia, the roots are used to treat rheumatism and fever, and these are added to mustard plasters to treat uterine tumors. In Indonesia, the roots of Amaranthus spinosus L. are used to stimulate menses and its crushed leaves are used to heal festering wounds. In Malaysia, Amaranthus spinosus L. is used to promote urination whereas a decoction of the roots is drunk to promote expectoration and to stimulate menses. The leaves are used internally to treat bronchitis and externally to heal boils. In the Philippines, its crushed leaves are applied to eczematous areas. In Vietnam, Amaranthus spinosus L. is used to promote milk secretion and urination and a poultice of the powdered leaves is applied to heal dog bites. In India, the roots of Amaranthus spinosus L. are used to treat gonorrhea, menorrhagia and eczema.
Uses In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the seeds are eaten to induce vomiting, stop hiccups, and relieve the bowels of costiveness. A paste made from the leaves is used to treat zona. In India, the berries are used to treat fever, expel worms from intestines, and cure biliousness, asthma, and bronchitis. In Indonesia, the leaves are used to treat fever. In Malaysia, the juice is used after childbirth.
A review has summarized the evidence related to the adverse effects of acute and chronic use of cannabis (53). The effects of acute usage include anxiety, impaired attention, and increased risk of psychotic symptoms. Probable risks of chronic cannabis consumption include bronchitis and subtle impairments of attention and memory.
In the United States, the origins of modern drug criminalization stretch back over a century and a half, to a point when many currently banned substances were legal and widely available. Opium, one of the first popular narcotics, was commonly used in eighteenth-century America for a variety of medicinal purposes, from dysentery and rheumatism to cholera and lockjaw. The drug was liberally recommended by doctors, who described opium as God's Own Medicine, something that the Creator himself seems to prescribe. 4 Morphine, first derived from opium in 1803 and named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams, also was freely used as a stronger palliative with fewer direct side effects. Another opium derivative, first synthesized in 1874, was dubbed heroin because it heightened the sense of self-worth and gave the user a sense of heroism, a euphoric feeling. Heroin was used in relieving any number of illnesses, particularly those related to the upper respiratory system coughs, congestion,...
Over the past two decades, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in the USA (Tashkin et al., 2002) and New Zealand (Aldington et al., 2007 Taylor et al., 2002 Taylor et al., 2000), have shown that people who are regular smokers of cannabis have more symptoms of chronic bronchitis (wheeze, sputum production and chronic coughs) than non-smokers (see Tashkin et al., 2002 Tetrault et al., 2007 for reviews). The immunological competence of the respiratory system in people who only smoke cannabis is also impaired, increasing their susceptibility to respiratory infections and pneumonia, and their use of health services for these infections (Tashkin et al., 2002).
Inhaled ipratropium bromide is the drug of choice for the long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis. Its bronchodilating activity is about two-thirds of that of -adrenergic drugs, and it may augment the bronchodilator responsiveness to 32-agonists. Ipratropium is available as a single drug or in combination with a -agonist (fenoterol and salbutamol). Side effects are minimal.
A number of lung diseases (e.g. chronic bronchitis and emphysema) are capable of producing shortness of breath that is often extremely distressing to the patient. Many of these conditions are irreversible, so it becomes necessary to target the symptom itself. The sensation of breathlessness is a complicated phenomenon that seems to depend upon central processing through respiratory and non-respiratory mechanisms (Guz 1996). Ideally, a treatment would relieve the unpleasant sensa
Both carvedilol and labetalol are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug, bronchial asthma, decompensated heart failure, and severe brady-cardia. The drugs are used cautiously in patients with drug-controlled congestive heart failure, chronic bronchitis, impaired hepatic or cardiac function, in those with diabetes, and during pregnancy (Category C) and lactation.
Pharmaceutical interest A classical example of Papaveraceae is Papaver rhoea L. (corn poppy, red poppy) which grows wild in Europe and the petals of which (Red-Poppy, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949) have been used in the form of syrup to color and sweeten pharmaceutical mixtures. Of great interest in this family are the neuroactive isoquinoline alkaloids such as morphine, codeine and papaverine present in opium, i.e. the latex of Papaver somniferum L. (Fig. 42). Opium (from the Greek opos juice) was known of the Babylonians (4000 BC), and it was used to pacify children in ancient Egypt before 2000 BC. The Greeks and Romans used it to induce sleeping. Arabian traders introduced opium to China, and it first appeared in Chinese medical text in about AD 1000, as a treatment for diarrhea. At the end of the Middle Age, the Swiss physician Paracelsus had such a high opinion of opium that he named preparations containing it laudanum (from Latin laudare to praise). Another example of...
Aceae is Dionaea muscipula (Venus's flytrap), which has attracted a great deal of interest on account of its leaves which entrap insects. Traditionally used in Europe to treat spasms, soothe and calm cough were Drosera rotundifo-lia L., Drosera anglica Huds. (Drosera longifolia L.) and Drosera intermedia Hayne (sundews, red roots). The air-dried entire Drosera rotundifolia (Drosera, French Pharmacopoeia, 1965) has been used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, and whooping cough, usually as tincture (1 in 5 dose 0.5 mL-2 mL). D naphthoquinones including plumbagin and droserone, which are irritating and antibacterial against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gramnegative organisms, fungi and protozoa (Leishmania, Plasmodium). Drosera burmannii Vahl, Drosera rotundifolia L., Drosera indica L., and Drosera peltata Sm. are of medicinal value in Southeast Asia. Not much is yet known about the pharmacological potential of the family Droseraceae.
Whether drugs with partial agonist activity confer any advantage is uncertain. Some of the evidence that patients with asthma tolerate beta-blockers is probably misleading, relating to patients with chronic obstructive airways disease who have irreversible changes and who do not respond to either bronchoconstricting or bronchodi-lating drugs (97). In contrast, a few patients who have never had asthma or chronic bronchitis develop severe
During the 1800s, marijuana was often used as a medicine in the United States. Although available without a prescription, it was also widely prescribed by physicians for a variety of ailments. In 1857, the Boston physician John Bell reported using marijuana to control mental and emotional disorders in the mentally ill. Three years later, the Ohio State Medical Society's Committee on Cannabis Indica claimed that its members had used marijuana to successfully treat pain, hemorrhage, hysteria, mania, whooping cough, infantile convulsions, asthma, gonorrhea, nervous rheumatism, chronic bronchitis, muscular spasms, tetanus, and epilepsy. It was also used to stimulate appetite.
People who smoke cannabis but not cigarettes rarely experience lung problems. Yet the potential for marijuana-induced pulmonary troubles remains. Conclusive proof of marijuana's negative impact on the lungs of humans will require decades of research. Inhaled particles, gases, and heat take time to create disease. Comparable challenges arose in the quest to prove that cigarettes caused lung problems, a task that required nearly 40 years of work. More people die from smoking tobacco than any other single cause. Tobacco smoke and cannabis smoke are very comparable, suggesting that the potential for both to contribute to lung disease is very high (Iversen, 2000). Widespread marijuana smoking did not appear in some countries until fairly recently. Many chronic cannabis smokers are still too young to experience severe pulmonary problems. Nevertheless, chronic users of cannabis do show adverse respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, wheezing, and bronchitis. They also show changes in
Current studies have found little evidence of marijuana-induced increases in respiratory illnesses. A review of a large sample of hospital records revealed that 36 of daily marijuana smokers saw a physician for colds, flu, or bronchitis in a six-year period. Only slightly fewer (33 ) of the nonsmokers sought treatment for these same problems (Polen, 1993). These data suggest that cannabis consumption does not create meaningful increases in the rates of respiratory illnesses. Nevertheless, other work reveals more symptoms of bronchitis, including chronic cough and phlegm production, in heavy marijuana smokers. A study of daily cannabis users who did not smoke cigarettes showed that they had a higher rate of these symptoms than nonsmokers. Tobacco smokers and people who smoked both substances showed more of these symptoms, too (Tashkin et al., 1987). Another study confirmed these results but found that people who smoked both tobacco and marijuana were more likely to develop bronchitis...
Effects Stimulates, energizes, and in high enough doses, produces a psychedelic effect similar to LSD. It contains the substance asarone, which is similar to mescaline and amphetamines, but may not create the feeling of tension that amphetamines do. It is used by some to treat such ailments as asthma, bronchitis, diarrhea, fever, hangover, headache, and toothache. According to James A. Duke, Ph.D., the root can kill lice when ground into a powder and applied to the infected area.
Vanceril is contraindicated for the relief of symptoms that can be controlled by a bronchodilator and other nonsteroidal medications and in the treatment of nonasthmatic bronchitis. The corticosteroids are used cautiously in patients with compromised immune systems, glaucoma, kidney or liver disease, convulsive disorders, or diabetes, those taking systemic corticosteroids, and during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category C) and lactation. Ketoconazole may increase plasma levels of budesonide and fluticasone.
Chlorotetracycline, an antibiotic with a broad spectrum of action, causes a bacteriostatic effect with respect to Gram-positive (staphylococci, including those that produce penicillinase streptococci, pneumococci clostridia, listeria, and anthrax bacillus) and Gram-negative microorganisms (gonococci, whooping cough bacillus, colon bacillus, enterobacteria, klebisella, salmonella, shigella), as well as Rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and spirochaeta. Blue-pus bacillus, proteus, serracia, most strains of Bacteroides fragilis, most fungi, and small viruses are resistant to this drug. It is used for pneumonia, bronchitis, empyema of the lungs, angina, cholecystitis, whooping cough, endocarditis, endometritis, intestinal infections, prostatitis, syphilis, gonorrhea, brucellosis, osteomyelitis, purulent infections of soft tissues, and others caused by microorganisms sensitive to this drug. Synonyms of this drug are aureomycin, biomycin, xanthomycin, and others.
The major adverse medical effects of cannabis include increased heart rate, orthostatic hypotension, and respiratory irritation (from smoked cannabis). Thus, medical screening should include evaluation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Individuals with a past or current condition that makes them less tolerant of increased heart rate (e.g., a cardiac arrhythmia, coronary artery disease), decreased blood pressure (e.g., history of syncope), or respiratory irritation (e.g., asthma, bronchitis) should be excluded.
German colloquial term for causing a good feeling. 2. German colloquial term for smoking hashish. 3. German colloquial term for taking drugs. Turnera Humifusa Turnera diffusa. Turnera aphrodisiaca Turnera diffusa. Turnera diffusa Damina The leaves were originally used as medicine by the indigenous cultures of Central America, particularly Mexico. Today the plant is found in hot, humid, climates including parts of Texas. It is used today as herbal mecdicne agaoinst depression and impotence. Damiana has been hailed as an aphrodisiac since ancient times, particularly by the native peoples of Mexico. Other folk uses have included asthma, bronchitis, neurosis, and various sexual disorders. It has also been promoted as a euphoria-inducing substance at various times. Most research has been done on the essential oil of damiana, which includes numerous small, fragrant substances called terpenes. As yet, it is unclear if the essential oil is truly the main active fraction of damiana....
In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized comparison of cefprozil, 500 mg bd for 5 days and clarithromycin 500 mg bd for 10 days in 295 subjects with an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, the most common adverse effects of clarithromycin were nausea (8 ), diarrhea (12 ), taste disturbance (8 ), and dry mouth (5 ) (172C).
Allium sativum (garlic, camphor of the poor, da suan, poor man's treacle, rustic treacle, stinking rose) contains a variety of amino acids and steroids, including ajoene, alliin, allicin, glutamyl-S-allylcysteine, and Traditionally it has been used as an antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, and stimulant and in the treatment of asthma, hoarseness, cough, difficulty in breathing, chronic bronchitis, leprosy, tubercular consumption, whooping-cough, worms, epilepsy, rheumatism, dropsy, and hysteria. In modern times it has been used as a hypolipidemic (2), although its effect is small (3).
Adverse gastrointestinal events are not uncommon during treatment with fluoroquinolones. There may be some dose-dependency, since with grepafloxacin 600 mg day the rates of the following adverse events were noticeably higher than with 400 mg day nausea (15 versus 11 ), vomiting (6 versus 1 ), and diarrhea (4 versus 3 ) (38). In a randomized, double-blind comparison of pruli-floxacin 600 mg day and ciprofloxacin 500 mg bd in 235 patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, the most common treatment-related adverse event was gastric pain of mild or moderate intensity, reported in 8.5 of the patients taking prulifloxacin and 6.8 of those taking ciprofloxacin (49).
Greater celandine was traditionally used to improve eyesight and in modern times has been used as a mild sedative, and antispasmodic in the treatment of bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, jaundice, gallstones, and gallbladder pain. The latex is used topically to treat warts, ringworm, and corns. A semisynthetic thiophosphate derivative of alkaloids from C. majus, called Ukrain, has cyto-toxic and cytostatic effects on tumor cells (1).
Thirty percent of the U.S. population smokes cigarettes and a small percentage in addition to that use pipes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. Regular use of tobacco causes heart disease, lung cancer, mouth cancer, emphysema, and bronchitis, and causes several hundred thousand deaths each year. Dependence on tobacco is partly due to the presence of nicotine, which produces slight changes in awareness and attention that some people find pleasing. Nicotine produces physical dependence. If smoking is abruptly stopped, the withdrawal from nicotine can cause
History The dried unripe fruit forms the condiment cubebs. Cubebs (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) consists of the dried unripe fully-grown fruit of Piper cubeba L. f. It was formerly employed as a urinary antiseptic (liquid extract 1 in 1 dose 2mL-4mL). Lozenges of cubebs have been used to treat bronchitis. Cubeb
Smoking marijuana is believed to have several dangerous effects on the respiratory system. Like tobacco smoke, cannabis smoke contains both tar carbon monoxide and carcinogens (Gold, 1994 Nahas and Latour, 1992). Unlike cigarettes, marijuana joints do not have filters, and smokers often inhale deeply and keep the smoke in their lungs for extended time to get the full euphoric effect. Marijuana smoke has about three times more tar and five to six times more carbon monoxide than cigarette smoke (Ashton, 1999 Janowsky et al., 1976 Walker et al, 1999 Wu et al., 1988). Chronic use of marijuana has been associated with worsening emphysema, bronchitis, airway obstruction and squamous cell metaplasia (Ashton, 1999 Nahas and Latour, 1992). Case reports of chronic marijuana users developing large lung bullae are also of potential concern (Johnson etal., 2000).