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The roots in this potbound plant form a mass around the interior and bottom of the container. Roots that grow out drainage holes are "pruned" when they come into contact with air. This plant needs repotting.

Heroin Plant Roots

To remove large plants from containers, use a knife or blade to separate roots from the inside of the container. Move the blade up and down all the way around the inside of the container to break roots away. Remove the root ball from the container.

Jorge Cervantes is the author of the ALL NEW Indoor Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor Bible, with 200 ALL NEW color photos, Marijuana Indoors: Five Easy Gardens, Marijuana Outdoors: Guerrilla Growing and Jorge's Rx and is contributor to 12 European magazines in 6 languages. Jorge's books are published in Dutch, English, French, German and Spanish. Visit his website at www.marijuanagrowing.com

• autumn air. What's funnv ifi USUa"y c°lder ' J variety under art*^ •

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Did you know that after being grassed up, the most common reason why growers get busted is due to water- or odour-nuisance? Both problems are in actual fact very easy to prevent, provided that the grower goes about his work with proper attention. Always build a 'pond' (out of synthetics material or plastic) around your entire grow room, so that any water released during even the worst disaster cannot flow away, and always make sure that you have good filters fitted and sufficient air extraction capacity.

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Spider Mites

Young spider mites, adults, and eggs are visible in this photo.

Spider mites cause stippling, small spots, on the top of leaves.

Cannibis Growing Ideas

This is the worst spider mite infestion I have seen!

Identify: The spider mite is the most common pest found on indoor plants and cause the most problems. Spider mites have eight legs and are classified as spiders rather than insects, which have six legs. Find microscopic spider mites on leaf undersides sucking away life-giving fluids. To an untrained naked eye, they are hard to spot. Spider mites appear as tiny specks on leaf undersides; however, their telltale signs of feeding - yellowish-white spots, stippling - on the tops of leaves are easy to see. Careful inspection reveals tiny spider webs - easily seen when misted with water - on stems and under leaves as infestations progress. A magnifying glass or low-power microscope (10-30X) helps to identify the yellow-white, two spotted brown or red mites and their translucent eggs. Indoors, the most common is the two-spotted spider mite. After a single mating, females are fertilized for life and reproduce about 75 percent female and 25 percent male eggs. Females lay about 100 eggs.

Damage: Mites suck life-giving sap from plants, causing overall vigor loss and stunting. Leaves are pocked with suck-hole marks and yellow from failure to produce chlorophyll. They lose partial to full function, and leaves turn yellow and drop. Once a plant is overrun with spider mites, the infestation progresses rapidly. Severe cases cause plant death.

Control: Cleanliness! This is the most important first step to spider mite control. Keep the grow room and tools spotless and disinfected. Mother plants often have spider mites. Spray mothers regularly with miticides, including once three days before taking cuttings. Once mite infestations get out of control and miticides work poorly, the entire grow room will have to be cleaned out and disinfected with a pesticide and 5 percent bleach solution. Steam disinfection is also possible but too difficult in most situations.

This is the worst spider mite infestion I have seen!

Cultural and physical: Spider mites thrive in a dry, 21-26 °C climate, and reproduce every five days in temperatures above 26 °C Create a hostile environment by lowering the temperature to 15 °C. and spray foliage, especially under leaves, with a jet of cold water. Spraying literally blasts them off the leaves as well as increases humidity. Their reproductive cycle will be slowed, and you will have a chance to kill them before they do much damage. Manual removal works for small populations. Smash all mites in sight between the thumb and index finger, or wash leaves individually in between two sponges. Make sure to not infect other plants with contaminated hands or sponges.

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Remove leaves with 50 percent or more damage.

Remove leaves with more than 50 percent damage and throw away, making sure insects and eggs do not reenter the garden. If mites have attacked only one or two plants, isolate the infected plants and treat them separately. Take care when removing foliage not to spread mites to other plants. Severely damaged plants should be carefully removed from the garden and destroyed.

Smear a layer of Tanglefoot™ around the lips of containers and at the base of stems to create barriers spider mites cannot cross. This will help isolate them to specific plants. Note: smear a layer of Tanglefoot™ at each end of drying lines when hanging buds to contain spider mites. Once foliage is dead, mites try to migrate down drying lines to find live foliage with fresh, flowing sap.

Biological: Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) californicus and Mesoseiulus (phytoseiulus) longipes, are the two most common and effective predators. Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) fallacius, Galendromus (Metaseiulus) occidentalis, Galendromus (Typhlodromus) pyri predators are also available commercially.

When properly applied and reared, predatory spider mites work very well. There are many things to consider when using the predators. First, predators can eat only a limited number of mites a day; the average predator can eat 20 eggs or 5 adults daily. As soon as the predators' source of food is gone, some mites die of starvation while others survive on other insects or pollen. Check with suppliers for release instructions of specific species. A general dosage of 20 predators per plant is a good place to start.

Predatory mites have a difficult time traveling from plant to plant, so setting them out on each plant is necessary. Temperature and humidity levels are important to control so predators thrive. Both must be at the proper level to give the predators the best possible chance. When spider mites have infested a garden, the predatory mites cannot eat them fast enough to solve the problem. Predatory mites work best when there

Did you know that Purple Power (PP) is one of the best-known and most-cultivated outdoor varieties? Sadly, in recent years it has been so heavily grown that the price it can command has fallen into the cellar! The weed is easily recognised by its purple colour.

Progressive Control Measures for Spider Mites

Cleanliness: Clean room daily, disinfect tools, do not introduce new pests into the garden on clothes, no animal visits, etc.

Create hostile environment: Humidity, temperature, water spray

Create barriers: Smear Tanglefoot™ around pot lips, stems, drying lines

Dip cuttings and vegetative plants: Dip small plants in pyrethrum, horticultural oil, neem oil

Remove damaged foliage: Remove foliage more than 50 percent damaged

Introduce Predatory mites: Release predators before infestations grow out of hand

Spray: Apply pyrethrum, neem oil, use stronger miticides only if necessary. Rotate sprays so mites do not develop immunity.

Chemical Insecticides and Miticides

Chemical:

Trade Name*:

Author's Notes:

abamectin

Avid®

Produced by soil fungi, Streptomyces species

dienochlor

Pentac®

Slow-acting but selective against mites

aldicarb

Temik®

Systemic miticide DO NOT USE

methomyl

Subdue®

Systemic insecticide DO NOT USE

dicofol

Kelthane®

Selective miticide, DDT relative, DO NOT USE

acephate

Orthene®

Systemic miticide/insecticide, DO NOT USE

*All trade names are not included. Check insecticides and miticides for chemical name.

*All trade names are not included. Check insecticides and miticides for chemical name.

are only a few spider mites. Introduce predators as soon as spider mites are seen on vegetative growth, and release them every month thereafter. This gives predators a chance to keep up with mites. Before releasing predators, rinse all plants thoroughly to ensure all toxic-spray residues from insecticides and fungicides are gone.

The fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, trade name Mycar®, kills spider mites.

Sprays: Homemade sprays often lack the strength to kill infestations but work as a deterrent by repelling mites. Popular homemade sprays include Dr. Bonner's Soap, garlic, hot pepper, citrus oil, and liquid seaweed combinations. If these sprays do not deter spider mites after 4-5 applications, switch to a stronger spray: neem oil, pyrethrum, horticultural oil, or nicotine sulfate, cinnamaldehyde.

Insecticidal soap does a fair job of controlling mites. Usually two or three applications at 5-10 day intervals will do the trick.

Horticultural oil smothers eggs and can be mixed with pyrethrum and homemade sprays to improve extermination.

Pyrethrum (aerosol) is the best natural miticide! Apply 2-3 applications at 5-10 day intervals. Pyrethrum is the best control for spider mite extermination. Spider mites should be gone after 2 or 3 applications at 5-10 day intervals, providing sanitary-preventative conditions are maintained. Eggs hatch in 5-10 days. The second spraying will kill the newly hatched eggs and the remaining adults. The third and subsequent applications will kill any new spider mites, but mites soon develop a resistance to synthetic pyrethrum.

Neem oil works great!

Heavy-duty chemical miticides are available but are not recommended on plants that will be consumed by humans.

If using any chemical miticide, be sure it is a contact poison and not systemic. Use StirrupM®, described below, to improve the spider mite kill rate. Cinnamaldehyde extracted from Cinnamonum zeylanicum kills mites. The synthetic hormone

- sold under the brand name StirrupM®

- attracts spider mites, and is used very successfully to enhance miticides.

Jorge Cervantes is the author of the ALL NEW Indoor Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor Bible, with 200 ALL NEW color photos, Marijuana Indoors: Five Easy Gardens, Marijuana Outdoors: Guerrilla Growing and Jorge's Rx and is contributor to 12 European magazines in 6 languages. Jorge's books are published in Dutch, English, French, German and Spanish. Visit his website at www.marijuanagrowing.com

Did you know that Top 44 takes exactly 44 days to finish blooming? This lady also has a short bloom period and thanks to this is very well loved among commercial growers. A short bloom period means they can get in more harvests each year!

Atami stone wool mixed-fibre technology

Stone wool blocks are available all over the place, to anyone that wants them, in any size they want. They're handy for letting your clones root in or for germinating seeds in. Thanks to the airiness of the stone wool medium seeds germinate very quickly in them and within a few days of planting you will already be seeing them pop up. I choose this medium over the traditional germination methods because the seeds stay nice and moist but never too wet. Keeping the seeds too wet will retard the germination process and the roots will not shoot off in search of water since there's plenty of it around already. 30 small stone wool blocks also take up less space than 30 pots full of soil for seed germinating (out of which many will not actually ever sprout). The seeds that do come out in the stone wool blocks can be nice and neatly planted in your soil or hydro set up. And of course growers on stone wool slabs can get to work immediately. Atami has apparently succeeded in improving on and optimising regular stone wool. Using mixed fibre technology the fibres of the stone wool orient themselves in all possible directions thanks to which the roots can more easily and more quickly develop. The stone wool fibres in the block or slab are oriented vertically as well as horizontally which allows the plant to find a more natural route on its way to growing and blooming. These new stone wool blocks also contain more air, and as every growers knows, getting sufficient oxygen to the roots makes for a more powerful root growth. An optimal medium then in which seeds and clones will be able to shoot out their roots even more rapidly. Thanks to this powerful early root growth you will have stronger and eventually more productive plants. If we can take Atami at their word, then this mixed fibre technology heralds a revolution in stone wool land.

Available from all good grow shops

Info: Atami, The Netherlands

Tel (+31) (0) 73-5223256 / Fax: (+31) (0) 73-5213259

E-mail: [email protected] / Website: www.atami.com

Adjust-a-wing

This reflector has been brought over from Australia, where it is pretty popular. The reflector can illuminate an area of 1.2 m to 1.8 m. This offers many possibilities for the grower. With just one lamp you can light a larger growing surface area with no loss of yield and sometimes even an increase. This sounds fantastic in theory; fewer lamps needed and so less heat produced and so the environment stays under control better. The Adjust-a-wing reflector is delivered with a heat shield, and you should never use this reflector without this heat shield. In order to get the same yield with this reflector from a larger growing area, the lamp and its reflector need to hung lower than normal. This can be as close as 20 cm from your growing plants, which is pretty low, and that it could get quite hot for the buds is something that many growers will be aware of. That is why you need the heat shield - it makes sure that the light is reflected away and the heat is reduced. The heat shield blocks a portion of the direct light thanks to which the heat directly under the lamp is strongly reduced while the blocked light is scattered to the sides of the reflector, so the plants can still make optimal use of it for growth and blooming. In short, without the heat shield you would never hope to achieve the optimised yields; only by having the reflector as low above the vegetation is this possible. You will also achieve a more even vegetative cover, which is to say that the plants will all be about the same height, because the light has been so optimally spread and the plants right under the lamp are not getting the full force of the light, something that is not the case with common lamps. Whether this reflector is not only good in theory but also in practice actually delivers the goods is something we will leave up to you to test for yourselves.

Info: www.elementshydroponics.com/ www.eastcoasthydroponics.co.uk www.greenleafsystems.co.uk www.hydroponic-shop.com www.indooruk.co.uk www.growshop-highfive.com

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Pre-flowering

Sex is Everything!

Pre-flowers, described by Robert Clarke in Marijuana Botany as "primordial," are the first indication of a plant's sex. The pre-flowers grow at branch internodes just behind the leaf spur or stipule about the fourth week of vegetative growth, when the plant is six to eight weeks old. This is the point of sexual maturity, the first sign a plant is preparing for flowering-the next stage in life.

You can see pre-flowers with the naked eye, but a 10 to 30X magnifier will make viewing easier. You can accurately determine plant sex after eight weeks. Using this method, you can distinguish sex before inducing flowering.

Image shows a male plant after 24 days of vegetative growth at 18/6 day/night. Staminate flowers are located at the node between the stipule and emerging branch.

Early male flowers are easy to spot with the naked eye. They are located at branch internodes.

Early male flowers are easy to spot with the naked eye. They are located at branch internodes.

Spotting Male Cannabis Plants Early

Male pollen sacks hang like little balls. Each pollen sac has enough pollen to pollinate all the females in the average grow room.

Male Pre-flowering

Male pre-flowers are normally visible when plants are six to eight weeks old, after the fourth week of vegetative growth. The preflowers emerge behind the stipule at the fourth to fifth branch internodes and generally do not turn into full flowers. But, according to Bongaloid (www.overgrow.com), "a male plant will develop mature staminate flowers after prolonged periods of vegetative growth."

Always wait to induce flowering until after pre-flowers appear. Inducing flowering with 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness and 12 hours of light before pre-flowers develop will stress the plant. This stress could cause peculiar growth, and plants might develop into hermaphrodites. Inducing flowering before pre-flowers form will not expedite flowering. In fact, flowering will occur at about the same time as if you had waited for preflowers to show! Plants grown from seed under an 18/6 day/night photoperiod will generally show pre-flowers before plants that are given a 24/0 day/night photoperiod. Once preflowers are distinguishable as male or female, plants can be induced to flower with a 12/12 day/night photoperiod.

Pollinated Cannabis Flowers

Male flowers develop quickly on the tip of this male plant. Keep an eye out for male plants, and separate them from females as soon as they are spotted.

Full Grown Male Weed Plant
This male plant is in full bloom. Flowers open over the course of a week or longer to ensure females are completely pollinated.

Grains of pollen are miniscule. This close-up of a grain of male pollen is magnified 4000 times. Eirik (www.overgrow.com) captured this image on a scanning electron microscope.

Male pollen sacks hang like little balls. Each pollen sac has enough pollen to pollinate all the females in the average grow room.

Male flowers develop quickly on the tip of this male plant. Keep an eye out for male plants, and separate them from females as soon as they are spotted.

A word of caution from bc-trichome-farmer (www.overgrow.com): "Do not try to sex a seedling based on the very first pre-flower. Wait and make sure. The time between using a 25X (loupe) to spot the very first pre-flower and the plant dropping pollen is at least 10+ days away, so it's safe."

Male Flowering

When given a 12/12 day/night photoperiod, male cannabis reaches

Grains of pollen are miniscule. This close-up of a grain of male pollen is magnified 4000 times. Eirik (www.overgrow.com) captured this image on a scanning electron microscope.

maturity and flowers one to two weeks before females. However, male plants do not necessarily need a 12/12 day/ night photoperiod to dawn flowers and shed pollen. Males can flower under long days and short nights as well, but they generally produce fewer flowers. Once male calyxes show, pollen develops quickly and can disperse within a very short time. There is always an early opener that sheds pollen, often within 24 hours or less! To avoid pollination problems, remove males as soon as they are distinguished. If growing male plants, always isolate them from females, so they will not be pollinated. See Chapter 5, "Harvest," for more information on harvesting males.

Males continue flowering and shedding yellowish, dust-like pollen from bell-shaped pollen sacks well into the females' flowering stage, which ensures pollination. If you are making seeds, pollinating females too early, before the girls have developed many receptive female pistils, will result in a small seed crop. See Chapter Seventeen, "Breeding," for more information.

Male flowers are about one quarter-inch (6 mm) long and pastel green to yellowish in color. Flowers first develop near the top of the plant. Pollen sacks develop on a short spike and hang in clusters at the base of branches. Gradually, flowers develop towards the bottom of the plant. After two to six weeks of the 12-hour photoperiod, fully formed floral sacks split open and shed pollen.

Males are usually taller than females and have stout stems, sporadic branching, and fewer leaves. In nature, wind and gravity carry pollen from taller males to fertilize (pollinate) receptive females. Male plants produce fewer flowers than females, because one male plant can pollinate many females. Males also contain less THC and overall lower cannabinoid levels.

Males fertilize females, causing them to stop high THC production and start seed formation. Remove and destroy males, except those used for breeding, as soon as their sex has been determined. The instant they show sex, separate male plants used for breeding from females. Do not let them shed pollen. Premature pollen sacks often form and open early or are hidden under foliage and go unnoticed until it is too late. If growing from seed, take special care to ferret out male flowers and plants.

Growers have reported that bouncing the photoperiod around and dynamically raising or lowering the temperature have the effect of producing more male plants. Note that each stimulus involves creating a climate that causes plants to suffer stress. Also, the stressful environment does not necessarily turn the entire plant male; it turns it hermaphrodite. The most susceptible plants already have a predisposition to hermaphrodism. See Chapter Sixteen, "Breeding," for more information.

There are several ways to promote male or female plants during seedling growth. (See "Grow More Female Plants from Seed" in Chapter Two). During vegetative growth you can get a good idea of a plant's sex from its genetic background and growth characteristics. The most dependable way to deduce sex is "Cloning for Sex" (see Chapter Three). For a complete discussion, see Chapter Sixteen, "Breeding."

Female Pre-flowering

Near the end of normal vegetative growth, plants grown from seed

Vegitative Marijuana Growth
The red arrow shows where pre-flowers develop on both male and female flowers.

develop pre-flowers. This is when female calyx formation initiates, and it is not contingent upon photoperiod. It occurs when a plant is old enough to show signs of sexual maturity, about the fourth week of vegetative growth, or six to eight weeks from germination. The pre-flowers emerge behind the stipule at the fourth to fifth branch internodes.

A pre-flower looks like a regular female flower; most have a pair of white fuzzy pistils. Pistils normally form after the light green seed bract part of the pre-flower has formed. Wait until pistils have formed to ensure the plant is a female and not a male. The preflowering stage lasts from one to two weeks. A little patience is in order now!

Plants grown from seed under an 18/6 day/night photoperiod will usually show pronounced pre-flowers before plants given a 24/0 day/night photoperiod. And, under a 16/8 day/night regimen pre-flowers show more quickly and are often more pronounced. Once pre-flowers are distinguishable as male or female, plants can be induced to flower with a 12/12 day/night photoperiod.

Always wait to induce flowering until after pre-flowers appear. Inducing flowering with 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness and 12 hours of light before pre-flowers develop will stress the plant. This stress could cause odd growth, and plants might grow into hermaphrodites. Inducing flowering before preflowers form will not speed flowering. Flowering will occur about the same time as if you had waited for pre-flowers to show!

This is an excerpt from Marijuana Horticulture: the Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower's Bible by Jorge Cervantes, 512 pages 1120 full color photos and drawings, ISBN1-878823-23-X. The book is available in English and will be available in Spanish, German and Italian in the fall of 2006. For More information see: www.marijuanagrowing.com

Cfl Grow Weed
The green calyx supports two very small pistils on this pre-flowering 'Flo' from DJ Short.
Marijuana Outdoor Pre Flower
Pre-flowers on this 'Puna Budder' from THSeeds are nearing the end of the pre-flowering stage that lasts about two weeks.

Did you know that making clones is nowhere near as hard as it looks? With just a NUle bit of effort, such as removing the growing shoots on the |ower-most branches by just slicing them off, keeping them moist and then dipping the ends in rooting powder and popping them in a block of stone wool, we are already well on the way. A humid seed tray and a small lamp completes the picture.

Did you know that you should never give your young clones liquid nutrients (mixed with water) immediately on planting? The small roots of the clones at this stage are not able to stand it and will be irreparably damaged. In the first few days we only give them a little water, possibly with a little root stimulator added.

Did you know that with a Skunk variety, such as

Super Skunk, you can achieve considerably larger yields? There are credible stories of up to 500 grams per plant being managed, bf course, these plants have been allowed to arow for much longer than normal and have been illuminated with more than one lamp.

Basement

About

Grow Rooms

The best location for a grow room is in an obscure corner of a basement, where the temperature is easy to keep constant year round. Basements are well insulated by concrete walls and soil. A basement room can be enclosed and camouflaged with junk, a double wall, workbench, or shelving.

Added security is afforded by installing a false door in a closet. The grow room is located behind the secret door. Another good secret location, except for the possible heat build-up, is the attic. Few people venture to an attic that is difficult to access. Some growers locate their gardens below a trapdoor covered with a rug.

Law enforcement cannot use the electricity bill as sole grounds for a search warrant. But, they can use it along with other "evidence" such as remnants of indoor growing visible outdoors, thermal image heat signatures, snitch testimony, etc., to secure a search warrant. As long as the marijuana grown is not sold or shown to a snitch, there should be no reason for any suspicion. Thermal image technology is easy to outwit. Just keep the lights on during daylight hours to confuse the technology. Or, cool exhaust air and expel it under the well-insulated grow house so it does not leave a heat trail.

This cutaway basement grow room shows a real scenario. Plants on tables stay warmer and are easy to maintain.
Thermal Imaging Marijuana Grow

Outbuildings, garages, and barns not attached to homes are some of the worst places to grow cannabis. Thieves and law enforcement often do not regard entering a barn or garage as a crime, though they would not consider entering a home. Security is much better when the garden is within the home.

This barrel full of water shows that cannabis will grow only as fast as its most limiting factor. Light is most often the factor that limits growth indoors.

Air 20%

Temperature

Humidity

CO2 and O2 content Light 20% Spectrum (color) Intensity

Photoperiod (hours of light per day)

Water 20%

Temperature pH

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