Natural Childbirth Options

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide!

Bump To Birth Summary

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Who Or What Killed Einstein

It might be a strange question to ask, but ask it nonetheless. Who or what killed Einstein What entity or force ended the life of perhaps the greatest mind of our era, that scientist whose name is synonymous with intelligence Well, it was clearly not a butler who did it, nor, as far as we know, was it an assassin belonging to some sinister governmental agency. To put it bluntly, it was the reality process which killed the great Einstein. Now, although this deceptively simple answer may seem reminiscent of a Woody Allen joke, what I mean to convey is that all of us, regardless of age, sex, race or creed, are born out of, and are destined to die, within a massive on-going process consisting not only of the evolution of life on Earth but the evolution of the Universe also. It is this relentless, all-encompassing, and outrageously complex process within which we are all so intimately embedded which we term 'reality'. We might also call such a process Nature. Thus, another obvious way of...

Totally Spent MDMA hangover

In the 1930s, scientists at Sandoz Pharmaceutical Company in Switzerland were developing medicines derived from ergot and discovered compounds that were useful in treating migraine headaches as well as in obstetrics. For instance, certain ergot compounds were found to hasten childbirth by increasing uterine contractions. These medicines, however, did not have hallucinogenic qualities.

The Origins Of Religion

As man emerged from his brutish past, thousands of years ago, there was a stage in the evolution of his awareness when the discovery of a mushroom (or was it a higher plant ) with miraculous properties was a revelation to him, a veritable detonator to his soul, arousing in him sentiments of awe and reverence, and gentleness and love, to the highest pitch of which mankind is capable, all those sentiments and virtues that mankind has ever sincc regarded as the highest attribute of his kind. It made him see what lhis perishing mortal eye cannot see What today is resolved into a mere drug, a tryptamine or lysergic aeidc derivative, was for him a prodigious miracde, inspiring in him poetry and philosophy and religion Out of a mere drug comes the ineffable, comes ecstasy. It is not the only instance in the history of humankind where the lowly has given birth to the divine '

Using Cannabis Who Where

Cannabis use in the USA typically begins in the mid to late teens, and is most prevalent in the early 20s (Bachman et al., 1997). Most cannabis use is intermittent and time-limited, with very few users engaging in daily cannabis use over a period of years (Bachman et al., 1997). In the USA and Australia, about 10 of those who ever use cannabis become daily users, and another 20 to 30 use weekly (Hall & Pacula, 2003). Cannabis use declines from the early and mid-20s to the early 30s, reflecting major role transitions in early adulthood (e.g. entering tertiary education, entering fulltime employment, marrying, and having children) (Anthony, 2006 Bachman et al., 1997). The largest decreases are seen in cannabis use among males and females after marriage, and especially after childbirth (Bachman et al., 1997 Chen & Kandel, 1995).

Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

There have also been two studies of the teratogenic potential of other penicillins. In the first study, in 791 women who had redeemed a prescription for pivampicil-lin during their first pregnancy, birth outcomes (malformations, pre-term delivery, and low birth weight) were matched with similar outcomes in 7472 reference pregnancies in which the mother had not redeemed any prescription for pivampicillin during pregnancy (319). There were no significant effects of pivampicillin. In the second study, in 78 women who took cefuroxime axetil during pregnancy, none of the 13 women who were treated in the first trimester gave birth to a malformed child, but one baby with hip dysplasia was found among 20 babies from mothers treated in their second trimester, and there was one case of hypospadias and one of imper-forate anus in 47 children of mothers treated in the third trimester (320). The authors correctly concluded that the number of patients who had taken cefuroxime in the first trimester...

Using Epidural Pain Management

This type of pain management is used for postoperative pain, labor pain, and cancer pain. The most serious adverse reaction associated with the administration of narcotics by the epidural route is respiratory depression. The patient may also experience sedation, confusion, nausea, pruritus, or urinary retention. Fentanyl is increasingly used as an alternative to morphine sulfate because patients experience fewer adverse reactions.

Cognitive development

American Medical Association titled Cognitive and Motor Outcomes of Cocaine-Exposed Infants. The researchers compared the cognitive (mental) and motor development (the use of large and small muscle groups) of 415 infants who were exposed to cocaine before birth to nonexposed infants. The study, which followed the infants from birth until age two, found that prenatal cocaine exposure affects a child's cognitive development but not motor development.

Johnson cit pp 301318 140Stacs 22P 132

The categories in the above typology allow for a difference in intensity or level within the mystical experience. The question arises as to when an experience ceases to be defined as mystical. Stace has classified experiences which do not have all the core characteristics of either the introvertive or extrovertive types as atypical or borderline.150 Laski in her study of what she calls transcendent ecstasy includes aesthetic experiences in art, poetry, music, drama, and nature creative experiences in writing or scientific work and certain sexual and childbirth experiences as well as the commonly termed religious or mystical experiences. Some of her criteria are the same as our categories, but the breadth of her characteristics lead3 her to include experiences in which all our categories would not be represented.15* Such experiences

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs

Most of those studies were performed with relatively small numbers of pregnancies four studies report on larger numbers. Hallberg (2005) summarized the data available from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, which gives information on 4291 children born to mothers exposed to SSRIs (citalopram n 1696, fluoxetine n 574, paroxetine n 708, sertraline n 1067) in early pregnancy. The reported incidence of congenital malformations was 2.9 , which does not differ from the expected rate among unexposed infants. Malm (2005) performed a population-based study of 1782 women exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy, 1398 of them in the first trimester (citalopram n 554, fluoxetine n 525, fluvoxamine n 65, paroxetine n 152, sertraline n 118). Congenital malformations were not more common in the SSRI group when compared with the control group. Major malformations were more common in women exposed to fluoxetine in the first trimester, but

Spectre of Worldwide Famine

It's no wonder that some Central and South Americans hate America and want us out they see us as ignorant killers. For years, our government demanded the paraquat poisoning of their lands lands these farmers had grown cannabis on by law since 1545, when King Philip of Spain ordered it thrown throughout his empire to provide food, sails, rope, towels, sheets and shirts -as well as providing one of the people's most important medicines for fever, childbirth, epilepsy, and poultices for rheumatism - in short, one of the oldest livelihoods, medicines, food staples and relaxational pleasures.

Second Generation Effects Fertility

In a US study designed to determine whether fluoride affects human birth rate (18) the annual total fertility rate in women aged 10-49 years was calculated for 1970-88 in counties with water fluoride concentrations of at least 3 parts per million (ppm). For each region separately, the annual total fertility rate was tested by regression against the water fluoride content and socio-demographic co-variables. In most regions there was an association between increasing fluoride concentrations in drinking water and a falling total fertility rate. The study was based on population means rather than individual data, but there was no indication that the result was influenced by selection bias, inaccurate data, or inappropriate analytical methods. It does not necessarily follow that the effect of fluoride on fertility rate also applies to individual women, and that is a matter for further research.

Pharmaceutical interest

Uses In China, the wood of Caesa pinia sappan L. is used to heal wounds, stop hemorrhage and haemoptysis, regulate menses after childbirth, and soothe bruises. In Malaysia, the wood is used to expel impurities and to clean infected skin. A decoction of wood is used to stop haemoptysis and hemorrhage. In Vietnam, a decoction of about 15 g of wood is ingested daily to stop dysentery intestinal and uterine hemorrhage, heal wounds and furuncles, regulate menses, soothe contusion, and treat impetigo and leucorrhea. Externally Caesa pinia sappan L. is used as a shampoo.

Pregnancy Category None

Heroin is produced from morphine, and body chemistry converts a heroin dose back into morphine. Most users cannot detect a difference between those two substances. Depending on means of administration and the effect being measured, heroin is 1.5 to 8.0 times stronger than morphine and is used medically to suppress coughs and relieve pain in children and adults. One study of pain relief found heroin comparable to hydromorphone, a standard medication administered to fight severe pain. Physicians have judged heroin to be a safe anesthetic for use during childbirth, with no apparent ill effect on mother or child. The drug is also used to treat porphyria, a body chemistry disorder making people sensitive to light and occasionally making them violent. Heroin users of both genders have reported increased sexual activity upon starting the compound, with decline in that activity as usage continues. That sequence would be consistent with the drug at first reducing psychological anxiety, an...

Macrosolen cochichinensis Lour van Tieghem

Uses In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the leaves of Macrosolen cochichinensis (Lour.) Van Tieghem are used to make a tea-like drink, and the fruits are used to treat cough. In Malaysia, Macrosolen cochichinensis (Lour.) Van Tieghem is used to assuage headache, and to tighten the uterus after childbirth. To date, the pharmacological potential of Macrosolen cochichinensis (Lour.) Van Tieghem is undiscovered.

Family Hippocrateaceae A L de Jussieu 1811 nom conserv the Hippocratea Family

Pharmaceutical interest Hippocrateaceae are interesting because they produce sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids that will be worth assessing for their cytotoxic and other pharmacological potential. Hippocratea indica Willd., Salacia flavescens Kurz, Salacia grandiflora Kurz, Salacia macrophylla Bl. and Salacia prinoides (Willd.) DC. are medicinal in the Asia-Pacific. The roots of these plants are often used to promote menses and used to aid recovery from childbirth.

Pregnancy Category D

Additional vitamin K is recommended for pregnant women using mephobarbital as childbirth approaches, in order to reduce bleeding in the women and offspring. Mephobarbital can help reduce fetal pulse rate irregularity but has been found to cause birth defects, with the risk malformations increasing if other antiepileptic drugs are also used. The drug is found in breast milk of nursing mothers who use the substance. Additional scientific information may be found in

Placebocontrolled studies

A systematic review of the use of misoprostol for induction of labor has been published (14). The meta-analysis included all randomized clinical trials registered in the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. Vaginal mis-oprostol was associated with increased uterine hyperstimulation, both without fetal heart changes (RR 1.67 CI 1.30, 2.14) and with associated fetal heart rate changes (RR 1.45 CI 1.04, 2.04). There was also an increase in meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 1.38 CI 1.06,1.79).

Phenoxyacetic acid derivatives and chlorinated dibenzodioxins

Organic lead is much more rapidly absorbed than inorganic salts, by all routes, and is highly lipid-soluble, rapidly passing the blood-placenta barrier from 12 weeks onwards, and the fetal blood-brain barrier (Rabinowitz 1988). The effects on human reproduction are not unique. There have many unsubstantiated reports that women who worked in occupations with high lead exposure (white lead industries, potteries) had high miscarriage and stillbirth rates and gave birth to stunted, abnormal babies, but there are no epidemiological studies or case reports specifically on organic lead. It was a commonly held belief that lead was an abortifacient however, as lead is a cumulative poison and is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, it is potentially a reproductive hazard for men and women (Schardein 2000, Miller 1993, Manton 1992, Bornschein 1984, Barlow 1982, Scanlon 1975). There is no conclusive evidence to suggest that maternal exposure to lead is associated with an increased risk of...

Origins of the Drug

We should understand that America's drug war started roughly 100 years ago. Protestant missionaries in China and other religious groups joined with temperance organizations to convince Congress that drugs were evil and that drug users were dangerous, immoral people. On December 17,1914, the religious lobbyists got their version of sin outlawed in the Harrison Act. Until this federal law took effect, the nation had viewed drug use as a social and medical problem. Making possession of certain chemicals a federal crime was a radical change in policy.8 It did not solve the drug problem but it did give birth to unanticipated social damage. it is unlikely that the Congress in 1914 would have passed the Harrison Act if it had envisioned the gigantic federal and state law enforcement, prison, and treatment bureaucracies taxpayers carry on their backs today. ironically, those calling attention to the negative results of the unprecedented assumption of power by the federal government in 1914,...

Epigenetic Based Therapies

Heritable changes in gene function can occur without modifications to the DNA sequence itself. This area of study is known as epigenetics, a term that is sometimes used more broadly to describe the mechanisms involved in the development of an organism, such as gene silencing and imprinting. For decades the mechanism of heredity has appeared to be a relatively simple one that is coded and translated through the sequence of DNA. However, recent discoveries have highlighted how inherited changes in gene function can occur outside of this, through the modification of DNA or chromatin structures. These so-called epigenetic changes are present from birth to death and are involved in the first crucial steps that govern embryonic development, and also in influencing the expression or silencing of genes in epigenetic diseases. Researchers are now trying to understand how these epigenetic mechanisms interact with each other, how their disruption can lead to such conditions as cancer and mental...

Is The Reality Process Intelligent

Hoyle has suggested that life did not start in the turmoil of the soupy primeval oceans of the Earth as is commonly accepted. Hoyle argues instead that pre-life molecules and simple micro-organisms exist throughout the Universe amidst interstellar dust clouds and within the interior of comets and meteors. He bases this belief upon the known fact that comets contain the same proportion of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen as the Earth's biosphere and are therefore capable of giving birth to primitive replicating micro-organisms. Through their 'free lift', these micro-organisms come to be dispersed onto the planets which lie in the path of their cometary hosts. Since the Earth and indeed any planetary body is continuously bombarded with such cosmic bodies, it is only a matter of time before the micro-organisms and molecules surviving their trip find themselves in a sustainable environment in which to further evolve. Hoyle reckons this is how life started on Earth - from its being...

Physical description It is a

Uses In Malaysia, the roots of Coptosapelta tomentosa (Bl.) Val. ex K. Heyne are used to expel intestinal worms, to assuage colic, to combat fever, to heal syphilitic ulceration of the nose and to promote recovery from childbirth. The therapeutic potential of this plant remains unexplored.

Safety Issues of Phytomedicines in Pregnancy and Paediatrics

From an analysis of the literature some interesting aspects emerge (1) herbal consumption during pregnancy ranges from 7 to 45 , depending on the geographical area (2) the use of herbal products during pregnancy could be due to pre-existing conditions, to symptoms problems related to the new physiological state (nausea, vomiting, etc.), to prevent miscarriage or to prepare for childbirth (3) the important aspect of safe use should take into account that some plants are contraindicated (oxy-tocic and uterine-stimulating herbs, teratogenicity, effect on neonatal birth weight), may affect concurrent conditions such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia and may be dangerous for the newborn (some case reports of adverse reactions are reported) (4) herbal use in children is relatively common and on the rise (5) few data exist about the clinical evidence for effectiveness (6) most herbal products have not been subjected to rigorous clinical trials in children and a number of case reports...

Fentanyl And Its Analogues

Cut Heroin With Fentanyl

Fentanyl was introduced to the United States in 1968 by the Janssen Pharmaceutical Company and marketed under the trade name Sublimaze. Its primary purpose was for use as an intravenous anesthetic and analgesic. It is 100 times more potent than morphine in reducing pain, and its duration of action is only 30 minutes (compared to morphine, which lasts several hours). Over the years, fentanyl has proved to be an extremely useful drug, and to date, it is still widely used for surgeries, childbirth, pain associated with cancer and other diseases, and the treatment of trauma-related injuries. Although fentanyl solutions are often given intravenously, pill forms of the drug are also available. Sufentanil also known as Sufenta , it is extremely potent (2,000-4,000 times more potent than morphine), and is used for heart surgery and childbirth. Figure 7.3 The chemical structure of fentanyl and its illegal analogues alpha-methyl-fentanyl and 3-methyl-fentanyl are shown here. Fentanyl was...

Gomphandra quadrifida Bl Sleum var angustifolia King Sleum

Uses In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves of Gomphandra quadrifida (Bl.) Sleum. var. angustifolia (King) Sleum. is drunk to aid recovery from childbirth. The pharmacological potential of Gomphandra quadrifida (Bl.) Sleum. var. angustifolia (King) Sleum. remains unexplored til today.

Schefflera octophylla Lour Harms

Uses In China, Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms is used to soothe irritated skin, contusion and to treat athlete's foot. A decoction of the roots is used to treat flue, and a tincture is used to treat rheumatism. In Malaysia, a decoction of Schefflera heterophylla (Seem.) Harms is used to aid recovery from childbirth. In Vietnam, the bark and leaves are used to promote urination and the ashes of the plant are used to treat dropsy.

Fibraurea chloroleuca Miers

Uses In Indonesia, Fibraurea chloroleuca Miers is used to soothe inflamed eyes, remove blood from feces and to assuage headache. In Malaysia, the plant is used to aid recovery from childbirth, treat diabetes, and to heal ulcerated noses. The plant is used to produce a yellow dye.

Elephantopus scaber L

Elephantopus Scaber Uses

Uses In Burma, a decoction of the stems and leaves is drunk to regulate menses. In Malaysia, the scraping of the roots in betel quid is used to curb vomiting and the leaves are eaten as salad by Chinese. In Vietnam, the plant is used to promote urination and recovery from childbirth. A decoction of the entire plant is used to treat pulmonary diseases and to soothe inflamed parts. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat venereal diseases. In India, the plant is used to invigorate health, relieve the bowels from costiveness, assuage pain, soothe inflammation and to stimulate venereal desire. In the Philippines, the plant is used to combat fever and to promote urination. In Taiwan, the roots are used to assuage pain in the chest. In Indonesia, the roots pounded in water are used to treat leucorrhea and anemia. The plant is used to promote urination and to combat fever. In China, the plant is used to promote urination and to soothe inflammation.

Diethyltoluamide and icaridin

A mother in Africa who gave birth to a mentally retarded child had not only been using malarial prophylaxis (chloroquine), but also rubbing her arms and legs daily with a 25 DEET lotion (Schaefer 1992). Since DEET has neurotoxic properties and is absorbed through the skin, the authors cannot entirely eliminate a causal connection. However, there are no further reports on toxic effects oil prenatal development.

Aganosma marginata Roxb G

Uses A number of plants classified under the genus Aganosma are used to invigorate the body, promote urination and combat fever in the Asia-Pacific. In Malaysia, a decoction of the roots of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is drunk to combat fever, regulate menses, promote urination and aid recovery from childbirth. In India, Aganosma dichotoma K. Schum. is emetic, anthelmintic, and useful for treating bronchitis, leprosy, and diseases of the mouth. The flowers are used for treating eyes diseases and biliousness. Aganosma calycina A. DC. is heaty, used as a tonic to treat bile and blood disorders. In Thailand, an infusion of the leaves, flowers and fruits of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is drunk to treat flatulence and to promote urination. The plant is used to combat fever. The therapeutic potential of Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don is still yet to be discovered.

Letter from President Washington

Relics discovered in ancient pyramids indicate that Egyptian physicians prescribed medical marijuana for childbirth. The first recorded evidence of medical marijuana use appeared over 4,700 years ago in the pharmacopoeia of Shen Nung, one of the fathers of Chinese medicine. In Persia 2,700 years ago, the prophet Zoroaster wrote a sacred text listing 10,000 medicinal plants, with medical marijuana at the top

Hedyotis capitellata Wall ex G

Uses In Malaysia, a paste of Hedyotis capitellata Wall. ex G. Don. is used to counteract snake-poisoning, heal broken bones and to soothe inflammation. A decoction of the roots is used to invigorate health and to promote digestion. A decoction of the whole plant is used to treat colic, assuage heartburn, treat dysentery and lumbago, and to promote recovery from childbirth.

Coleus scutellarioides L Benth

Uses In Indonesia, the juice extracted from the leaves is drunk believing to threaten abortion. A decoction is used to heal hemorrhoids, promote menses, expel impurities after childbirth, and to soothe inflamed eyes. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves or the juice extracted from the leaves is drunk to stop flatulence, to treat congestion of the liver, to assuage heart and liver pain, to treat smallpox, to soothe swollen parts and to induce vomiting. In the Philippines, a paste of leaves is used to assuage headache and to soothe bruises. In Vietnam, the plant is pectoral.

Alyxia stellata Forst Roem et Schult

Uses In Indonesia, Alyxia stellata (Forst.) Roem. et Schult. is used to give flavor to medicinal mixtures, promote digestion, and stop spasms, flatulence and diarrhea. In Malaysia, the dried bark is placed among clothes to perfume them. The leaves are mixed with onions and cooked in a plantain leave to offer an internal remedy for thrush. The plant is used to promote digestion, and to treat shingles as well as sterility associated with irregular menses. A decoction of leaves is drunk to treat leucorrhea and to stop dysentery. A decoction of roots is drunk to aid recovery from childbirth. An infusion of either the bark and leaves or flowers and leaves is used to treat gonorrhea and to stop dysentery. The plant is also used to calm the mind, combat fever, treat dimness of vision, heal buboes and burn, and assuage pain of bones. In Vietnam, a number of plants classified under the genus Alyxia are burned as incense, as well as to assuage headache. Alyxia stellata (Forst.) Roem. et Schult....

Rauvolfia serpentina Benth

Uses The roots of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. have been used in Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times to expel intestinal worms, heal ulcers and to counteract snake-poisoning. A decoction of the roots is used to increase uterine contraction in childbirth. In Konkan, the roots mixed with Aristolochia indica L. are chewed to treat cholera. The roots mixed with 2 parts of root bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb.) Wall. and 3 parts of Jatropha curcas and milk is drunk to treat colic. A mixture consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees, ginger and black salt is used to combat fever. In Bombay, most of the laborers from the southern Konkan keep a small amount of roots of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. to assuage painful discomfort of the bowels, such as colic, biliousness, cholera, dysentery and intestinal worms. The plant has been used in Western medicine to combat fever, calm the mind and to aid abortion. Rauwolfia (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) consists of the dried roots of...

Hyperthyroidism and thyrostatics

Carefully adjusted thyrostatic therapy with antithyroid medications is unlikely to lead to fetal goiter in pregnancy. Earlier goiter-caused obstructions of the airways and interference with the birth process were described as a result of therapy with thyrostatics, in combination, to some degree, with high levels of iodine or with thyroid hormones.

Belamcanda chinensis L DC

Uses In China, the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is used to combat fever, promote urination and menses, expel impurities, relieve the bowels of costiveness, treat tonsillitis, laryngitis, asthma, gonorrhea, alleviate cough, and to assuage stomachache, spleen and liver discomfort. In Malaysia, a decoction of 10 g of the rhizome is used to promote menses, to treat mumps and to soothe sore throat. A decoction of the roots and leaves is used in baths after childbirth. In Vietnam, a decoction of 10g-20g of the rhizomes is to alleviate cough, soothe sore throat, treat tonsillitis, laryngitis, pertusis, mastitis, combat fever, regulate menses and urination, and to counteract snake poisoning.

Parameria laevigata Juss Moldenke

Uses In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke is used to treat fever, rheumatism, renal diseases, to promote digestion, and to stop dysentery. In Malaysia and Indonesia, a decoction of the bark is used to tighten the uterus after childbirth and to counteract putrefaction of the skin. In the Philippines, Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke is used to counteract putrefaction of the skin, to resolve inflammation, to soothe itchiness, promote menses and to treat skin diseases.

Classical Mandrake Prescriptions

Recreational Drugs America

The surgeon Sushrula listed over 760 plant drugs, including anesthetics, poisons, naicotics and spices. Licorice and pepper were his favorite medicines mangoes, myrobolans, peppers and datura were his aphrodisiacs of choice. He was the world's first plastic, surgeon, rebuilding noses cut off as punishment for adultejy. Sushruta fumigated operating rooms with aromatic herbs and used deadly nightshade, Indian hemp and datura to induce stupor. Snakeroot (Rauwctfia serpentina), from which modern chemists extract the tranquilizer reserpiite, was prescribed for fever, snakebite, cholera, difficult childbirth and moon madness, or lunacy.

Understanding Scorpions

On the average, a female gives birth to about 25 to 40 (5D4+20) young. They remain on her back until they molt for the first time, which is usually within a week or two after birth. Once they climb down, they assume an independent existence, and periodically molt to reach adulthood. Typically 5 or 6 molts over 2 to 6 years are required for the scorpion to reach maturity. Adult scorpions range in size from .5 to 9 in length.

Cyrtandra pendula Ridl

Uses In Malaysia, a poultice of Didymocarpus crinitus Jack is used to heal wounds. The roots are used to promote recovery from childbirth. The medicinal property of Didymocarpus crinitus Jack has yet to be confirmed. Uses In Malaysia, Cyrtandrapendula Ridl. is used to aid recovery from childbirth and to combat fever. The therapeutic potential of Cyrtandra pendula Ridl. remains unexplored.

Acacia farnesiana L Willd

Uses In Burma, a paste of the root is used to expel parasites. In Indonesia, the plant is used to induce vomiting. In Malaysia, an infusion of the flowers and leaves is drunk to aid recovery from childbirth. The pounded roots are applied to the swollen parts. In the Philippines, a decoction of the bark is used to treat a prolapsed rectum and leucorrhea. A decoction of the leaves is used to heal ulcers and wounds. In Vietnam, the crushed leaves are applied to heal ulcers and to soothe inflammation. In India, the gum is used to stimulate venereal desire and the bark is used to heal ulcers and to soothe inflammation. Cassie perfume is distilled from the flowers.

Cyrtandra cupulata Ridl

Uses In Malaysia, Cyrtandra cupulata Ridl. is used to promote recovery from childbirth and to combat fever. The Orang Asli people drink a decoction of the roots to prevent further pregnancies. This remedy is only effective after childbirth. The decoction is drunk for several days following birth, and it is said to permanently prevent further pregnancies.

Borderline Psychotic States And Endogenous Psychoses

Then the LSD sessions moved into the perinatal realm and Milada experienced the entire spectrum of experiences characteristic of the death-rebirth process. The emotions and physical sensations associated with the reliving of her difficult birth, during which her twin brother had died, were so abysmal that she referred to these sessions as a psychological Hiroshima. When she finally completed the birth process and experienced the final ego death, 1 expected a marked improvement, as was the case in most neurotic patients. However, to my great surprise I witnessed a sudden and complete reappearance of the original psychotic symptomatology, which Milada had not shown for many months. The only difference was that this time 1 became the main target of all the psychotic phenomena in the process of LSD psychotherapy she had developed a transference psychosis.

Family Loranthaceae A L de Jussieu 1808 nom conserv the Mistletoe Family

Pharmaceutical interest A common example of Loranthaceae is Viscum album L. (mistletoe) which is used as a decoration during Christmas and has long been used by Celtic shamans. The berries of this plant contain a series of toxic amines and proteins which cause gastroenteritis if eaten in large quantities. Note that a number of the plants classified within the family Loranthaceae are used to strengthen the uterus after childbirth and that Phoradendron serot-inum (American mistletoe) were long used by North American Indians as oxy-totic agents, namely in arresting postpartum hemorrhages. About 20 species of the plants classified within the family Loranthaceae are used for medicinal purposes in the Asia-Pacific. One may have noticed that many of these medicinal plants are used to check post-partum hemorrhages, promote the secretion of milk, soothe the pregnant uterus and to make tea-like drinks. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on the family Loranthaceae...

Deatf and Rebirtl in Santo Daime

When I came back to my body, I felt something moving in my stomach. I had a vision of millions of larvae cracking open their eggs. I felt a deep, joyful pain as I gave birth to myself. Gradually, I became aware of the room. I opened my eyes feeling refreshed and as full of life as a newborn.

Epidosin compositum Butobarbital

And grand mal seizures, which last a few minutes and result in a loss of consciousness and involuntary contraction of all the muscles of the body. No organic cause can be determined for the disorder in most cases, but seizures can result from birth injury or high fever, alcohol withdrawal, tumors, and head injuries. Drug therapy includes the use of such anticonvulsants as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine. Brain surgery to remove the damaged cells is most successful in infants and young children. Epilil Phenobarbital. Epilol Phenobarbital. Epilunal Phenobarbital. Epimor Morphine hydrochloride. Epimorph Morphine sulfate. Epinelbon Nitrazepam. Epiphantine Phenobarbital. Epipropane 1. Amfetamine sulfate and Phenobarbital magnesium. 2. Amfetamine. Episedal Phenobarbital. Episindrome 1. Metamfetamine hydrochlo-ride and Phenobarbital. 2. Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. Epistil Phenobarbital.

Entada phaseoloides L Merr

Uses In Burma, the seeds of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. are used to treat fever. In China, the seeds are used to heal hemorrhoids. In Indonesia, the roasted seeds are used to expel impurities after childbirth, assuage stomachache, and induce vomiting. The juice expressed from the stems is used to stop dysentery. In India, the seeds are used to aid recovery from childbirth, soothe inflammation, assuage pain in the loins and induce vomiting. In Malaysia, the pods are burned and the ash obtained is applied to the abdomen to treat internal discomfort. Pieces of sun-dried bark are macerated in water and the liquid obtained is used to wash the hair, heal wounds, and treat ptyriasis and irritated skin. In the Philippines, a decoction of the roots is used to reduce abdomen rigidity. The seeds are pulped and applied to the abdomen to assuage colic. An infusion of the bark is used to treat infected skin. In Vietnam, the seeds are used to counteract poison, and to induce stupor and vomiting.

Medicinal And Poisonous Plants Of Southern And Eastern Africa 1962

Cannabis sativa The Mfengu use the leaf as a snake-bite remedy and the Xhosa as part of the treatment for bots in the horse. The 'oil' from a dagga pipe has been used as an external application by European 'cancer curers' and others. In Southern Rhodesia the African uses the plant, among others, as a remedy for malaria, blackwater fever, blood-poisoning, anthrax and dysentery, and as a 'war-medicine'. The Sotho administer the ground-up seed with bread or mealie-pap to children during weaning. Sotho women smoke cannabis to stupefy themselves during childbirth Speight is of the opinion that the Hottentot not only used the plant as a snake-bite remedy but also for centuries as an intoxicant.

Changes In The Content Of Psychedelic Sessions

In our research in Prague, the content of psychodynamic sessions tended to proceed, by and large, from reliving traumatic memories of a psychological nature to memories of serious diseases, operations, and accidents. This should be understood in statistical terms, as a trend in a large number of patients it does not mean that this development is absolutely linear or that it is mandatory for every single individual or every treatment situation. At a certain stage of their LSD treatment, many patients moved from conflicts, problems, and memories of emotionally relevant events to reliving situations that had endangered their survival or bodily integrity. Biologically threatening events and severe psychological traumas in early infancy seem to represent a thematic link between the biographical level and the perinatal level of the unconscious. Since there is usually considerable experiential overlap between these two realms, the transition may be gradual and almost imperceptible. Thus,...

Cordia dichotoma Forst f

Cordia Dichotoma Forst

Uses In Burma, the bark of Cordia dichotoma Forst. f is used to treat catarrh and the fruit is used to cool. In Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines, the powdered seeds are used to treat skin eruptions. In Indonesia, the juice extracted from the leaves is used to lower the body temperature. A decoction of the stems is used to aid recovery from childbirth and to assuage bowels discomfort. In the Philippines, the bark is used to maturate boils and to soothe swollen parts.

Luffa acutangula Roxb

Uses In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the seeds are eaten to induce vomiting, stop hiccups, and relieve the bowels of costiveness. A paste made from the leaves is used to treat zona. In India, the berries are used to treat fever, expel worms from intestines, and cure biliousness, asthma, and bronchitis. In Indonesia, the leaves are used to treat fever. In Malaysia, the juice is used after childbirth.

Casearia grewiaefolia Vent

Uses In Cambodia, a decoction of the bark is drunk to invigorate health after childbirth. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on this plant will disclose any cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes such as casearvestrins reported Casearia sylvestris (Oberties NH etal., 2002).

Flacourtia rukam Zoll

Uses The ripe berries of Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. are acid and astringent, but rubbing them between the hands bruises the flesh and renders it sweet and palatable. In Indonesia, the sap expressed from young shoots is used to wash the eyes. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the berries is ingested to stop diarrhea and dysentery. The sap expressed from the leaves is applied to inflamed eyelids. The powdered dried leaves are used to heal wounds. In the Philippines, a decoction of the roots is drunk to invigorate health after childbirth. The pharmacological properties of Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. are unknown til to date.

Carpesium abrotanoides L

Uses The plant is a source of an aromatic resin known as ngai camphor. In China, Taiwan and Japan, ngai camphor is used to combat fever, treat flatulence, promote expectoration and to counteract putrefaction. In Indonesia, the leaves are used to promote urination and to invigorate health. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat beriberi, lumbago, rheumatism and to promote recovery from childbirth. The crushed leaves are used to check bleeding, to heal wounds and to assuage headache. In Vietnam, a decoction of 6g-12g of leaves is drunk to treat coryza and influenza, combat fever, alleviate cough and to promote digestion. A poultice of leaves is used to heal hemorrhoids and an alcoholic extracts is used to treat rheumatism.

Therapeutic Mechanisms On The Transpersonal Level

In one of her LSD sessions, Tanya was experiencing suffocation, congestion and pressure on her head in the context of the birth experience. She recognized that some of these sensations bore a close resemblance to the symptoms associated with her sinus problems however, they were greatly amplified. After many sequences that were clearly of a perinatal nature, the experience opened fully into a reliving of what appeared to be a past-incarnation memory. In this context, the experiences of oppression, choking and congestion that had earlier been part of the birth trauma became symptoms of drowning. Tanya felt that she was tied to a slanted board and was slowly being pushed under water by a group of villagers. After dramatic emotional abreaction associated with screaming, violent choking, coughing, and profuse secretion of enormous amounts of thick, greenish nasal discharge, she was able to recognize the place, circumstances and protagonists. Flora's first two high-dose LSD sessions were...

Perinatal Experiences

It is not quite clear at the present stage of research how the above experiences are related to the circumstances of the individual's actual biological birth. Some LSD subjects refer to them as reliving of their birth trauma, others do not make this explicit link and conceptualize their encounter with death and rebirth in purely symbolic, philosophical, and spiritual terms. However, even in this latter group perinatal experiences are quite regularly accompanied by a complex of physical symptoms that can best be interpreted as a derivative of biological birth. Most of the rich and complex content of the LSD sessions reflecting this level of the unconscious seems to fall into four typical clusters or experiential patterns. Searching for a simple, logical and natural conceptualization of this observation, I was struck by the astonishing parallels between these patterns and the clinical stages of delivery. It proved very useful for didactic purposes, theoretical considerations, and the...

Marijuana Medicine in 19th Century America

* Doses given during the 19th Century to American infants, children, youth, adults, women in childbirth, and senior citizens, in one day, were, in many cases, equal to what a current moderate-to-heavy American marijuana user probably consumes in a month or two, using U.S. government's 1983 guidelines for comparison.

Mommy Whats a stem cell

Another fine point that the public is unaware of is that the live birth rate per frozen IVF embryo transfer is only 24 . This is probably because embryos do not survive the thaw or because, despite the fact that they are frozen, they still degrade over time. This phenomenon is well known to scientists who work with frozen animal embryos, but seems to escape the public debate. If conservatives really think that embryos should be considered human lives, then they should also be against the entire IVF practice, especially the practice of freezing embryos, because it is not medically necessary and results in some embryos dying during the process. The reason for freezing embryos is that it prevents women from having to go through multiple invasive procedures to harvest their eggs.

Herbs Commonly Used during Pregnancy

Chamomile is traditionally used as a mild sedative and against digestive problems, but excessive use in pregnancy should be avoided 31 . Echinacea is often used prophylactically against the common cold for its antiviral and antibacterial properties 34 . The majority of the available studies report positive results, but there is not enough evidence to recommend its use during pregnancy 35 . Cranberry is used to prevent and treat urinary tract infections, even if there is no conclusive evidence to recommend its use 36 . In addition, specific herbs are traditionally used to prevent miscarriage or to prepare for childbirth at the end of pregnancy due to their potential uterine-stimulating properties. Wild yam and lobelia are reputed to prevent miscarriage 28 . Blue cohosh is thought to increase efficiency of contractions in labour 18 attributable to caulosaponin. Raspberry leaf is frequently ingested by women in the third trimester as it is thought to tone the uterus in preparation for...

Ayahuasca Shamanism In The Amazon

The anthropologist Geraldo Reichel-Dolmatoff, who spent a lifetime among the indigenous people of Columbia, Peru, and Bolivia, recorded several stories in which the discovery of yage or ayahuasca is bound up with the origin myth of the people. The Tukano people of the Vaupes region of Columbia say that the first people came from the sky in a serpent canoe, and Father Sun had promised them a magical drink that would connect them with the radiant powers of the heavens. While the men were in the House of the Waters, attempting to make this drink, the first woman went into the forest to give birth. She came back with a boy radiating golden light, whose body she rubbed with leaves. This luminous boy-child was the vine, and each of the men cut off a piece of this living being that became his piece of the vine lineage. In a variation of this myth from the Desana, the serpent canoe came from the Milky Way, bringing a man, a woman, and three plants for the people cassava,...

Eleusine indica L Gaertn f

Uses In Malaysia, the juice expressed from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. f is used to promote menses after childbirth, to treat encephalitis, heat stroke, malaria, uterus and rectum prolapse, leucorrhea and dysentery. In the Philippines, a decoction of the fresh plant is drunk to promote urination and to treat dysentery. In Vietnam, a decoction of 60g-100g of this herb is drunk to assuage liver discomfort, stomachache, promote urination, treat influenza and to lower blood pressure. In Cambodia, the whole plant is used to combat fever. The therapeutic potential of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. remains unexplored. Note that Eleusine species are known to produce flavonoids such as vitexin and tricin (Hilu KW etal., 1978).

Radiation associated with the nuclear industry

Data from birth registration documents for all singleton live births (248 097) and stillbirths (3715) in Cumbria between 1950 and 1989 were analyzed. Within this cohort, the 9078 live births and 130 stillbirths to partners of male radiation workers employed at Sellafield were identified, A significant positive association was found between the risk of a baby being stillborn and the father's total exposure to external ionizing radiation before conception. There was a higher risk for stillbirths with congenital anomalies (nine stillbirths with neural tube defects). Although the possibility of an unmeasured risk factor for stillbirth being confounded with

Longterm Changes In The Personality Structure Worldview And Hierarchy Of Basic Values

Perinatal experiences have a much more fundamental and uniform impact on the LSD subjects. The insights that occur in this profound confrontation with the extremes of human experience can drastically change one's perception of oneself and of the world, and result in an entirely new strategy of existence. In this process, many individuals realize that the inauthenticity of their life is not limited to certain biographically determined partial distortions, such as lack of confidence and poor self-image, chronic problems with authority figures, or difficulties with sexual partners. They suddenly see that their entire concept of existence and approach to it had been contaminated by a deep, unconscious fear of death. A strong need to prove oneself, a chronic sense of dissatisfaction and inadequacy, exaggerated ambitions, tendencies to compare and compete, feelings of pressure and lack of time, and the rat-race or treadmill type di existence that were previously considered intrinsic and...

What Is Lsd Introduction

Members of the community that produced this book have altogether ingested LSD on approximately four thousand occasions in every life situation imaginable. This amounts to a depth and variety of LSD experimentation that no other research venture has approximated. The conclusion of this experimentation is that the LSD experience reactivates the space-time reality and sense-perception awareness of childhood, infancy, and interuterine existence. Moreover, the degree to which an LSD user's experience is traumatic is the degree to which the user experienced trauma while in the womb, during birth, and in early childhood. Presently, humans' dominant relationship with the environment has been determined by a culture based on the nuclear family, a social system of competition that has its foundation in infancy. This system is wasteful, polluting, and sensually brutalizing. The only way, short of an apocalypse, to change this system isby establishing communities of people who share everything,...

Pethidin Zwischenprodukt C Pethidine intermediate C

A synthetic opioid. used to alleviate both acute and chronic pain. It is an opioid, and thus its effects on the body resemble those of opium or morphine, one of opium's purified constituents. A common trade name for meperidine is Demerol. The drug acts principally on the central nervous system and on the neural elements of the bowel. It can be administered orally, in liquid or tablet form, or by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Its effects are felt within 15 minutes and last from 3 to 5 hours. Meperidine commonly is used to relieve pain during childbirth, although it may slow the respiratory rate of both mother and infant. Other side effects include drowsiness, light-headedness, dryness of the mouth, weakness, and nausea. The drug is also highly addictive. Nevertheless, its side effects tend to be less severe than those of morphine, making it a preferable choice in many instances. Pethidine hydrochloride C15H21NO2 HCl. Synthetic substance under international control according...

The Health Effects Of Chronic Cannabis

The effects of long term cannabis smoking on respiratory function are less clear (Tashkin et al., 2002 Tetrault et al., 2007). A longitudinal study (Taylor et al., 2002 Taylor et al., 2000) of respiratory function in 1037 New Zealand youths followed from birth until the age of 21 (Taylor et al., 2000) and 26 (Taylor et al., 2002) found that cannabis-dependent subjects had impaired respiratory function. But this finding has not been replicated in a longer follow-up study of Tashkin's cohort (Tashkin et al., 2002).

Injectable anesthetics

Kctamine (Ketalar) is a fast-acting anesthetic agent that has a good analgcsic effect and little effect on respiration. There are no epidemiologic studies in man evaluating its possible effects on fetal development. Due to its enhancement of sympathomimetic sensitivity. ketamine administration can be associated with marked cardiovascular effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. Ketamine increases the uterine tone and the frequency of uterine contractions in a dose-related fashion (Krissel 1994). High doses may depress fetal functions and hence distort fetal monitoring during parturition (Baraka 1990, Reich 1989). Use of ketamine during cesarean section has in several cases led to clinically important panic disorders, which restricts its use during birth. In addition, neonatal behavioral alterations, including reduction in sucking,

Dendrophthoe pentandra L

Uses In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the leaves of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. are used to make a tea-like drink used to treat cough. In Malaysia, Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is used as a remedy to and recovery from childbirth, and to heal sores, wounds and ulcers. The pharmacological potential of this plant is yet to be discovered.

Cymbopogon citratus DC Stapf

Uses In the Asia-Pacific the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are often used in aromatic baths to resolve swelling, as a perfume, to promote blood circulation, treat skin diseases, heal ulcers and sores. In China, the plant is used to invigorate health, promote digestion, treat asthma, cough, cold, and to clear the voice. In Malaysia, the plant is used to promote urination and to promote recovery from childbirth, and it is believed that diamonds can be found below the roots. In the Palau Islands, the plant is used to combat fever. In the Philippines, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf is used to promote urination. Asians living in UK use this plant to promote sweating, to invigorate health and to improve digestion.

Epidural Administration Of Opiates

Stephanie Smith Marijuana

Side effects such as sedation, slowed breathing, and reduced blood pressure often result when opiates are given by mouth or by injection. However, in certain situations, such as during childbirth, the patient needs to be alert and responsive and to have proper functioning of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems while at the same time being relieved of severe pain. To allow this to occur, physicians often use a technique called epidural anesthesia. With the patient lying on his or her side, a needle is carefully inserted between the vertebrae into the region immediately surrounding the spinal cord, called the epidural space. Then, a small amount of opiate drug (such as fentanyl or morphine) is injected into the epidural space through a syringe connected to some plastic tubing (Figure 3.6). The opiate drug then binds to mu opiate receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and inhibits the activity of nerve cells that transmit pain signals to the brain. The injection is...

Desogestrel Cerazette

Or after childbirth as of the 21st day, if the woman does not breastfeed - Breast-feeding it is recommended to wait 6 weeks after childbirth before starting desogestrel in breastfeeding women. However, if it is the only contraceptive method available or acceptable, it can be started 3 weeks after childbirth.

Illusion

Your eyes are there as an evolutionary adaptation (the earliest organisms did not have eyes). They help us to hunt for food, and water, and they help us to navigate. Everything else is done exclusively in the brain. So even if you have been blind from birth, if someone lets you touch an object and get a feel for it, and then says table, it is no different. The only difference is that you have a precise visual representation of what a table looks like when you look at it. If you have no eyes your mind will put together a best guess of what a table is based on what it knows or what someone tells it. So now you know what table is.

Male Sexual Health

Male sexual health was defined by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. The conferences expanded the right to family planning to include the right to better sexual and reproductive health. On the basis of the World Health Organization's definition of health, the Cairo Programme defines reproductive health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as...

Language

To us, we see that being born deaf-mute is a terrible affliction, and we pity them. But why My uncle's parents could not hear nor speak, yet they fell in love and gave birth to a child through love. It seems like there was an awful lot of communicating going on It's just that we can't understand because we are too busy talking. Sure they can communicate with sign language and the written word but the power of speech has been removed. Do you see Verbal language contains a certain energy that silent communication can never

Pregnancy Category C

Animal experiments apparently do not indicate butalbital's potential for causing birth defects, but a large study of human pregnancy outcomes found no link between the drug and birth defects. In one case when a pregnant woman using butalbital gave birth, the child experienced seizures identified as butalbital withdrawal symptoms. Those symptoms disappeared when the infant received another barbiturate on a gradually decreasing dose that weaned the child off the drug. Combination products. Fiorinal is a headache remedy that has had several formulations but is typically butalbital, aspirin, and caffeine. The product has been found useful for pain relief among women who have recently given birth, apparently more effective than propoxyphene. Also oral surgery patients have received good pain relief from Fiorinal and codeine. Fiorinal is known to produce a false positive for phenobarbital in body fluid testing. Abuse of the butalbital, aspirin, and caffeine (BAC) combination...

N lipophilic R

Takes about 40 minutes for a drug to reach an equilibrium across the placental membrane so that the fetus will be affected. Evidence of this can be seen if a mother is given a barbiturate during childbirth. When administered within 15-20 minutes of the actual birth, the baby will be awake and alert. However, if the sedative is administered 2-3 hours before actual birth, the newborn will be drowsy. This effect will last for 12 to 24 hours in the neonate.

Makin babies

While the use of assisted reproductive technology for becoming pregnant still represents a small minority of births, there are some concerns about more common procedures on the road to having children. For example, a recent study documented that cesarian section is now the most common procedure performed in hospitals. Approximately 30 of all births in the US are by cesarian section, costing an estimated 14.6 billion in total hospital charges and representing over 90 of overnight hospital stays. It is hard to come up with a precise number, but many medical professionals claim that most c-sections are not really medically necessary. The problem comes in the subjective definition of 'medically necessary.' There are reports that they reduce some complications during birth and thus reduce the number of law suits in the US, but that is not a good definition of necessary. The statistics are particularly disturbing because the cost of healthcare is skyrocketing, hospitals are often losing...

Benzodiazepines

Oral administration, diazepam is quickly absorbed and is primarily bound to plasma proteins. It is hydroxylated in the liver and metabolized to the still active desmethyldiazepam, which is excreted through the kidneys after glucuronidation. The half-life is between 1 and 2 days in newborns it is considerably longer bccause of the diminished clearance. Diazepam crosses the placenta easily. During birth, the concentration in the cord blood is up to three times the level in the maternal blood (Bakke 1982). Benzodiazepine therapy does not seem, according to the current state of knowledge, to have as high a teratogenic risk as the other anticonvulsants. However, the risk of functional disturbances in newborns is to be considered when benzodiazepines are used in high doses during the birth process, or when 15-20 mg is taken regularly over a prolonged period, including during the last trimester. On the one hand, respiratory depression must be expected after high doses prc-partum - for...

Fentanyl

Breathing hazard those opioid-naive patients often do not receive fentanyl. Nonetheless, it is sometimes used for childbirth, surgery, and dentistry and for persons suffering from lower back ache and pain in bones and joints. Physicians even give fentanyl to infants. Sufentanil (Schedule II, CAS Registry No. 56030-54-7, citrate form 60561-173) is a derivative of fentanyl used for pain control and anesthesia. It is 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine and is used to knock out wild animals. The drug takes effect faster than fentanyl but lasts a shorter time. Sufentanil can lower heart rate and blood pressure, create muscle rigidity, and cause typical unwanted opioid effects such as itching and vomiting. At normal doses su-fentanil can halt breathing, so medical personnel stand by to provide respiration assistance when they administer the drug. Laboratory and animal experiments indicate no potential for causing cancer. Tests with rats and rabbits did not produce birth defects....

Hydromorphone

In general the drug fails to produce birth defects, but some did appear when pregnant hamsters received 600 times the normal human dose. The potential for malformations is unknown among infants from pregnant women who use the drug in a medical context. Infants can be born with dependence if the mother has used hydromorphone during pregnancy. The drug is used to ease childbirth. Whether the substance passes into a nursing mother's milk is unknown but is considered safe for the infant.

How low can you go

Many environmental factors can cause mutations that can be inherited. What's more, we now know that pregnant women, when exposed to environmental factors, can give birth to children with a wide array of birth defects without causing mutations. These factors are affecting the expression of genes in the fetus without changing the genes themselves. We still know very little about how the environment affects the expression of genes, so this was a pretty ingenious thought for scientists who had not yet discovered Mendel's work on inheritance. Remember when scientists came up with this idea, they did not know about genes, DNA being the inherited material or about mutations, so they were actually doing pretty well. The problems came when the ideas were actually applied to humans.

Marijuana

Records indicate that marijuana was used medically in Africa long before it became popular as an intoxicant. Texts from Egypt dating to the 1900s B.c. show that it was used to treat sore eyes. Marijuana was used in other parts of Africa as an antiseptic and to restore appetite and relieve hemorrhoidal pain. Other medical uses for marijuana included the treatment of tetanus, rabies, convulsion in infants, nervous disorders, cholera, rheumatism, hay fever, asthma, skin diseases, and difficult labor during childbirth.

Meperidine

This drug has been used since the 1930s for easing pain in many conditions, including migraine headaches, surgery, gallbladder attack, sickle cell anemia crisis, childbirth, and emergency treatment of injury on mountaineering expeditions. The drug is also used to manage porphyria, a body chemistry disorder that can make a person extremely sensitive to light and that can include violent outbursts. The substance is used to bring persons out of a PCP psychosis. Experimental usage of meperidine and dextroamphetamine together has reduced symptoms of mental depression, but the test was too brief to measure how long benefits might continue. Oral meperidine dosage can partly numb a person's mucous membranes, and the drug is used as one element of general and local anesthesia. The substance has a calming action but is not considered to be a sleep inducer at medical dosage levels. Upon prolonged usage the calming action can be replaced by depression and uneasiness. Depending on specifics...

Folic acid

For the protective action of folic acid against open neural tube defects to be effective, supplementation with 0.4-0.8 mg folic acid per day should begin as early as possible when a pregnancy is planned, and be continued throughout the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. Pregnant women should also be encouraged to consume foods high in folate, such as green leafy vegetables, and fruit. If the mother has already given birth to a child with a neural tube defect (i.e. has a recurrent risk), the supplementary dosage should be 4-5 mg per day. This is also suggested in connection with the intake of certain medications with a folic acid antagonist action. Folic acid deficiency anemia should be treated in the usual way during pregnancy.

Opiates

Severe withdrawal symptoms beginning, for the most part, within 24-72 hours postpartum, such as respiratory distress, hyperirri-tability, tremor, diarrhea, vomiting, disturbances in the sleep-wake rhythm, and, to some extent, therapy-resistant seizures, can quickly lead to death if they arc not treated (Boobis 1986). In 10 of the children, the occurrence of seizures and other withdrawal symptoms are delayed up to 10-36 days after birth. The risk of life-threatening withdrawal symptoms is particularly high when the mother's dependency is unknown and careful monitoring and phenobarbital prophylaxis are not started in time. Whether or not exclusive breastfeeding from birth onwards can minimize the withdrawal symptoms by passing opiates to the infant via the milk and should therefore be recommended is controversial - particularly if it does not involve controlled methadone withdrawal in the mother without further additional drug abuse, see also Chapter 4.16.

Oxymorphone

Birth defects appeared after experimenters gave pregnant hamsters 1,500 times the recommended human dose. Effects on human pregnancy are unknown. The drug can influence fetal heartbeat if used in childbirth. Oxymorphone has been found effective for easing pain after caesarean section.

Tenderness

Let's just put all this down to good old history. Let's just say it was an evolutionary plus point for men to be violent and aggressive, after all, the human brain was only in its infancy, and we had to fend off predators and other males who had designs on our women folk. We had more muscle than the women, whose task it was to give birth to and rear offspring, so we took up the task of protecting our family, and were prepared to use whatever force necessary to do it.

Epidemiological Data

Four hundred women who gave birth at Ulleval University Hospital of Oslo (Norway) were interviewed about the use of herbal products. One hundred forty-four women (36 ) had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy, in total 249 products containing 46 different herbs. The most commonly used herbs were Echinacea, iron-rich herbs, ginger, chamomile and cranberry. The proportion of use increased throughout the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Approximately 40 of the women had used herbal products that were considered possibly harmful or without any information about safety in pregnancy. Only 11.8 of the women had been recommended herbal use by healthcare providers 23 .

Canthium horridum Bl

Uses In Indonesia, Canthium horridum Bl. is used to soothe inflamed eyes. In Malaysia, it is used to heal wounds, soothe inflamed eyes, and to promote recovery from childbirth. In the Philippines, a decoction of the leaves and the bark is drunk to promote menses. In Vietnam, the bark and the young stems are used to treat dysentery. It would be interesting researching whether Canthium horridum Bl. has any pharmaceutical potential.

Pethidine meperidine

The safety and efficacy of the different strategies for labor analgesia have been discussed extensively in the literature during the last decade. There arc reports claiming that systemically administered pethidine (and other opioids) lack analgesic effectiveness for labor pain, but serve primarily to sedate the mother and, inadvertently, the neonate (Reynolds 1997, Olofsson 1996). Other strategies discussed include paracervical block, spinal blockade and epidural analgesia with local anesthetics or opioids. Combinations of epidural with parenteral analgesia and of epidural with spinal analgesia are also used (Eberle 1996). Epidural analgesia seems to be very effective in reducing pain during labor, but may also have some adverse effects.

Mesua ferrea L

Uses In Burma, the flowers of Mesua ferrea L. are used to make an astringent tea and the leaves are used externally to counteract snake-poison. In Malaysia, a bath with these flowers is taken to invigorate health after childbirth. In Indonesia, the pounded seeds or the oil expressed from the seeds are used externally to heal wounds and to treat skin infection.

Anergia Anergy

He administered ether to a patient having a neck tumour removed at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, in October 1846. Crawford Long, an American surgeon, had used ether in his practice since 1842 but did not make his findings public until 1849. A few weeks after Morton's demonstration, ether was used during a leg amputation performed by Robert Liston at University College Hospital, London. In Britain, official royal sanction was given to anesthetics by Queen Victoria, who accepted chloroform from her physician, John Snow, when giving birth to her eighth child, Prince Leopold, in 1853. Early anesthetics had unpleasant side effects (often causing vomiting on recovery) and were somewhat hazardous, since the dose needed to produce unconsciousness and full muscle relaxation (so that the surgeon could work unimpeded) was not far short of that which would paralyze the breathing centre of the brain. In addition, the early anesthetics were administered by simple devices consisting of...

Nitrous Oxide

Fertility is lower in female rats exposed to nitrous oxide than in rats having no exposure. Lower fertility has also been observed among female health care workers with occupational exposure to the gas, and reduced fertility is also reported for males. Offspring of male mice exposed to nitrous oxide have weighed less than normal and have not matured as fast as normal. Birth defects resulted from an experiment exposing pregnant rats to the gas for 24 hours. When given to pregnant women during childbirth the drug builds up in the fetal blood and brain one authority recommends administering oxygen to any newborn whose mother received nitrous oxide while giving birth. As the twenty-first century began researchers reported that the gas might cause permanent fetal and newborn brain damage, a finding in contrast to previous understanding of the drug. Occupational exposure to nitrous oxide is associated with smaller infants and lower birth weight and may increase likelihood of...

Reproductive stages

Primordial germ cells arc present in the embiyo at about 1 month after the first day of the last menstruation. They originate from the yolksac-entoderm outside the embtyo. and migrate into the undifferentiated primordia of gonads located at the medio-ventral surface of the urogenital ridges. They subsequently differentiate into oogonia and oocytes, or into spermatogonia. The oocytes in postnatal life are at an arrested stage of the meiotic division. This division is restarted much later after birth, shortly before ovulation, and is finalized after fertilization with the expulsion of the polar bodies. Thus, all-female germ cells develop prcnatally and no germ cells are formed afterbirth. Moreover, during a female lifespan approximately 400 oocytes undergo ovulation. All these facts make it possible to state that an 8-weeks' pregnant mother of an unborn female is already prepared to be a grandmother

Acorus calamus L

Uses The rhizome of Acorus calamus L. has been used since ancient times to promote appetite and digestion, to invigorate health and to stop spasms and flatulence. Ibn Sina called this herb waj and Dioskurides aKopov. A description of Acorus calamus L. is given in the Theatrum Botanicum of J. Parkinson (1640). The rhizome has since been listed in a number of Western Pharmacopoeia and Codices. Calamus (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) has been used to promote appetite and digestion in the form of an infusion (1 to 10 of boiling water dose of 15mL-30mL) or tincture (1 in 5 dose of 2 mL-4 mL). The volatile oil is used in perfumery. In the Asia-Pacific, the rhizome is principally used to invigorate health, soothe inflammation and to treat skin infection and lumbago. In China, it is used to combat fever, to stop spasms and to treat anxiety. The juice expressed from the rhizome is used externally to heal buboes, carbuncles, treat deafness and to soothe inflamed eyes. In Indonesia, the...

Mazindol

The drug's influence on fetal development is unestablished. Whether the drug passes into milk of nursing mothers is unknown. Doses that kill female rats while pregnant or after giving birth can leave males and non-pregnant females unscathed. Whether such findings mean that pregnancy increases human sensitivity to the drug is unknown.

Physical description

Uses In China, the leaves are used to invigorate health, treat flatulence, heal ulcers, curb vomiting, remove nasal polyps and to cure hiccups. The seeds are used to assuage eyes discomfort and to heal ulcers. In Indonesia, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is used to alleviate cough. A decoction is used to aid recovery from childbirth, promote menses and to combat fever. The seeds are used to combat fever. In Vietnam, the plant is used in perfume making, to invigorate health, treat dysentery and to combat fever. The ashes of the roots are used to treat skin diseases. Ocimum basilicum L. is listed in the French Pharmacopoeia, 1989 and known of Dioskurides as mki ov.

History

Due to the rampant medical and recreational consumption of cannabis by the 19th century, the Indian government solicited an investigation of the use of the hemp plant. After hearing testimony from numerous witnesses, including medical officers and private native medical practitioners, the resulting report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission of 1893-1894 (Commission, 1969) concluded Cannabis indica must be looked upon as one of the most important drugs of Indian Materia Medica. Although the drug was prescribed for a large number of medical afflictions, the report stated that one of the commonest uses is for the relief of pain including toothache, labor pain, dysmenorrhoea, neuralgia, stomach pain, headache, cramps, and neuralgia. The results of such investigations were often positive, and approximately between 1840 and 1900, cannabis became quite popular with Western physicians. Around 1854, hemp products began to appear in drug catalogs in the United States. In 1860, a report by the...

Alcohol ethanol

Prenatal damage as a result of chronic alcoholism comes about primarily because of the direct action of ethanol or acetaldehyde on the fetus. The exact damaging mechanism is not understood. There is no doubt that the FAS risk for the baby is correlated with the severity of the mother's alcoholism. Although the damaging effect of alcohol is different in the various phases of pregnancy, it is by no means limited to the first trimester. Acetaldehyde has been discussed as being possibly more relevant than alcohol because its kinetic varies more, depending on individual metabolism, than does the kinetic of alcohol itself. This could explain why only some heavy drinkers give birth to children with FAS. Since some FAS features are also characteristic of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, it has been speculated (and supported by some experimental results) that the inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase caused by acetaldehyde also contributes to the alcohol damage (Hard 2000). Maternal...