The Health Effects Of Chronic Cannabis

Chronic cannabis use is a broad term meant to cover the regular (especially daily or near daily) use over periods of years. Epidemiological studies of relationships between chronic cannabis use and various human diseases are now being conducted. The major problems with these studies are assessing exposure to cannabis over extended periods and excluding alternative explanations of the associations. A major problem in interpreting epidemiological studies is that cannabis use is correlated with...

The Range Of Reforms Within The System Softening The Prohibition

This chapter reviews the existing reform models of cannabis control that have been implemented at national and sub-national levels around the world within the provisions of the existing international treaties and conventions. It describes the control regimes which have departed from a standard approach of full criminal prohibition, and reviews the evidence of the impact of these alternative regimes on cannabis use and other indicators. Before examining the details of the reform regimes, we...

A special case Medical marijuana use control

In recent years, the regulation of so-called 'medical marijuana use' (MMU), particularly by US state provisions, has contributed to some notable legal reform arrangements of cannabis control specifically for sub-groups of individuals using cannabis for medicinal - as distinct from recreational - purposes (Hall & Degenhardt, 2003). These developments have occurred primarily in the cannabis-prohibitionist contexts of North America (e.g. Canada and several US states), more than in other Western...

The Consequences Of Adolescent Cannabis

Cannabis first began to be used by large numbers of young people in the USA in the early 1970s. In the subsequent 30 years, the proportion of young people who have used cannabis in many developed countries has increased, and age of first use has fallen in Australia, the USA and the Netherlands (Hall & Pacula, 2003). There has been considerable community concern about whether adolescent cannabis use increases poor educational outcomes (Lynskey & Hall, 2000), the use of heroin and cocaine...

Treatment Seeking by Cannabis Users

A relatively new phenomenon is large-scale treatment-seeking by cannabis users. In many Western countries there has been a rapid and sustained increase in the number of treatment admissions for which cannabis is identified as the principal drug of abuse. For a recent review of the treatment literature, see Bergmark (2008), who finds evidence that many modalities have substantial beneficial effects on cannabis use and related problems, but that no modality seems superior to others. Our purpose...

Partial Prohibition DeFacto Or De Jure Legalization Of Cannabis

Under Partial Prohibition reforms, personal cannabis use and possession activities are no longer illegal, but commercial activities such as large-scale possession, production and supply of large amounts of the drug are prohibited. Under this system, the legality of personal use amounts is usually limited to adults, and often excludes so-called 'aggravating circumstances' which are specifically defined (e.g. use near a school or involving minors, etc.) (Macintosh, 2006 McDonald et al., 1994)....

De Facto Legalization IE Prohibition With An Expediency Principle The Netherlands

Cannabis possession is technically illegal and prohibited under the Dutch drug control law enshrined in the country's criminal code. Under the 'expediency principle' applying to criminal procedures, the prosecution may decide whether or not to enforce the law against certain offenses on the basis of whether this action would be 'in the public interest' (Chatwin, 2003 Duncan & Nicholson, 1997). This approach has resulted in a system of de facto legalization of cannabis use in the Netherlands,...

Reproductive Effects Of Cannabis

Cannabis is widely used by adolescents and young adults during the peak age for reproduction. Animal studies in the mid-1970s raised concerns that cannabis use during this period could adversely affect reproductive outcomes because large doses of THC reduced the secretion of gonadal hormones in both sexes (Brown & Dobs, 2002) and adversely affected foetal development (Bloch, 1983). Effects on the male and female reproductive systems In animals, marijuana, crude marijuana extracts, THC and...

References

Abraham, M.D., Cohen, P.D.A. & Beukenhorst, D.J. (2001). Comparative cannabis use data. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179 (2) 175-177. Adlaf, E.M., Begin, P. & Sawka, E. (Eds.) (2005). Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) A national survey of Canadians' use of alcohol and other drugs Prevalence of use and related harms Detailed report. Ottawa Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (2008). Cannabis Classification and Public Health. London Home Office....