Most Effective Chlamydia Treatments
Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis occur in two forms, that is, trachomatis (chronic keratoconjunctivtis) and inclusive conjunctivitis. Trachoma is the most common cause of ocular morbidity and blindness (91). Inclusive keratoconjunctivitis is a sexually transmitted disease. It is a common cause of conjunctivitis in neonates. Infants are generally exposed to C. trachomatis from the infected cervix of mother. It is usually treated with antibiotics and if necessary they are administered systemically (94). Oral azithromycin is also recommended as a cost-effective means of controlling endemic trachoma (95,96). Novel vaccine delivery systems have also been evaluated for trachoma treatment (97).
- Cholera, relapsing fevers, rickettsioses, bubonic plague, leptospirosis, anthrax, endemic treponematoses, syphilis, chlamydial genital infections, atypical pneumonia brucellosis (in combination with streptomycin or rifampicin) - Tick-borne relapsing fever 5 days leptospirosis, chlamydial cervicitis, malaria 7 days anthrax, atypical pneumonia 7-10 days bubonic plague 10 days pelvic inflammatory disease, endemic treponematoses, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis 14 days onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis minimum 4 weeks brucellosis 6 weeks - Patients infected with C. trachomatis are often coinfected with N. gonorrhoeae. Therefore, all patients with chlamydia should receive an effective treatment for gonorrhoea.
Chloramphenicol is one of the older broad-spectrum antibiotics. It was introduced in 1948 and grew in popularity because of its high antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Rickettsiae, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma species. It is particularly useful in infections caused by Salmonella typhi and Haemophilus influenzae. It is mainly bacteriostatic. It readily crosses tissue barriers and diffuses rapidly into nearly all tissues and body fluids.
Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone that has enhanced affinity for topoisomerase. Compared with other fluoroquinolones, gemifloxacin was the most potent against penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant pneumo-cocci, methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (1,2). It has excellent activity against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis and is unaffected by beta-lactamases. It is generally twofold less active than ciprofloxacin against most Enterobacteriaceae (3). Atypical respiratory pathogens (Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia species) and Neisseria gonorrheae are highly susceptible (4).
Difranco et al. (1996), through the San Francisco Men's Health Study (SFMHS), evaluated in a 6-year follow-up study the association of specific recreational drugs and alcohol with laboratory predictors of AIDS. No association with progression to AIDS was observed for marijuana use. Wallace et al. (1998) examined risk factors and outcomes associated with identification of Aspergillus in respiratory specimens from individuals with HIV disease as part of a study to evaluate pulmonary complications of HIV infection. Cigarette and marijuana use was found not to be associated with Aspergillus respiratory infection. Persaud et al. (1999) conducted a cross-sectional survey among 124 street- and brothel-based female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana, to determine the seroprevalence of HIV infection and describe the sexual practices and drug use patterns. No statistically significant association was found between HIV infection and marijuana use. Miller and Goodridge (2000) evaluated...
To talk about health disparities, it helps to understand the long and short ends of the stick - put more directly, whites versus blacks. According to the Centers for Disease Control, African Americans die of just about every major disease at a higher rate than white Americans. The rate of gonorrhea is 24 times higher in the African American community than in the white community. Syphilis and chlamydia are 9 times higher in African Americans than whites. The disparity is actually increasing for chlamydia, as the rate of chlamydia infections is growing in African Americans at a faster rate than it is for whites, and it will come as little surprise that the highest rates appear in poor inner city neighborhoods. The majority of HIV cases and deaths are African Americans, while whites are below the nation's average. You name the health problem and African Americans are worse off than whites. Three of the top ten causes of death for African Americans are not even in the top ten for whites...
Diarrhea is the most frequent manifestation of gastrointestinal infection. Diarrhea is common in both the developed and developing world. Poor water quality and sewage disposal are the main factors for intestinal infections in the developing world, whereas the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and impaired host community owing to greater numbers of immunocompromised individuals are factors in the developed world. Symptoms of enteric infections are not limited to the gastrointestinal system, the respiratory system, nervous system eyes and skin may also be affected by microorganisms multiplying within the GI tract. For example infection by E. coli can result in kidney damage even so called simple GI infections can result in severe vomiting and diarrhea which in turn can lead to dehydration. Other examples of gastrointestinal infections include esophagitis from candidiasis gastritis from anisakiasis intestinal obstruction from tuberculosis, and proctitis from Chlamydia...
In 202 patients with unstable angina pectoris, roxithro-mycin prevented death and re-infarction for at least 6 months after initial treatment (11). However, these findings could not be confirmed in another study in 302 patients with coronary heart disease and a seropositive reaction to Chlamydia pneumoniae who were treated with azithromycin. While global tests of markers of
Ciprofloxacin possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action. It is highly effective against Gram-negative microorganisms, such as blue-pus bacillus, hemophilic and colon bacillus, shigella, salmonella, meningococci, gonococci, and a few forms of enterococci. It is also active with respect to many strains of staphylococci, camphylobacter, legionella, mycoplasma, chlamydia, and mycobacteria. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Clostridium difficile, and Nocardia asteroids are resistant to it. It is used for infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, biliary tract, infective-inflammatory diseases of the abdominal cavity and organs, pelvis minor, bones, joints, and skin.
The consequences of not providing adequate sex education are severe. In a 2005 survey of 16-18 year olds, it was revealed that 52 of them thought that chlamydia only affected women, 31 thought that sexually transmitted diseases could be caught from a toilet seat, 54 did not know that emergency contraception can be used up to 72 hours after sex to prevent pregnancy, and that approximately 30 of young men and 20 of young women did not know that sexually transmitted diseases could be transmitted by having oral sex. This indicates that all the progress society has made toward educating the public about sexually transmitted disease has been lost in a matter of years by dismantling the education system. This puts teens in immediate danger, since we know that many of them are going to have sex. We know they are learning about sex from movies, television and magazines, not their parents and teachers.
Tetracyclines are used in the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and as adjunctive treatment in severe acne. Tetracycline in combination with metron-idazole and bismuth subsalicylate is useful in treating Helicobacter pylori (a bacteria in the stomach that can cause peptic ulcer).