Caregiver Training Courses

Caregiver Training Ebooks

The caregiver training e-book gives a training course on how to provideassistance to another person who is ill, disabled or needs help with daily activities. It can also serve as a useful guide to the individuals in the need of help. The product deals in physical, mental, social, and psychological needs and well-being of both the caregivers and the elderly person requiring care. Everyone needs a little help from time to time and while many seniors lean on the friends and family members for support, there may be some instances in which it's necessary to seek additional assistance or long-term care which was why this product was created by the author. This caregiver product is a practical guide created by the author who is an expert in the field. This product embeds in it several training sections in which each section gives detailed information on how to provide assistance to people who are ill, disabled, or aged. This product is a trusted and 100% guarantee to provide the necessary details needed in caring for the physically challenged, aged and ill individuals. The product is also an essential overview of issues from Alzheimer's to diabetes to strokes. More here...

Caregiver Training Ebooks Summary


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The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this e-book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Designated primary caregivers

Patients who are unable or unwilling to grow their own Cannabis may, under the OMMA, enlist the assistance of a designated primary caregiver (DPC). If a designated primary caregiver is used, the patient must also submit that person's name, address, date of birth, and copy of photo identification with the application materials. A designated primary caregiver may be added on (or removed) at any time during the year, at either party's discretion. Whenever a designated primary caregiver arrangement is agreed upon or terminated, the Oregon Health Division's Medical Marijuana Program staff should be notified in writing. Patients should expect to have this transaction confirmed by program staff. (There are instances where failure to notify the Division of a change in cardholder status has resulted in searches and inconvenience for registrants.) Also, any time a designated caregiver (or patient) changes their address, the Oregon Health Division should be notified. If the address growing...

Administration Of Drugs In The Home

Many times drugs are not administered by the nurse but in the home setting by the patient or family members serving as caregivers. When this is the case, it is important that the patient or caregivers understand the treatment regimen and are given an opportunity to ask questions concerning the drug therapy, such as why the drug was prescribed, how to administer the drug, and adverse reactions of the drug (see Chap. 5 for information concerning patient and family education). The Home Care Checklist Administering Drugs Safely in the Home gives some guidelines to follow when drugs are administered in the home by the patient or caregiver, rather than by the nurse.

What the New State Laws Do

Each of the 11 states allows patients to grow, possess, and use medical marijuana if approved by a medical doctor.14 Patients may also be assisted by a caregiver, who is authorized to help the patient grow, acquire, or consume medical marijuana. Further, physicians are immune from liability for discussing or recommending medical marijuana in accordance with the law. To qualify for protection under the law, patients must have documentation verifying they have been diagnosed with a specified serious illness. Most states require a statement of approval signed by the patients physician, but some permit a patients pertinent medical records to serve as valid documentation. To help law enforcement identify qualifying patients, some states have implemented formal state registry programs that issue identification cards to registered patients and their caregivers. Regardless of whether patients grow their own, get it from a caregiver, or buy it from the criminal market, a patient in possession...

Residential Treatment

Teenagers, and sometimes even younger children, go to residential facilities when their behavior becomes unsafe and their caregivers are not able to help them maintain their safety. Residential living for behaviorally disordered children and adolescents generally focuses on teaching effective ways of managing their emotions before they act out in dangerous ways, helping them further their education, and teaching them skills that will enable them to return to home as soon as possible.

Home Care Checklist

In some situations, narcotic analgesics may be ordered for pain relief using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). If the patient will be receiving PCA at home, the nurse makes sure to review the following steps with the patient and the caregiver If the patient or caregiver will be responsible for changing the drug cartridge or syringe, the nurse teaches the following steps Gather new syringe with drug (if refrigerated, remove it at least 30 minutes before using). Attach pump specific tubing to the drug. Prime the tubing.

Pregnancy Category None

Medical caregivers emphasize the importance of victims honestly describing circumstances of a butane injury so that their lung condition will be properly examined in detail. Caregivers also emphasize that a person who experiences seemingly minor burns in a butane explosion should always seek immediate medical examination of the lungs, because breathing distress may not occur until several days later, when successful treatment is less likely.

Valuable Patient Services And Activist Resources

We're expanding services to the medical cannabis community. We've updated our website, adding more information and more ways to get involved than ever before. Each week, we answer hundreds of legal questions from patients and caregivers through our toll-free hotline. ASA also provides training and information to thousands of advocates, patients, doctors, and attorneys through education programs and specialized trainings.

W Hemp Chronicles

Now, I'm fairly certain this wouldn't include every person willing to become a caregiver, yet, in my dealings with the largest medical marijuana association here in Michigan, it is precisely this notion that is being promoted. Somehow, the patient and their needs have gotten lost in the rush for profit and, I find this appalling and reprehensible.

Pregnancy Category C

In former times chloral hydrate was routinely administered to produce anesthesia, but such use is tricky the difference between an effective dose and a poisonous one is so close that the drug has been replaced by other substances for human anesthesia, although chloral hydrate is still used for that purpose in animals. The substance has been largely superseded by barbiturates but still has medical applications as a sedative and to induce sleep. Chloral hydrate is also used to treat seizures caused by fever and is a secondary choice for controlling the seizures of status epilepticus (an emergency in which persons keep having epileptic seizures, one after another, with little or no letup). Medical caregivers sometimes administer chloral hydrate to help withdrawal from heroin and GHB dependence and to help alcohol addicts withstand delirium tremens during withdrawal. The famed Mickey Finn drug used by criminals to knock out victims was a combination of chloral hydrate and alcohol, but...

The Marijuana license cards

Once the application has been verified as accurate and complete it is approved. When the 150 fee has been received the Oregon Health Division issues and mails a numbered certificate and a laminated wallet card to the patient, and any caregiver. These documents contain application information for any and all registrants. The laminated wallet card has two sides. The Oregon Seal is on the front, along with the name and address of the patient or caregiver (whichever person the card is issued to). The Oregon Health Division's telephone number and the date of issue and expiration also appear, as does the card number, printed in red. The back of the patient's card has the corresponding information for the designated primary caregiver (if there is one). The name, address and date of birth of the caregiver is printed underneath the words Oregon Health Division Medical Marijuana Program. Once again, it is critical that the address of the caregiver match the location of the Cannabis grow since...

Possession limits and legal behaviors

Registration in the Medical Marijuana Program allows patients to grow up to seven Cannabis plants. It allows the caregiver to grow seven plants if the patient is not growing. There is some ambiguity regarding Cannabis grown at more than one location but in general as long as the number of plants between one patient caregiver group does not exceed seven, the parties are protected. The law allows growers to flower up to 3 plants at a time and possess up to one ounce of dried (i.e. usable) Cannabis for each flowering plant. Patients may exceed the seven-plant limit if they obtain written documentation from the physician affirming that the greater amount is medically necessary. The Oregon Attorney General's Guidelines also state that the law allows more than seven plants and recommends that the patient's physician would need to agree that the greater allowance is legitimate. Unfortunately the OMMA does not clearly spell out a medical method for patients to establish greater need. Proving...

Putting a Stop to Waste in Washington DC

In response to ongoing federal raids on medical cannabis dispensaries and growers in California and other states, DPA stepped up our efforts to advance common-sense cannabis policy in the halls of Congress. DPA fought back against these wasteful federal raids with the Hinchey-Rohrabacher-Farr-Paul amendment. The law would have prohibited the use of federal tax dollars to pay for Drug Enforcement Administration raids on patients and caregivers in states with medical marijuana laws. Though our legislation ultimately failed, we identified new allies on both sides of the aisle and laid a foundation for our future efforts to get this important bill passed. We are confident next year's Congress will present a more favorable climate for legislation that brings a needed measure of compassion to our federal marijuana laws.

Educating the Patient and Family

The patient with AD may understand and comprehend the extent and severity of this disease early on in the disease process, but as cognitive abilities decrease, the nurse will focus on educating the family and major care-giver of the patient. Depending on the degree of cognitive decline, the nurse will discuss the drug regimen with the patient, family member, and or caregiver. It is important for the nurse to accurately evaluate the patient's ability to assume responsibility for taking drugs at home. The administration of drugs to the patient with AD becomes a family responsibility if the outpatient appears to be unable to manage his or her own drug therapy. The nurse explains any adverse reactions that may occur with a specific antipsychotic drug and encourages the caregiver or family members to contact the primary health care provider immediately if a serious drug reaction occurs.

Federal Schedule Listing Unlisted

Ether is highly flammable, and various regulations govern medical usage to reduce chances of ignition. These rules even control types of clothing worn by caregivers and types of linen used on carts, lest a static electricity spark create an explosion. Ether vapor is heavier than air and can accumulate in depressions such as the area of a pillow around a patient's head, making ignition all the more catastrophic. Stories are told of ether drinkers being killed when lighting a tobacco pipe or while indulging too close to an open flame. Even releasing ether fumes from the mouth toward a lit fireplace was considered a hazard to avoid, lest ether ignition flash back and down a person's throat.

How to Monitor Your Progress

Role as provider or caregiver may no longer be the same. This may lead to distress if your partner felt satisfaction with your previous level of functioning. Make sure you communicate with your partner and family about the changes you notice and how those changes may affect your relationship with them.

Pregnancy Category X

Flurazepam has become one of the most common benzodiazepine class compounds in medical use around the globe. One reason for its popularity is flurazepam's high therapeutic index, meaning the dose needed for medical action is much smaller than a fatal dose, making accidental poisoning unlikely. Caregivers mainly use this long-acting drug to help people sleep, and it has been used experimentally to reduce sleepwalking.

Understanding and using the affirmative defense

The exception from criminal laws provides a safety net over Cannabis-using patients and caregivers who grow Cannabis for these patients. Some patients refuse to participate in the Medical Marijuana Program for various reasons. These include fear and distrust of government, philosophical objections to intrusive drug laws or inability to pay the fee ( 150 in 2000.) The affirmative defense was written to include these people. Essentially, the affirmative defense has two parts. The first allows patients to escape criminal conviction if they meet all of the Medical Marijuana Program provisions, but are not registered. This defense still requires that a physician has previously diagnosed the patient as having a medical condition that qualifies under OMMA and has also advised the patient that marijuana may help .

Gerontologie Alert

The nurse gives metformin two or three times a day with meals. If the patient has not experienced a response in 4 weeks using the maximum dose of metformin, the primary care giver may add an oral sulfonylurea while continuing metformin at the maximum dose. Glucophage XR (metformin extended release) is administered once daily with the evening meal.

A qualified right to cultivate and use

Proposition 215, The Compassionate Use Act of 1996, passed by more than 56 of the vote, allowing doctors to authorize patients and primary caregivers to grow or use cannabis legally. The measure does not limit personal amounts of cannabis that can be grown or possessed, nor did it authorize the legislature or any other entity to set such a limit. It did not legalize sales. HS 11362.5(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no physician in this state shall be punished, or denied any right or privilege, for having recommended marijuana to a patient for medical purposes. relating to the cultivation of marijuana, shall not apply to a patient, or to a patient's primary caregiver, who possesses or cultivates marijuana for the personal medical purposes of the patient upon the written or oral recommendation or approval of a physician. California Health and Safety Code The rule should be that the quantity possessed by the patient or the primary caregiver, and the form and manner in...

CA Supreme Court Mower Decision

A defendant moving to set aside an indictment or information prior to trial based on his or her status as a qualified patient or primary caregiver may proceed under Penal Code section 995. I n the absence of reasonable or probable cause to believe that a defendant is guilty of possession or cultivation of marijuana, in view of his or her status as a qualified patient or primary caregiver, the grand jury or the magistrate should not indict or commit the defendant in the first place, but instead should bring the prosecution to an end at that point. I n light of its language and purpose, section 11362.5(d) must be interpreted to allow a defense at trial. As a result of the enactment of section 11362.5(d), the possession and cultivation of marijuana is no more criminal so long as its conditions are satisfied than the possession and acquisition of any prescription drug with a physician's prescription. the provision renders possession and cultivation of marijuana noncriminal under the...

Preadministration Assessment

Before starting therapy for the hospitalized patient, the nurse obtains a complete psychiatric and medical history. With AD, patients often are unable to give a reliable history of their illness. A family member or primary caregiver will be able to verify or give information needed for an accurate assessment. During the time the history is taken, the nurse observes the patient for any behavior patterns that appear to be deviations from normal. Examples of deviations include poor eye contact, failure to answer questions completely, inappropriate answers to questions, a monotone speech pattern, and inappropriate laughter, sadness, or crying. These patients are in varying stages of decline. Display 33-1 identifies the stages of AD and the associated clinical manifestations. The nurse documents the patient's cognitive ability using Display 33-1 as a guide.

Appendix L State Medical Marijuana Legislation Considered 20052006

H.F. 2151 and S.F. 488 would remove criminal penalties and threat of arrest for patients who grow, possess, and use medical marijuana. S.F. 1973 would remove criminal penalties and the threat of arrest for patients who acquire, possess, and use medical marijuana and for caregivers who grow marijuana for patients. As pending, would increase limits to six mature plants and 24 ounces of dried marijuana per patient or caregiver. However, the bill would eliminate the affirmative defense for going over these limits.

Creates limited immunity for sales

(c) A primary caregiver who receives compensation for actual expenses, including reasonable compensation incurred for services provided to an eligible qualified patient or person with an identification card to enable that person to use marijuana under this article, or for payment for out-of-pocket expenses incurred in providing those services, or both, shall not, on the sole basis of that fact, be subject to prosecution or punishment under Section 11359 or 11360. HS 11362.775. Qualified patients, persons with valid identification cards, and the designated primary caregivers of qualified patients and persons with identification cards, who associate within the State of California in order collectively or cooperatively to cultivate marijuana for medical purposes, shall not solely on the basis of that fact be subject to state criminal sanctions under 11357, 11358, 11359, 11360, 11366, 11366.5, or 11570.

Where to get Californias medicine The Appeals Court Peron Decision

Obtaining cannabis is one thing, and many patients grow their own supply. Buying and selling is a different matter. The problem is in receiving payment. Shortly after passage of Prop 215, the initiative's chief proponent, Dennis Peron, argued in Appeals Court that he had a right to sell it at his San Francisco dispensary. B ona fide primary caregivers for section 11362.5 patients should not be precluded from receiving bona fide reimbursement for their actual expense of cultivating and furnishing marijuana for the patient's approved medical treatment. Assuming responsibility for housing, health, or safety does not preclude the caregiver from charging the patient 59 Cal.App.4th 1400 for those services. A primary caregiver who consistently grows and supplies physician-approved or -prescribed medicinal marijuana for a section 11362.5 patient is serving a health need of the patient, and may seek reimbursement . We find no support in section 11362.5 for respondents' argument that sales of...

Variations on a collective or coop

While SB 420 recognized patient collectives, there is no clear definition in the law as to what it means to associate within the State of California in order collectively or cooperatively to cultivate marijuana for medical purposes, but courts and communities are recognizing a broad array of arrangements. In general terms it constitutes a group of qualified patients and caregivers working within a mutually agreed relationship as property holder, workers and patients who obtain cannabis. In some groups everything is voluntary, some have mandatory participation in the garden itself, and some have paid support staff. Some operate with no cash exchange while others operate as retail store front shops. Some provide delivery services. All require that the physician's authorization be verified. Most require written, rather than oral, approvals and prefer the state ID card. Most keep documents at garden and supply sites. Some seek the approval of a government agency, but more prefer to fly...

Appendix Q Model Bill

(e) State law should make a distinction between the medical and non-medical use of marijuana. Hence, the purpose of this act is to protect patients with debilitating medical conditions, and their practitioners and primary caregivers, from arrest and prosecution, criminal and other penalties, and property forfeiture if such patients engage in the medical use of marijuana. (f) Primary caregiver means a person who is at least 18 years old and who has agreed to assist with a person's medical use of marijuana. A primary caregiver may assist no more than five qualifying patients with their medical use of marijuana. (h) Registry identification card means a document issued by the department that identifies a person as a qualifying patient or primary caregiver. (b) A primary caregiver who has in his or her possession a registry identification card shall not be subject to arrest, prosecution, or penalty in any manner, or denied any right or privilege, including but not limited to civil penalty...

The relationship of the model bill and state law to federal law

Indeed, the medical marijuana laws that have been passed by voter initiatives in eight states and by three legislatures continue to provide effective legal protection for patients and their primary caregivers because they are carefully worded. MPP's model bill is based on those laws primarily the Rhode Island law, because it is the most recent medical marijuana law that received majority support among state legislators.

Six key principles for effective state medical marijuana laws

Provide legal protection for the primary caregivers of patients who are too ill to provide for their own medical use of marijuana (Sec. 4(a) and (b)) 4. provide a means of obtaining marijuana, which can only be done in the following four ways permit patients to cultivate their own marijuana permit primary caregivers to cultivate marijuana on behalf of patients permit patients or primary caregivers to purchase marijuana from the criminal market (which patients already do illegally) and or authorize nongovernmental organizations to cultivate and distribute marijuana to patients and their primary caregivers (Sec. 4(a), 4(b), and optional section) 5. allow patients and primary caregivers who are arrested in spite of state law to discuss the medical use of marijuana in court (Sec. 8) and 6. implement a series of sensible restrictions, such as prohibiting patients and primary caregivers from possessing large quantities of marijuana, prohibiting driving while under the influence of...

The importance of precisely worded state laws

Because the medical use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, state medical marijuana legislation must be worded precisely in order to provide patients and primary caregivers with legal protection under state law. Even changing just one or two words in the model bill can make it symbolic, rather than truly effective.

National compensation programs for vaccinerelated injuries

There are other compensation programs, for example in Japan, where the program covers damage caused by compulsory immunizations provisions include medical allowance, care giver's allowance, disability pension, and a funeral grant a national expert committee reviews applications.

Amounts of medical marijuana permitted

The model bill specifies that patients and caregivers who have registry ID cards may not be arrested for possessing up to 12 plants and two and one-half ounces of medical marijuana. For cases where those amounts are not sufficient to ensure that a patient has an adequate supply of his or her medicine, the model bill also has a defense that a patient and caregiver(s) can raise in court to be acquitted or have the charge dismissed. recognizes the need for more leeway for the serious ill based on SAN's analysis. California law currently allows 12 immature or six mature plants, and counties can enact higher limits. Several counties have done so, many of which have enacted SAN's 100-foot canopy recommendation including Del Norte, Sonoma, Humbolt, and Santa Cruz. The model bill thus protects patients and caregivers from arrest if they posses 12 or fewer plants, but it makes no distinction between immature and mature plants.

Epidemiological Data

The results of a survey conducted in a Pittsburgh paediatric emergency department showed that approx. 6 of the parents had ever given their children herbs 67 . In another survey of 142 families in an emergency department, 45 of caregivers reported giving their child an herbal product, mostly aloe, Echinacea and sweet oil

Optional provision in the model bill

Criticism that has been levied against the existing state medical marijuana laws is that they do not provide a way for patients to obtain a supply of marijuana beyond growing their own, obtaining the help of a caregiver, or purchasing marijuana from the criminal market. This provision authorizes nonprofit organizations to distribute medical marijuana legally under state law without directly involving state and local officials in marijuana distribution.

Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 8007930 Formal Names Atropa belladonna

Belladonna substances can ease premenstrual syndrome. They can reduce spasms in smooth muscles of the digestive tract, but they cause tremors or stiffness in other muscles. Heart rate is accelerated. Migraine headaches can lessen. An experiment showed that belladonna can reduce breathing abnormalities in infants. Some medical traditions have used belladonna for reducing sweat and other secretions and against tonsilitis, meningitis, scarlet fever, whooping cough, and epilepsy. At one time medical practitioners gave belladonna to fight Parkinson's disease and drug addiction, but those treatments have been superseded by others. Belladonna preparations have modern usage against vesico-ureteral reflux, a condition in which urine flows back toward the kidney from the bladder. Caregivers have administered belladonna to treat various pains, ranging from kidney stones to sore throat. Belladonna powders and cigarettes have been used against asthma. The natural product is considered effective...

United States v Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative

The Oakland Cannabis case upheld the federal government's power to enforce federal marijuana prohibitions without regard to a claim of medical necessity. Thus, while California (and other states) exempt certain medical marijuana users and their designated caregivers from state sanctions, these individuals remain subject to federal sanctions for marijuana use.

Drug Administration Drug formulations

During the mixing process, parenteral nutrition admixtures should be periodically agitated to check for precipitates. This check should be conducted both before and during the infusion. Patients and caregivers should be trained to inspect for signs of precipitation. They should also be trained to stop the infusion and seek medical assistance if precipitates are noted.

Gordon Farrell Ethridge

Response A There were dozens of known medical marijuana users arrested in California in the 1990s, which is what prompted people to launch the medical marijuana initiative there. There have been many other publicized and not-so-publicized cases across the United States. Even after Proposition 215 passed in November 1996, the federal government has continued to raid, arrest, and jail medical marijuana patients and caregivers. (See also Response B to Challenge 24.)

Medical And Behavioral Toxicity Overview

Several studies show an association between alcohol use abuse and spousal abuse however, the nature of this interaction was not well understood as of 2008. Intoxication is associated with negative behaviors among episodic drinkers, which are less common among steady drinkers, suggesting that drinking may be a short-term solution to problems for regular drinkers. Clearly, alcohol use is associated with physical violence in some families, and there also appears to be a link between alcohol and child abuse. Female caregivers with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, recurrent depression, or antisocial personality are more likely to report physical abuse of their children than those without these diagnoses (Bland & Orn, 1986).

Legislative History of Medical Cannabis in Oregon

Section 11357, relating to the possession of marijuana, and Section 11358, relating to the cultivation of marijuana, shall not apply to a patient, or to a patient's primary caregiver, who possesses or cultivates marijuana for the personal medical purposes of the patient upon written or oral recommendation or approval of a physician. (Section 1 (d) CCUA) The OMMA also permitted designated primary caregivers, who would be registered and protected, to grow Cannabis away from the patient's residence and transport Cannabis and plants to the patient. It also prohibited any state licensing board from disciplining a licensee for his or her compliance with the law. This language protected doctors, nurses, and anyone who received a license from the state. Lastly, the definition of who could be a designated primary caregiver was discussed at length. The Health Division's position was that the legally defined role of caregiver should encompass more than just growing Cannabis for the patient....

Understanding the Attorney Generals guidelines

The OMMA intended that registrants would be permitted to transport Cannabis and plants on Oregon's highways. (In fact, the OMMA intended to allow any designated primary caregiver to transport plants and usable Cannabis to any registered patient. Also, any registered patient may transport Cannabis and plants to any other registered patient. A patient may also transport plants and Cannabis to any registered caregiver. Thus, anyone who is registered in the State Health Division's Medical Marijuana Program, may transport plants and usable Cannabis to any other registrant as long as quantity limits are not exceeded.) In similar fashion the Guidelines muddle the issue of a designated primary caregiver who cares for multiple patients and who grows seven plants for each patient. Section 7 of the Act does not expressly state whether a different limit applies when one person is the primary caregiver for multiple patients. Under one interpretation, a primary...

The Patient Receiving a Cholinesterase Inhibitor for Mildto Moderate Dementia of Alzheimers Disease

Before starting therapy for the hospitalized patient, the nurse obtains a complete psychiatric and medical history. With AD, patients often are unable to give a reliable history of their illness. A family member or primary caregiver will be able to verify or give information needed for an accurate assessment. During the time the history is taken, the nurse observes the patient for any behavior patterns that appear to be deviations from normal. Examples of deviations include poor eye contact, failure to answer questions completely, inappropriate answers to questions, a monotone speech pattern, and inappropriate laughter, sadness, or crying. These patients are in varying stages of decline. Display 33-1 identifies the stages of AD and the associated clinical manifestations. The nurse documents the patient's cognitive ability using Display 33-1 as a guide. Weight loss and eating problems related to the inability to swallow are two major problems in the late stage of AD. These problems...

Table 4 Sinsemilla bud yields per square foot of garden canopy

Contrary to cannabis' reputation as a weed, it is not so easy to grow quality medicine. Not all gardens have ideal conditions and few patients are trained botanists. The NIDA field data has a solid scientific basis, but it does not reflect all the realities a patient or caregiver faces in obtaining medical-grade cannabis. It is reliable for a mature female garden grown in optimum conditions, but several key factors must be clarified Trained scientists maintain the NIDA garden. Most patients and caregivers are self-taught from books, may overlook serious problems until too late, and seldom have access to expert advice when needed.

CA Appeals Court Urziceanu Decision

T he Legislature also exempted those qualifying patients and primary caregivers who collectively or cooperatively cultivate marijuana for medical purposes from criminal sanctions for possession for sale, transportation or furnishing marijuana, maintaining a location for unlawfully selling, giving away, or using controlled substances, managing a location for the storage, distribution of any controlled substance for sale, and the laws declaring the use of property for these purposes a nuisance. This new law represents a dramatic change in the prohibitions on the use, distribution, and cultivation of marijuana for persons who are qualified patients or primary caregivers and fits the defense defendant attempted to present at trial. Its specific itemization of the marijuana sales law indicates it contemplates the formation and operation of medicinal marijuana cooperatives that would receive reimbursement for marijuana and the services provided in conjunction with the provision of that...

Local implementation is mandatory

To ensure that qualified patients, caregivers and collectives are protected all over the state, every county is required to implement the voluntary ID card system. HS 11362.71.(b) Every county health department, or the county's designee, shall do all of the following (1) Provide applications upon request to individuals seeking to (4) Utilize protocols developed by the department pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (d). (5) Issue identification cards developed by the department to approved applicants and designated primary caregivers.

Living within acceptable risks

This booklet is not a substitute for legal counsel. The issues discussed in it are either factual or subject to legal interpretation and changes in law. Before undertaking the cultivation or provi sion of medicinal cannabis, it is always a good idea to spend the time and money to talk with a knowledgeable attorney. Even if what a person is doing is legal under state law, there is risk. A patient can still be prosecuted in state court. Primary caregivers are especially at risk because supplying medicine may be charged as distribution. Anyone should be aware how serious the offense could be, how likely they are to be held criminal, and whether they can handle its consequences. In any drug case, the presence of a gun can often be used to add charges and increase sentences. If a case goes federal, a five-year mandatory sentence begins at 100 plants, and 10-years at 1000 plants, so it is important to balance legal rights against the ability to endure persecution.

Gonzales v Raich No 031454

The appeals court heard oral arguments on October 7, 2003. On December 16, 2003, the court issued an opinion reversing the U.S. district court decision and remanding Raich to the district court with instructions to enter a preliminary injunction, as sought by the patients and caregivers. The Ninth Circuit found that the appellants have demonstrated a strong likelihood of success on their claim that, as applied to them, the CSA Controlled Substances Act of 1970 is an unconstitutional exercise of Congress' Commerce Clause authority.

Plant tend harvest prepare and store

Grande Culture Cannabis

T he quantity possessed by the patient or the primary caregiver, and the form and manner in which it is possessed, should be reasonably related to the patient's current medical needs. Since different kinds of cannabis have distinct medicinal benefits, genetics are critical. Breeding is preferably done through selection from among very large numbers hundreds or even thousands of individual plants. The list below shows just a few of the ways cannabis is prepared or converted and utilized by patients, care-givers, collectives and cooperatives.

Drug Abuse

Drug abuse is an emotionally charged topic involving more than facts about pharmaceuticals. Personal and moral values are involved, as are fears that sometimes transform into anger. The author of this book has studied drug abuse questions since the 1980s visited with prosecutors, judges, and health care givers, along with drug abusers and their families drafted drug control legislation introduced by Republican and Democratic legislators testified before legislative committees and given public presentations. In all settings, facts have rapidly disappeared in discussion of the topic.

Deficient Knowledge

Adverse reactions, and the times and method of administration. At times, the patient may have a lack of knowledge about the disease condition. In these situations, the nurse addresses the specific deficient knowledge (ie, adverse reactions, disease process, method of administration, and so on) in words that the patient can understand. It is important for the nurse to first determine what information the patient is lacking and then plan a teaching session that directly pertains to the specific area of need. (See Chap. 5 for more information on patient education.) If the patient lacks the cognitive ability to learn the information concerning self-administration of drugs, then one or more of the caregivers should be taught to administer the proper treatment regimen.


Noncompliance is defined as behavior of the patient or caregiver that fails to coincide with the therapeutic plan agreed on by the patient and the health care provider. Patients are noncompliant for various reasons, such as a lack of information about the drug, the reason the drug is prescribed, or the expected or therapeutic results. Noncompliance also can be the result of anxiety or bothersome side effects. The nurse can relieve anxiety by allowing the patient to express feelings or concerns, by actively listening as the patient verbalizes feelings, and by providing information so that the patient can be fully informed about the drug. Many patients have a tendency to discontinue use of the drug once the symptoms have been relieved. It is important to emphasize the importance of completing the prescribed course of therapy. For example, failure to complete a course of antibiotic therapy may result in recurrence of the infection. To combat noncompliance the nurse finds out the exact...


Anxiety is a vague uneasiness or apprehension that manifests itself in varying degrees from expressions of concern regarding drug regimen to total lack of compliance with the drug regimen. When anxiety is high, the ability to focus on details is reduced. If the patient or caregiver is given information concerning the medication regimen during a high anxiety state, the patient may not remember the information. This could lead to noncompliance. The anxiety experienced during drug administration depends on the severity of the illness, the occurrence of adverse reactions, and the knowledge level of the patient. Anxiety is decreased with understanding of the therapeutic regimen. To decrease anxiety before discussing the treatment regimen with the patient, the nurse takes time to talk with and actively

Cognitive Domain

The cognitive domain refers to intellectual activities such as thought, recall, decision making, and drawing conclusions. In this domain the patient uses previous experiences, prior knowledge, and perceptions to give meaning to new information or to modify previous thinking. The nurse makes use of the patient's cognitive abilities when information is given to the patient or caregivers about the disease process, medication regimen, and adverse reactions. The patient uses the cognitive domain to process the information, ask questions, and make decisions.

The three defenses

There are three specific defenses written into the OMMA for use by Cannabis-using patients. These legal strategies are each distinct. Patients and caregivers should study them and prepare for the day when they may be needed before the officer knocks at the door. The three defenses are Patients and caregivers should clearly understand that OMMA DOES NOT provide any legal protection against federal laws that prohibit use and cultivation of Cannabis. Patients in many states are arrested and prosecuted under federal statutes. Federal prosecutors in Oregon have expressed no interest in locating and prosecuting patients who grow small amounts of Cannabis, but this posture could change at any time. Patients and caregivers should clearly understand this risk before deciding to participate in the Medical Marijuana Program.

The exception

Patients who are registered with the Medical Marijuana Program also have the legal protection of assigning caregiver responsibilities to another person, who is also registered with the Division. This designated primary caregiver may cultivate and transport Cannabis for the patient's benefit. Patients and caregivers enrolled in the Medical Marijuana Program should also clearly understand what they are NOT permitted to do. Neither party can sell Cannabis or divert it to others for non-medical use. A caregiver cannot use Cannabis unless registered as a patient as well. Quantity limits are also written into the law. A patient or caregiver may grow a total of seven (7) plants. 3 If patients are engaged in activity that is prohibited, like using Cannabis in a car or in public, they are breaking the law and may be prosecuted or lose their registry card. Patients and caregivers should also keep multiple copies of important papers in a safe place in case of contact with law-enforcement. They...


Nevada voters twice approved a constitutional amendment allowing the use of medical marijuana, most recently in November 2000 (with 65 of the vote). The amendment required the legislature to create implementing legislation for licensing patients and caregivers, which the legislature did in 2001 with A.B. 453, which established the states medical marijuana registry program. A.B. 453 originally intended for the state to grow and distribute medical marijuana to patients who are either unable or unwilling to grow their own. That provision was dropped, however, and the bill was amended to resemble Oregon's law.


2 The confusing language surrounding multiple patients or caregivers was compounded by the 1999 Oregon Legislature in an attempt to limit grow operations exceeding seven plants. Language was inserted which forbids the manufacture or production of marijuana at a place other than one address for property under the control of the patient and one address for property under the control of the primary caregiver (HB 3052 Section 5 (e)). But Section 5 (f) prohibits the production of marijuana at more than one address. An attempt to add language which would forbid any caregiver from registering for more than one patient was withdrawn.


Patient advocates estimate that at least 5,000 medical marijuana patients are utilizing the state law. However, there could be as many as 17,000 to 18,000 patients statewide, based on Oregon's mandatory registration system (which shows approximately 0.3 of the entire population using medical marijuana). Most patients grow their own medical marijuana, either alone or with the help of a caregiver. To assist those patients who cannot grow marijuana, a handful of patient cooperatives exist to verify patients' credentials, distribute marijuana, and provide related services. They do not, however, meet the state's strict definition of a caregiver. As a result, patient cooperatives have faced the threat of prosecution. The Green Cross Patient Co-op, located in West Seattle, stopped distributing medical marijuana after it received a cease and desist letter from the Seattle Police Department on July 27, 2001. Although Green Cross, which served about 1,500 patients, had been operating out of a...


Mothballs typically contain naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene. Neither persons who use mothballs recreationally nor their medical caregivers are always aware of which kind of mothballs have been used. Diaper pail and toilet deodorizers may contain one or the other of those chemicals. Naphthalene varieties look dry, and paradichlorobenzene products appear oily. Normally people inhale fumes, but cases of oral ingestion are known. Naphthalene can also be absorbed through the skin an infant died from using diapers and blankets contaminated with the substance. Some glues contain naphthalene, but sensations from glue sniffing are normally considered a result of toluene.

Sep 2 7 2092

In these states, the perception that marijuana is accepted by the public has significantly impacted law enforcement. According to Oregon State Police authorities, outlaw motorcycle gang members are now applying for marijuana caregiver status, believing that this will officially authorize their marijuana grow operations. Marijuana grow operations have always presented problems to law enforcement, and marijuana potentially subject to state medical marijuana laws only serve to further confuse the general public on this drug. Public perception on this issue appears to be further softened as a result of strong marketing strategies by pro-legalization medicinal use advocates. Groups supporting the legalization of marijuana in Alaska are now preparing new proposals to legalize all marijuana. The public confusion on this issue can be demonstrated by the fact that the voters in these states approved the medical use of marijuana but do not allow use in public places (Oregon) or in medical...


Colorado voters passed a ballot initiative on November 7, 2000, to remove state-level criminal penalties for medical marijuana use, possession, and cultivation. On June 1, 2001, less than three weeks after the U.S. Supreme Courts negative ruling on medical marijuana distribution in U.S. v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) implemented the Medical Marijuana Registry program and began issuing identification cards to patients and caregivers who qualify for legal protection under state law. About half (53 ) of registered patients have designated primary caregivers. On June 14, 2004, CDPHE stopped issuing cards to caregivers, after determining that the law does not allow for caregiver identification cards. Caregivers are still legally protected, however, provided they are designated by registered patients. The average patient age is 46, with a range of 18 to 77. No minors have been registered. Seventy-five percent of the...


When the federal government's drug scheduling system was adopted in the 1970s, marijuana was classified as Schedule I, certifying it as having no medical value. Like many other substances, over the years marijuana had been used for medical purposes that became obsolete as better treatments were discovered. Then, by accident, a glaucoma sufferer discovered that his condition improved when he smoked marijuana, and subsequent scientific tests confirmed that the natural product had a hitherto unknown ability to relieve that devastating eye disease that can cause blindness. Marijuana's long-known antinausea and appetite enhancement qualities also became publicized as a help to patients undergoing the rigors of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and cancer treatments. As researchers began discovering other potential therapeutic actions of marijuana (including treatment of pain, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasticity, ulcerative colitis, and hiccups), medical use became a controversial...

Cannabis Cultivation

Weed Possession Limit

Oregonians registered in the Medical Marijuana Program have few choices when it comes to obtaining an adequate supply of medicine. They must buy Cannabis or seeds in the black market, rely on other patients, caregivers or grow it themselves. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act was written to allow the cultivation of Cannabis specifically to remove patients from the underground drug markets. Patients and caregivers registered in the Oregon Health Division's Medical Marijuana Program can legally exchange plants, seeds, clones and medicine among themselves. (Chapter 1 discusses issues surrounding procurement and exchange of seeds and clones as well as application procedures.) Oregon patients and caregivers should clearly understand the limits that are allowed while harvesting. The OMMA stipulates that the grower may grow up to 7 (seven) plants and flower 3 (three). They may possess one ounce of dried (usable) Cannabis for each flowering plant. If there are two flowering plants the caregiver...

How do I apply

Patients who are unable or unwilling to grow their own Cannabis may, under OMMA, enlist the assistance of a designated primary caregiver. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act only covers patients and designated primary caregivers who are Oregon residents. There is no interstate reciprocity even though the entire West Coast of the U.S. now has similar laws on the books.

Gardening Supplies

To avoid a lengthy explanation I will paste a link of several areas to go visit if you wish to see how various growers care givers exchange information on particular strains. Documented with photos, the grow reports act as the most independently serviced and unbiased controls from the actual seed purchased from a packet of MNS. So to help standardize growing for medical use and since we do not yet have a set standard of rules to grow by


More and more states will be legalizing medical marijuana in the next few years. Some, however, will be placing a limit on the number of plants patients and caregivers can grow. If you find yourself in a state with a limit, there are ways to still do a continuous harvest with a minimum of only five plants at a time.


Alaska Measure 8 protects patients diagnosed with cachexia cancer chronic pain epilepsy and other disorders characterized by seizures glaucoma HIV or AIDS multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by muscle spasticity and nausea. Other conditions subject to approval by the Department of Health and Social Services. Patients (or caregivers) may possess no more than one ounce of usable cannabis and cultivate no more than six plants, no more than three mature. Senate Bill 94 mandates that all patients must enroll the confidential state-run registry and possess a valid ID card or they cannot argue affirmative defense of medical necessity. Arizona Prop. 200 attempted to allow doctors to prescribe schedule I controlled drugs. However, federal law forbids physicians from prescribing cannabis, so this statute offers no legal benefits whatsoever. Colorado Amendment 20 protects patients with cachexia cancer chronic pain chronic nervous system disorders epilepsy and other disorders...

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