New Treatment for Cannabis Dependence

Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide

This now famous guide has helped thousands of people overcome marijuana. None have had to spend another cent on marijuana, munchies, detox kits, rehab or therapy. Like thousands before you, quit weed the easy way! Defuse your psychological addiction very quickly. The one major sneaky secret that will banish your cravings for marijuana. How to get some sleep naturally, without smoking marijuana. What you will be feeling, thinking and struggling with, and some Real-Life solutions that will actually work for you. What you should never do when you first try to quit weed (you are probably already doing this right now!) Stop mental fogginess! Gain clarity, focus and motivation to upgrade your career or education. Lung Cleansing Course included! Cleanse your lungs and experience larger lung capacity, clearer breathing and an increased chest size! Finally get rid of that 'feeling' you get to smoke weed, (discover who the real you is and claim your life back!) Support Gain 24/7 personal email support or talk to other marijuana quitters in our forum. Instantly enhance your own natural conversation skills and social interaction. Warning This guide changes how you actually look at weed! Read more...

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Removing The Oil From Intact Marijuana Flowers 24 Increasing Its Potency And Replacing The Intensified Oil Back On The

Methods for increasing the strength of intact marijuana flowers up to twelve times at no increase in cost or change in taste or Preparing cannabis for the most efficient means of internal consumption. Methods of impregnating cigarettes or joints with cannabis oil. HIGH-VOLUME EXTRACTION METHOD 26 Construction and operation of apparatus with which one may process up to one hundred pounds of cannabis material daily. Preparation of various stages of red oil and a method for isolation of pure organic THC from cannabis The cultivation of marijuana and the refinement of its preparations has concerned alchemists and hedonists on this planet for centuries. Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are both powerful allies. The body of the plant itself serves as a link between the physical plane and a host of Spirits of exceptional wisdom and subtlety. When the plant is ingested these qualities manifest in the mind of the worshipper, unlocking the storehouse of Wisdom within and revealing the hidden...

Pharmacological Actions of Cannabinoids

4 Other Pharmacological Targets for Cannabinoids in Mammalian Tissues 26 and Other Phenol-Containing Cannabinoids 36 are found mainly on immune cells, one of their roles being to modulate cytokine release. Endogenous ligands for these receptors (endocannabinoids) also exist. These are all eicosanoids prominent examples include arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. These discoveries have led to the development of CBi- and CB2-selective agonists and antagonists and of bioassays for characterizing such ligands. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists include the CBi-selective SR141716A, AM251, AM281 and LY320135, and the CB2-selective SR144528 and AM630. These all behave as inverse agonists, one indication that CB1 and CB2 receptors can exist in a constitutively active state. Neutral cannabinoid receptor antagonists that seem to lack inverse agonist properties have recently also been developed. As well as acting on CB1 and CB2 receptors, there is convincing evidence...

Brief Marijuana Dependence Counseling

These three examples illustrate several important questions commonly asked by people about their marijuana use Is it possible to be dependent on marijuana The counseling approach presented in this manual addresses these issues among others. It comprises three key intervention components motivational enhancement, cognitive behavioral skills training, and case management. Each session presents examples of how a counselor might introduce certain topics, facilitate the client's resolution to stop using marijuana, provide skills training, and help the client access needed community supports.

Current Findings About Marijuana

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States (Clark et al. 2002 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2003). According to the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 14.6 million people ages 12 and older had smoked marijuana in the preceding month (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2004). It is estimated that approximately 4.3 million people used marijuana at levels consistent with abuse or dependence in the past year. Given that it is an illicit substance, any use of marijuana carries with it some significant risks. However, this document focuses on people who use marijuana heavily or are dependent on it. This treatment manual is directed primarily at these persons but may be useful for other persons with substance abuse or substance use disorders. Studies have demonstrated that tolerance and withdrawal develop with daily use of large doses of marijuana or THC (Haney et al. 1999a Jones and Benowitz 1976...

Acute adverse effects of cannabis

Psychoactive effects Of all the immediate actions of cannabis, its psychoactive effects are undoubtedly those that give the greatest concern in considering its medical uses (7R, 8RS, 10ER). All of the CNS effects of THC, both the desired medical actions and the undesired psychological effects, appear to be mediated through a single type of brain receptor, the CB1 cannabi-noid receptor. This was illustrated, for example, by a well-controlled study in 63 healthy cannabis users, who received either the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A) or placebo and smoked either a THC-containing or a placebo marijuana cigarette (12C ). Rimon-abant blocked the acute psychological effects of the active cigarettes, but when given alone (with placebo cigarettes) produced no significant psychological effects. In many of the medical applications that have been assessed to date, unwanted psychological adverse effects have been blamed as the main cause of patients' rejection of the drug as...

Overview of ihe Marijuana Treatment Project1

CSAT funded MTP to design and conduct a study of the efficacy of treatments for marijuana dependence, to extend this line of research, and to broaden the applicability of the approach to a more diverse group than that used in earlier trials (Stephens et al. 1994b, 2000). The treatment sites were the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Farmington, Connecticut The Village South, Miami, Florida and the University of Washington, School of Social Work, Seattle, Washington. The CC was at the University of Connecticut, Department of Psychiatry. The study examined the efficacy of treatments of different durations for a diverse group of adults who were marijuana dependent. Two treatments one lasting two sessions, the other nine sessions were compared with a delayed treatment control (DTC) condition, in which subjects were offered treatment 4 months after their baseline assessment. The same counselors delivered treatments of both durations to avoid...

Marijuanas Medical Uses

Marijuana has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including The most effective way to allow patients to use medical marijuana is for state legislatures to pass bills similar to the law enacted by the Rhode Island Legislature in January 2006. Thousands of patients and their doctors have found marijuana to be beneficial in treating the symptoms of AIDS, cancer, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, and other serious conditions.4 For many people, marijuana is the only medicine with a suitable degree of safety and efficacy. In March 1999, the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its landmark study, Marijuana and Medicine Assessing the Science Base. The scientists who wrote the report concluded that there are some limited circumstances in which we recommend smoking marijuana for medical uses.5 Accordingly, public opinion polls find that most Americans support legal access to medical marijuana.6

Cannabis Legally grown and provided in daily smoked dosages

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is a treatment for pain and other symptoms of many diseases its medical use goes back some 5,000 years. Sometimes cannabis can halt the development of a condition. It is medicine with a safe and effective dosage demonstrated by United States government research. The National Institute on Drug Abuse provides by prescription a standard dose of smoked cannabis to patients in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug (IND) program. This is about two ounces per week a half-pound per month mailed in canisters of 300 pre-rolled cigarettes consumed at a rate of 10 or more per day. Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. This long-term dosage has proven to be safe and effective, with no unacceptable side effects. As seen below in Table 1, from the Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Table 1 Chronic cannabis IND* patient demographics * The Investigational New Drug (IND) program is overseen by National...

Medicinal Cannabis Dispensary

Compassionate Medical Marijuana Farmacy Caregivers Smack in the middle of this wonderful weave is The Farmacy, a compassionate collective for doctor recommended cannabis patients. The building seems to glow a bright gold and beckons a welcome as it sits silently among the other less brilliant shops. Patients' artwork fills the walls gallery-style. There is playfulness in the air, yet absolute formality and great attention paid to the identification and verification process of each patient. Because every criterion MUST be met with no exceptions, the dispensary is secure, open and airy. No half-way measures result in both a safe facility yet, so open that the open sign reads, Very Open, and it has as many meanings as one can think.

Step 1 Preparing the marijuana or hashish

If marijuana is to be used as a starting material the seeds must be removed prior to extraction. The remaining material is then crumbled or broken and the stems cut short with scissors. The marijuana should be thoroughly dried. Preheat an oven to 250 'F. and then turn it off. Place the marijuana on a cookie sheet for fifteen-minute intervals until the loose leaf and flower parts may be easily crumbled to powder between the palms. Be careful not to scorch the plant. Hashish may be heated for several minutes in an oven or in a, frying pan at low heat until it begins to smoke slightly. It is then easilv crumbled in the hands, or, if a mortar and pestle is available, it may be ground to a fine powder. Do not let the powdered hashish sit exposed to the air for long periods as this will decrease the potency.

Advances in Medical Cannabis Research

Cannabis available to the medical user comes in two commonly available types. Marijuana (domestically produced or imported Cannabis flowers) is nearly always grown from high-THC varieties (up to 30 dry weight in trimmed female flowers) and contains very little CBD. Very high THC with negligible CBD profiles of modern sinsemilla varieties result from marijuana growers sampling single plants and making seed selections from vigorous individuals with high levels of psychoactivity. Unique individuals may also be vegetatively propagated, thereby fixing the high-THC genotype in the clonal offspring. Commercially available imported hashish or charas (compressed Cannabis resin) is collected from varieties that are predominantly THC (up to 10 ) but that often contain up to 5 CBD as well. Imported hashish is produced by bulk processing large numbers of plants. Growers rarely make seed selections from individual, particularly potent plants, and therefore without human intervention the CBD content...

Using Cannabis Who Where

Cannabis, like other psychoactive substances such as alcohol, tobacco and opiates, is used for a variety of reasons. For some users it is simply the pleasure of an altered state and a social experience. For others, it is a way of coping with the troubles of everyday life, a source of solace or, indeed, a source of cognitive benefits and enhanced creativity (Iversen, 2008). For yet other users it has a therapeutic value for some physical or mental health problem. Though the medical value of cannabis is not well researched, it is plausible that it does in fact provide relief for a number of conditions, such as AIDS wasting syndrome or glaucoma (Institute of Medicine, 1999). Cannabis first became popular in the West in the 1960s, when its use emerged as part of the general youth rebellion of that decade. From North America it spread, over the next twenty years, to most of Western Europe, as well as to Australia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it also spread in the 1990s to many...

Interaction Between Cannabinoids and Opioids

The interaction between cannabinoids and opioids has been widely evaluated because of the diverse physiological effects shared by both types of compounds, including antinociception, hypothermia, and control of locomotion, rewarding properties and the ability to induce drug abuse. Interestingly, the interaction between these two systems seems to be bi-directional. Thus, morphine-induced intravenous self-administration (Ledent et al. 1999 Cossu et al. 2001) and conditioned place preference (Martin et al. 2002) was abolished in knockout mice lacking the CB1 cannabinoid receptors. These studies underlie the relevance of CB1 cannabinoid receptors for the manifestation of the reinforcing properties of morphine. The ability of cannabinoid agents to reinstate or prevent heroin-seeking behaviour after a period of extinction has been also evaluated. The cannabinoid agonists WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940, but not THC, restored heroin-seeking behaviour in rats, whereas the CB1 cannabinoid antagonist...

S Nonmedicinal Uses Of Cannabis Sativa

The plant Cannabis sativa has been providing man with a range of his most basic needs for centuries (Conrad, 1994a). We know that hemp the fibrous extract of C. sativa, was used for clothing in ancient Egypt, at least as early as 1,200 years BC and the use of the plant as a source of rope is well documented in many cultures down the centuries (see Chapter 1, this volume, for a full account). The seeds from the plant have been subjected to various treatments to provide food and the fibre has also been used from early times as a major paper making material indeed, early editions of the Gothenburg and King James Bibles were published on such paper and much later, the first two drafts of the American Declaration of Independence. The new president of the United States, George Washington was to be found exhorting his head gardener to Make the most of the Indian hemp seed and sow it everywhere (Washington, 1794). cannabinoids. It can be seen that the plant is not fastidious indeed, the...

Medical Marijuana A Brief History

To its ongoing shame, the United States government still denies that medical marijuana has any benefit whatsoever. But the truth is getting out there. Not since prohibition began in 1937 has there been such a large body of knowledge. Millions now know that medical marijuana provides safe, effective relief for a wide array of ailments, from chronic pain and migraines to glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and the debilitating effects of chemotherapy and AIDS. Marijuana is not physically addicting, nor does it kill like alcohol and cigarettes. While more than 100,000 people a year die from legal prescription drugs, not a single person in recorded history has ever died from medical marijuana. When the safety record of marijuana is compared to other legal substances, medical marijuana prohibition makes no sense at all. Marijuana 0 Among the many myths McCaffrey and his cronies spread is that medical marijuana is an unproven drug that hasn't undergone rigorous scientific scrutiny. To...

Forms Of Cannabis The Plant And The Preparations

Cannabis preparations are primarily derived from the female plant of Cannabis sativa. The plant contains dozens of different cannabinoids (ElSohly, 2002 Iversen, 2007), but the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis products is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Iversen, 2007 Pertwee, 2008). Administration of THC in pure form produces psychological and physical effects that are similar to those users report when they are smoking cannabis (Wachtel et al., 2002), and drugs that block the effects of THC on brain receptors also block the effects of cannabis in animals (Pertwee, 2008) and humans (Heustis et al., 2001). The effects of THC may also be modulated by cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive compound that is found in varying amounts in most cannabis products (Iversen, 2007). The THC content is at its highest in the flowering tops of the female cannabis plant. Marijuana (THC content in the range of 0.5 to 5 ) comprises the dried flowering tops and leaves of the plant. Hashish...

Assessing Marijuana

BMDC uses the criteria identified in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association 1994), to diagnose marijuana dependence (exhibit IV-I) and marijuana abuse (exhibit IV-2). These criteria help the counselor determine a client's level of substance involvement and the associated consequences, as well as appropriate level of treatment. These criteria also can be used in later sessions to measure treatment effectiveness. The guidelines presented here will help the counselor make a diagnosis of marijuana dependence or abuse. If the counselor does not have the credentials required for making a diagnosis, he or she must receive verification from a State-qualified individual.

States With Effective Medical Marijuana Laws

Eleven states have laws that protect patients who possess and grow their own medical marijuana (with their doctors' recommendation or certification) from both criminal penalties and the threat of arrest. Eleven states have laws that protect patients who possess and grow their own medical marijuana (with their doctors' recommendation or certification) from both criminal penalties and the threat of arrest.

The Physical And Psychological Effects Of Marijuana

The short-term effects of marijuana are extremely variable, unpredictable, and temporary. Just as each person looks different, each person's biochemistry is different. Two people can respond differently to the same dose of the same drug, and an individual can even feel different effects from the same dose of marijuana from one experience to the next. One person may feel euphoric (having an exaggerated feeling of well-being) after smoking marijuana and feel very positive about the experience, and another may feel similar sensations, yet feel disoriented. Most of the phenomena of marijuana are directly dose-related and individual, so it is difficult to categorize its physical and psychological effects. There are probably as many descriptions of the physical and psychological effects of marijuana as there are people who use it. Some of the more common physical effects from smoking or eating marijuana are rapid heart beat, dry mouth, bloodshot eyes, increased hunger, slower coordination,...

Analysis of Phytocannabinoids

Instrumental methods are most often used for the identification, classification (e.g., fiber type, drug type), and individualization (e.g., source tracing) of Cannabis plants and products. Because of the complex chemistry of Cannabis, separation techniques, such as GC or liquid chromatography, often coupled with MS, are necessary for the acquisition of the typical chemical profiles and the sensitive, specific, qualitative, and or quantitative (e.g., THC potency) determination of Cannabis constituents. However, especially for screening purposes and on-site field testing, noninstrumental techniques like thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and color reactions are helpful, too. Cannabispiran Cannabistilbene-I Cannabistilbene-ll

Cannabis Prohibition And Its Alternatives What A Policymaker Needs To Know

This study was commissioned by the Beckley Foundation to inform the debate about cannabis policy that is being undertaken in connection with the review of the resolutions taken at the 1998 United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS). UNGASS 98 committed governments to taking action to substantially reduce drug production and demand, including that of cannabis, within the next ten years. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs will host an international meeting in 2009 to evaluate what has happened in the decade since. This will allow for a full discussion of possible changes in international conventions and will inform national policy decisions. This study summarizes what is known about the extent and patterns of cannabis use across nations and over time. It reviews the research literature on the health effects of marijuana use, as well as the little that is known about the other harms associated with cannabis use, production and distribution under current policies. We describe...

New Finding Three Species of Cannabis

Spp. is the conventional abbreviation for species in the plural. It may come as something of a surprise that contrary to conventional wisdom Cannabis should be treated as a multispecies genus rather than as a single species, Cannabis sativa L., with several geographical or ecological varieties (e.g. C. mexicana, C. americana gigantea , and C. indica) but not separate species. In this I follow a new determination by Schultes and his colleagues (1974 337-360), who have now accepted as correct the findings of Russian plant geneticists in the 1920's and 1930's that Cannabis sativa is not alone but is only one of three separate species, the others being C. indica and C. ruderalis. This differentiation is by no means an idle taxonomical exercise, of significance only to a handful of botanists and plant taxonomists. As Schultes and his coworkers point out, considering the great economic and therapeutic importance of this multipurpose plant to man since he first cultivated it perhaps as much...

Function of Cannabinoids in Marijuana

It is commonly believed that the function of the resin secreted by marijuana is to prevent desiccation (drying) and to protect the seeds. However, marijuana grown in northern latitudes often lacks any obvious resin, yet its seeds mature and it does not desiccate. In areas where the plants produce abundant resin, it doesn't seem to be stimulated by drought the resin usually becomes abundant late in the plant's development and it is the young plants which are the most susceptible to drought. There also does not seem to be any correlation between high resin production and high THC or CBD content. Plants often have a high cannabinoid content without being especially resinous or sticky. For these reasons it seems that the real explanations for resin production and cannabinoid content lie elsewhere. As with virtually all other psychoactive compounds occurring in plants, the function of cannabinoids is unknown. In order to have evolved the many genes necessary for the synthesis of such...

The Marijuana license cards

The back of the patient's card has the corresponding information for the designated primary caregiver (if there is one). The name, address and date of birth of the caregiver is printed underneath the words Oregon Health Division Medical Marijuana Program. Once again, it is critical that the address of the caregiver match the location of the Cannabis grow since the caregiver is, by definition, cultivating Cannabis. If the caregiver's address does not match with the grow location, police may telephone the Division for verification. Medical Marijuana Pro The Medical Marijuana Program Caregiver Card The Medical Marijuana Program Caregiver Card These two documents are to be kept secure and available at all times for police inspection. Extra copies of the documents should be made and stored. In the event that a patient is contacted by law enforcement, s he should show either document as proof of registration. The police should then contact the Oregon Health Division before conducting any...

TABLE 2 Tally of State Medical Marijuana Laws

TABLE 2 Tally of State Medical Marijuana Laws TABLE 2 Tally of State Medical Marijuana Laws TABLE 2 Tally of State Medical Marijuana Laws Thirty-six states have had favorable medical marijuana laws at one point or another. Thirteen of those 36 states have had more than one type of medical marijuana law. California, for example, currently has both an effective law and a research law, while Arizona previously had a research law and currently has a symbolic law. States with Effective Medical Marijuana Laws (Removal of Criminal Penalties) Medical Marijuana Law Approved Citation for Medical Marijuana Law Marijuana Schedule Ballot Measure 8 removes state-level criminal penalties for medical marijuana use, possession, and cultivation. However, S.B. 94, which took effect June 2,1999, made the state's medical marijuana registry program mandatory and removed the affirmative defense for patients (or their caregivers) who possess more marijuana than is permitted by the law. As a Schedule VIA...

Pharmacological Profile Of Endocannabinoids

The endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptors discovered thus far (the endocannabinoids), include the anandamides (Devane et al., 1992 Hanus et al., 1993), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG, Mechoulam et al., 1995) and noladin ether (Hanus et al., 2001). Thus far, the prototypical anandamide, arachidonoyl ethanol amide (Devane et al., 1992) is the most thoroughly studied endocannabinoid. Although the overall pharmacological activity is similar to the psychoactive plant constituent A8-THC (Fride and Mechoulam, 1993 Mechoulam and Fride, 1995), it is clear that differences between anadamide and plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids are present too (Fride et al., 1995 Mechoulam and Fride, 1995 Mackie et al., 1993 Smith et al., 1994 Welch et al., 1995). Behaviorally, it was clear from the initial description of anandamide's effects in the tetrad, that it has partial effects for some of its components (hypothermia and analgesia, see Figure 6.1) (Fride and Mechoulam, 1993 Mechoulam and...

Chemical Constituents of Cannabis

Many of the chemical constituents of Cannabis are common to other plants however, cannabinoids are unique to their namesake (33). Of the hundreds of chemicals found in Cannabis and described at length in this book 175 were used to develop the chemical fingerprint system. Of those compounds readily detectable by the methods developed in phase I, 46 were positively identified, including 22 monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes, 16 cannabinoids, two noncannabinoid phenols, two hydrocarbons, three fatty acid esters, and one miscellaneous aromatic compound (see Table 1). The remaining 129 compounds were necessarily included because all of the chemical compounds contribute to the fingerprint, and only the multivariate data analysis software could sort out which ones were important to establish relationships and differentiate between the classes. Cannabinoids Cannabispiran A 1988 study provided information to identify most of the cannabinoids based on retention time and mass spectra (34), but other...

CCNCC Hybrid Cannabinoids

The southern aliphatic hydroxyl (SAH) pharmacophore is absent in the naturally occurring cannabinoids. To study more precisely the stereochemical requirements of this new pharmacophore, Makriyannis and co-workers designed a group of hybrid ligands that incorporated all of the structural features of both classical and non-classical cannabinoids (Drake et al. 1998 Tius et al. 1995,1994). Fig. 8. Hybrid classical non-classical (CC NCC) cannabinoids Fig. 8. Hybrid classical non-classical (CC NCC) cannabinoids This new class of analogs (CC NCC hybrids) had the added advantage of serving as conformationally more defined three-dimensional probes for the CB1 and CB2 active sites than their non-classical counterparts. Receptor binding data showed that at C-6 the equatorial 3-hydroxypropyl analog had higher affinity than its a-axialepimer (e.g., 29 and 30, Fig. 8) (Drake et al. 1998 Tiuset al. 1994). Further refinement of the CC NCC hybrid cannabinoids was obtained by imposing restricted...

Appendix A State Medical Marijuana Laws

States with Effective Medical Marijuana Laws (Removal of Criminal Penalties) Medical Marijuana Law Approved Citation for Medical Marijuana Law Marijuana Schedule Amendment 20 removes state-level criminal penalties for medical marijuana use, possession, and cultivation. A therapeutic research program which was never operational for cancer and glaucoma ( 25-5-901 to -907) was enacted and took effect on June 21,1979 (H.B. 1042, Ch. 265). The program was administered by the Chancellor for Health Affairs at the University of Colorado Medical Center. The Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC) of the medical board of Colorado General Hospital was charged with reviewing applicants and their practitioners and certifying their participation in the program. Additionally, the PTC could include other disease groups after reviewing pertinent data presented by a practitioner, who was authorized to prescribe and administer drugs, and the chancellor would apply to receive marijuana from the...

Daily therapeutic use Titrating medical marijuana dosages

Most people are familiar with the use of smoked marijuana for symptomatic relief of chronic and acute health disorders, but there is much more to know about this traditional herbal remedy. Physician, researcher, court-qualified cannabis expert The phrase medical marijuana, as commonly used, refers to the cured, mature female flowers of high-potency strains of cannabis or a conversion thereof. Since cannabis is an annual plant, it is logical to measure its use as an annual dosage. Many patients need three pounds of bud or more per year. A smaller number of daily use patients smoke six, nine, 12 pounds or more per year for chronic conditions, but dosage varies with each person and how they consume it. Potency is one factor, but other concerns affect titration, as well. Whether a one gram marihuana cigarette contains 2 or 8 THC, the cigarette will generally be smoked so as to deliver the smoker's desired cannabi-noid dose, NIDA researcher Dr. Reese Jones noted in the UC San Francisco CME...

Acute Health Effects Of Cannabis

Cannabis produces euphoria and relaxation, alters perception, distorts time, and intensifies ordinary sensory experiences, such as, eating, watching films, appreciating nature, and listening to music. Users' short-term memory and attention, motor skills, reaction time and skilled activities are impaired while they are intoxicated (Hall & Pacula, 2003 Iversen, 2007). These effects develop rapidly after smoking cannabis and typically last for 1 to 2 hours (Iversen, 2007). Their onset is delayed for 1 to 4 hours after oral use (Iversen, 2007). Cannabis users are typically seeking one or more of these effects when they use. But use can also result in unsought and adverse effects. The most common unpleasant effects of acute cannabis use are anxiety and panic reactions (Hall & Pacula, 2003 Kalant, 2004). These may be reported by naive users and they are a common reason for discontinuing use. More experienced users may also report these effects after receiving a much larger than usual...

You listed the following personal reasons for quitting marijuana and said that they applied to you moderately quite a

_Because smoking marijuana does not fit in with my self-image _Because smoking marijuana is becoming less socially acceptable _Because I have noticed that smoking marijuana is hurting my health _Because I want to save the money I spend on marijuana _To prove that I'm not addicted to marijuana

Safely obtaining a supply of Cannabis

Although federal law bans possession and use of Cannabis its cultivation and sale is a multi-billion dollar business in the United States another example in the long list of Drug War failures. In this difficult context sick people all over America struggle to meet their medical needs as they face the dual obstacles of dealing with the dynamics of illegal supply and federal prohibition. Searching for and procuring illegal Cannabis forces many patients (and their families) into illegal drug markets. This is undesirable for several reasons First, the quality of black-market Cannabis varies tremendously. Supplies are economically rather than medically driven. And, as with corporate dominance of American pharmaceutical and monetary systems, black-market systems have no particular regard for disease or suffering. Potency may vary significantly, from the nearly zero cannabinoid levels of Midwestern hemp, to the common low-to-medium quality Mexican Cannabis that gets bricked for shipping with...

Developmental Aspects Of Cannabinoids The cannabinoid system in development

These latter data are compatible with the observation in mice that motor depression in an open field and hypoalgesia in response to administration of anandamide or A9-THC are not fully developed until adulthood (Fride and Mechoulam, 1996a). Interestingly, A8-THC at relatively high doses (18mg m2) prevented vomiting caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy in young children, without producing undesirable cannabimimetic CNS effects (Abrahamov et al., 1995). At such doses one would normally expect very significant cannabimimetic effects, as seen in adults. A tentative explanation based on the data from animals studies (Fride and Mechoulam, 1996a), was offered on one hand, in the developing organism, the cannabinoid receptor system is not fully developed (hence the lack of cannabimi-metic effects). On the other hand, the antiemetic effects are not transmitted through the cannabinoid receptors. The existence of nonspecific effects caused by cannabinoids has been shown previously (Felder et al.,...

Application of the Marijuana Fingerprint System to Analysis of Hashish Samples

The fingerprints of hashish exhibits are expected to differ greatly from those of marijuana because hashish is a product of Cannabis processed to concentrate the cannabinoids, primarily THC. For this study the GC MS data of the hashish samples were obtained using the same fingerprint template developed for marijuana, not a new set of chromatographic peaks specific to the typical hashish profile. Five countries were represented in the 68 hashish exhibits provided for the study, but only three broad regions South America (Colombia), the Middle East (Lebanon), and Southwest Asia (Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan). A model based on the five countries produced correct classifications at rates of 67 Colombia, 100 Lebanon, 50 Afghanistan, 67 India, and 73 Pakistan. Because it was noted that the misclassified Afghan, Indian, and Pakistani exhibits all fell in the other Asian classes, those countries were combined, and a second model was created with South America, Middle East, and Southwest...

Cannabinoid receptors and cellular actions of cannabinoids

The first cannabinoid receptor was cloned a decade ago. It was called CBj. This was soon followed by the cloning of a second subtype of cannabinoid receptor that was accordingly called CB2. Both receptor subtypes belong to the family of seven transmembrane domain G-protein coupled receptors (Matsuda et at., 1990 Munro et at., 1993). The CB2 cannabinoid receptor is mainly associated with the immune system. The CBX cannabinoid receptor is the receptor expressed by neurons and therefore will be the focus of interest in this chapter. In accordance, the motor effects of cannabinoids seem to be mediated by the neural CB1 cannabinoid receptor (Rinaldi-Carmona et at., 1994 Compton et at., 1996 Souilhac et at, 1995). In general, the basal effect of activating CBX cannabinoid receptors is inhibition of neurotransmission (Howlett et at., 1986 Deadwyler et at., 1993 Mackie and Hille, 1992 Mackie et at., 1995). However, a secondary opposite effect increasing the excitability of cells has also been...

The Effects Of Increased THC In Cannabis Products

Since the early 1970s concerns have been recurrently expressed that cannabis products are becoming more potent (and therefore more harmful to health) than was previously the case (Hall & Swift, 2000 McLaren et al., 2008). Regular monitoring of cannabis products in the USA indicates that THC content has increased from less than 2 in 1980 to 4.5 in 1997 (ElSohly et al., 2000) and more recently to 8.5 (ElSohly, 2008 ONDCP, 2007 see also Chapter 3). THC content also increased in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2005 (Pijlman et al., 2005), and may also have increased in other European countries - although it is uncertain by how much in the absence of time series data on THC in representative samples of cannabis products (EMCDDA, 2004). Increases in potency have probably resulted from a combination of selective breeding of higher potency plants and a shift to indoor cultivation using the sinsemilla method. All of these trends have been encouraged by the illegal status of the product,...

National Marijuana Prohibition

Prohibition seems incompatible with the historical, cultural, and economic significance of marijuana. As Ernest L. Abel notes, Cannabis is undoubtedly one of the world's most remarkable plants. Virtually every part of it has been used and valued at one time or another. Its roots have been boiled to make medicine its seeds have been eaten as food by both animals and men, been crushed to make industrial oils, and been thrown onto blazing fires to release the minute intoxicating cannabinoids within the fibers along its stem have been prized above all other fibers because of their strength and durability and its resin-laden leaves have been chewed, steeped in boiling water, or smoked as a medicine and an intoxicant (1980, 269-70). Marijuana prohibition is also a curiosity because it was enacted before the use of marijuana as a recreational drug became widespread. These questions and the current importance of marijuana in the underground economy have led researchers to examine the origins...

Potential effects of marijuana use in early adolescence

We have recently published findings suggestive of brain morphological changes in marijuana smokers (Wilson et al., 2000). MRI was utilized to determine brain volumes for gray, white and lateral ventricles, and PET was used to determine CBF in 57 subjects with a history of marijuana use. The relationships of three variables - age at first use, duration of use (defined as current age minus age at first use) and current level of use - to brain volume measures (whole brain, gray matter, white matter and lateral ventricle volumes expressed as a percentage of whole brain volume), global CBF and body size were evaluated.

The Health Effects of Marijuana

Acute effects of THC can be severe but are usually short-lived and temporary. Current literature documents THC's temporary effect on health, suggesting that once the use of marijuana ceases, a rapid recovery from the drug's effects typically occurs. However, equating temporary with benign (harmless) would be misleading because some of marijuana's so-called temporary effects can last a lifetime. For example, studies have shown that driving while high can increase the possibility of a motor vehicle accident. In this case, the consequences of marijuana's short-term effects (impaired attention, motor skills, and reaction times) might quickly transform temporary to permanent. Chronic effects are frequent, habitual, and long-term. Investigators are also very interested in the chronic health effects of marijuana and THC and their influence on the lives of teenagers. The scientific literature discusses health effects of marijuana on bodily systems.

The adverse health effects of cannabis and other drugs Comparisons of Cannabis with Other Drugs

One important dimension of dangerousness or harm is the likelihood of a fatal overdose (See column 1 of Table 2.1) (Gable, 2004). The safety ratio is the ratio between the usual effective dose for non-medical purposes and the usual lethal dose. Cannabis was in the lowest-risk group on this scale, along with other substances that have a ratio of 100 or higher. Another dimension of dangerousness is the level of intoxication produced by the substance. This is influenced by the dose used, and the set and setting in which it is consumed. Nonetheless, there are differences in the propensity of different psychoactive substances to intoxicate users. The second column of Table 2.1 shows rankings made by Henningfield and Benowitz on this dimension (Hilts, 1994). Cannabis was ranked as more intoxicating than tobacco, but less so than alcohol, cocaine and heroin. Cannabis Ratings of the dependence potential or addictiveness of different substances (e.g. Hilts, 1994) compare drugs on withdrawal,...

Annex to Chapter II Health advice on cannabis

This book is about issues in cannabis policy, and is not primarily concerned with advice to individuals about their own or others' cannabis use. However, we offer here brief advice about cannabis use in the light of the literatures we have just reviewed. Anyone who is contemplating using cannabis and who wishes to avoid its most probable acute and chronic adverse health effects should abstain from using the drug. This advice is especially pertinent for persons with any disease or condition (e.g. cardiovascular or respiratory disease, serious mental illness or other types of substance abuse) which increases their vulnerability to its adverse effects. The following advice could be given to cannabis users who do not intend to stop, but who wish to reduce their risks of experiencing adverse health effects. They should not drive when intoxicated (that is within several hours of smoking a 'joint'), and should especially avoid driving after combining alcohol and cannabis use, because their...

Effects of Cannabinoids on Ion Channels

Mammals is either impossible or extremely difficult. Accordingly, we know relatively well how cannabinoids change the function of ion channels in the somaden-dritic region. Our knowledge on electrophysiological changes in axon terminals is limited we can only assume that ion channels are influenced similarly as in the somadendritic region. In this section, effects on the somadendritic region are dealt with.

Effects of Cannabinoids on Voltage Gated Ion Channels 211

In the majority of studies, cannabinoids depressed voltage-dependent calcium channels. According to the first observations, activation of CB1 receptors inhibits N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in neuronal cell lines (Caulfield and Brown 1992 Mackie and Hille 1992 Mackie et al. 1993). No inhibition occurred in pertussis toxin-treated cells, indicating the involvement of G proteins containing G i 0 subunits. Later, this observation was extended to isolated rat hippocampal neurons and cerebellar granule cells (Twitchell et al. 1997 Nogueron et al. 2001). In isolated rat sympathetic ganglion neurons that previously had been injected with CB1 receptor cRNA, cannabinoids also inhibited N-type calcium channels (Pan et al. 1996). Q-type calcium channels were also inhibited in CB1 receptor-transfected AtT20 cells (Mackie et al. 1995). The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) anandamide inhibits T-type calcium channels this effect is, however, not mediated by CB1 receptors (Chemin...

The Cannabis Prohibition Regime Markets Policies Patterns Of Use And Of Social Handling

This chapter reviews cannabis use and the cannabis market in the current circumstances of an international prohibition regime. Prohibition of an attractive substance creates illegal markets, which have consequences in terms of the contours of production, distribution and consumption. In the first half of the chapter we examine data on the prevalence of cannabis use, the prices that are charged and the revenues that are generated. The second half examines the enforcement of prohibitions how many individuals are charged with various kinds of cannabis offenses and what are the consequences of those charges. The emphasis is on the developed world, both because more data are available and because there is evidence that use rates are substantially higher in Western Europe, North America and Australia than in most poorer countries. The emphasis of the chapter is on the effects of full prohibition. We also cover the recent phenomenon of increasing demand for cannabis treatment, as it provides...

Effects of Cannabinoids on Ligand Gated Ion Channels

The function of several types of ligand-gated ion channels is changed by cannabinoids as a rule, these effects are not mediated by CB1 receptors. In isolated rat nodose ganglion neurons, cannabinoids inhibited serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptor-mediated currents (Fan 1995). This observation was verified and extended in a recent study. In HEK293 cells expressing the human 5-HT3A receptor, several cannabinoids inhibited the 5-HT-evoked current (Barann et al. 2002). CB1 receptors could not be involved in this effect, since HEK293 cells do not express CB1 receptors.

Some Alternatives to Marijuana

You can do many things to stop using marijuana. Some may work better than others. Some help you resist the urge to smoke or avoid tempting situations or satisfy your needs in more constructive ways than smoking marijuana. Expect to try several and add any that may be helpful. Think about what worked when you gave up marijuana before or when you made other changes in your life.

Effects of Cannabinoids on Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System

Two methods were used to study the effect of cannabinoids on presynaptic axon terminals. The more frequently used electrophysiological approach measures neurotransmission. In brain slices or neuronal cultures, electrical currents in post-synaptic neurons are recorded with patch-clamp or microelectrode techniques. Presynaptic axon terminals are electrically stimulated and the postsynaptic current resulting from stimulation of ligand-gated ion channels of postsynaptic neurons by the released transmitter is determined. The change in the postsynaptic current amplitude is a measure of the change in synaptic transmission. In electrophysiological experiments, cannabinoids inhibited neurotransmission. The inhibition was always due to inhibition of transmitter release from axon terminals and never to interference of cannabinoids with the postsynaptic effects of the neurotransmitters. The experiments in which transmitter release was determined neurochemically also indicated that cannabinoids...

Exogenous and Endogenous Cannabinoids and Their Role in Endocrine Regulation

It has been known for a long time that exogenous canna-binoids are able to affect secretion of pituitary hormones, thus having a strong effect on peripheral target organ functions. Notably, in 1972 the first report of an induction of gynecomastia due to marijuana consumption led to a dramatic acceleration of studies on this topic (134). The hypothalamus is generally considered as the main site of canna-binoid action on neuroendocrine functions. This view is elegantly supported by a recent publication showing that endocannabinoids act as retrograde messengers activating CB1 receptors expressed at presynaptic glutamatergic ter A. Cannabinoids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Until a few years ago, the impact of the cannabinoids on the HPA axis was considered as an exception. Whereas the commonly accepted view attributes the cannabinoid system with a general inhibitory role on neuroendocrine functions, it was suggested that cannabinoids are, on the contrary, able to stimulate...

About Marijuana and How It Affects the Body

Cannabis is the general name given to a variety of preparations derived from the plant Cannabis sativa. The main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC. Some 400 other chemicals also are in the cannabis plant. When a person smokes marijuana, THC enters the bloodstream through the walls of the lungs and is taken to the brain. THC is stored in fatty tissues and can be detected in urine for days, weeks, or sometimes months. The effects of marijuana depend on the person, the environment, the potency of the drug, and how long the person has been using the drug. It is possible to become addicted to marijuana and feel dependent on it to get through the day. Each year thousands of people seek help to stop using marijuana.

Marijuana Mental Illness And Psychological Problems

Many researchers have studied the relationship between marijuana and mental illness. Early twentieth century proponents of marijuana prohibition in the United States often cited studies showing a link between marijuana and insanity and referred to reports of large numbers of institutionalized mental patients in India and Egypt who had used marijuana. However, since the 1970s, researchers have effectively refuted the claims of a direct link between marijuana use and mental illness. Although marijuana may not be linked to severe mental illness, research begun in the 1960s has suggested that marijuana can cause subtle psychological damage, particularly to adolescents. Studies have consistently shown that adolescents with psychological and behavioral problems are more likely than other adolescents to use marijuana heavily. Experts and others such as parents, school administrators, and drug abuse counselors often point to marijuana as the primary cause of these problems. They theorize that...

Can Marijuana Cause Mental Illness

A frequently cited study of 50,000 male Swedish military conscripts (draftees) supported the claim that marijuana causes mental illness. Originally, researchers observed a connection between the use of cannabis by age 18 and a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life. It was suggested that men who had used marijuana 50 or more times by the age of 18 were more likely to be diagnosed as schizophrenic than those who had used marijuana less than 50 but more than 10 times. However, the interpretation of these results later proved to be flawed. All the men who received a diagnosis of schizophrenia had previously been given some sort of psychiatric diagnosis by the military at the time they were drafted. Each had at some point been in trouble at school or with the police, had come from broken homes, and had histories of psychological problems. Therefore, although heavy cannabis use may be associated with a variety of psychological and social problems, and even a later diagnosis of...

Production and Release of Endocannabinoids in Retrograde Endocannabinoid Signalling

While the identity of the endocannabinoid(s) involved in retrograde signalling remain to be determined directly, some clues have come from our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways involved in their production and degradation. Below we discuss the mechanisms underlying the postsynaptic production and release ofendocannabinoids in relation to retrograde signalling. Depolarisation and mGluR-induced retrograde signalling are mediated by distinct Ca2+-dependent and -independent intracellular cascades that provide some clues to the endo-cannabinoids involved in these processes. However, many issues remain to be resolved.

How Do You Give Up Marijuana

To quit using marijuana, you have to confront your desire to get stoned. You will be going into battle against a part of yourself that you no longer wish to exist. Giving up marijuana, especially if you've been using for some time, is a bit like losing an old friend. Quitting may feel like a funeral, but it is also the beginning of a new life.

Interactions Between Cannabinoids And Dopamine At The Basal Ganglia

Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia circuitry. This can be asserted from both physiological (Pollack, 2001) and therapeutic (Hornykiewicz, 1998) points of view. So, the activation of dopamine transmission in this circuitry is generally associated with an increase of movement, whereas the inhibition is followed by hypokinesia (Brooks, 2001). In fact, the basal ganglia disorder with the highest prevalence in the human population, Parkinson's disease, is a consequence of the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, resulting in slowing of movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, and tremor (Dawson and Dawson, 2003). Cannabinoids are hypokinetic substances, thus producing motor depression and even catalepsy (see Romero et al., 2002 Fernandez-Ruiz et al., 2002), and it has been largely speculated that this hypokinetic effect of cannabinoids might be produced by reducing dopaminergic activity. This assumption is correct, but the role of CB1 receptors,...

Interactions Between Cannabinoids And Dopamine At The Hypothalamic Level

Dopamine is also an important regulatory neurotransmitter in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus, where it belongs to the group of different hypothalamic factors that, released in the median eminence to the portal-hypophysial blood supply, are able to reach the anterior pituitary to control the synthesis and release of anterior pituitary hormones, mainly prolactin (for a review, see Ben-Jonathan and Hnasko, 2001). Therefore, it represents a target neurotransmitter for those compounds, either endogenous or exogenous, that interfere with anterior pituitary hormones. This is the case with cannabinoids, which are able to decrease prolactin and gonadotrophin secretion while increasing corticotrophin release in laboratory animals (Rettori et al., 1988 Romero et al., 1994 Wenger et al., 1994 Weidenfeld et al., 1994 Fern ndez-Ruiz et al., 1997 de Miguel et al., 1998) and also in humans (for a review, see Brown and Dobs, 2002). As mentioned in the preceding text, classic cannabinoids, such as...

Conant Doctors can approve cannabis

The Ninth Circuit affirmed a physician's First Amendment right to speak to a patient without fear of arrest in 2002. Conant v. Walters was appealed, but the US Supreme Court denied cert, confirming its validity. The order enjoins the federal government from either revoking a physician's license to prescribe controlled substances or conducting an investigation of a physician that might lead to such revocation, where the basis for the government's action is solely the physician's professional 'recommendation' of the use of medical marijuana. The government has not provided any empirical evidence to demonstrate that this injunction interferes with or threatens to interfere with any legitimate law enforcement activities. Nor is there any evidence that the similarly phrased preliminary injunction that preceded this injunction, Conant v. McCaffrey, which the government did not appeal, interfered with law enforcement. The district court, on the other hand, explained convincingly when it...

Endogenous Cannabinoids Endocannabinoids

The recognition that exogenous cannabinoids could alter immune functional activities through cannabinoid receptors implicated the existence of an endogenous functionally relevant ligand-receptor system. Devane et al. (1992) isolated from porcine brain an arachidonic derivative, anandamide, in a screen for endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptor with properties suggestive that it acted as a natural ligand for the cannabinoid receptor in the brain. The discovery and characterization of anandamide served as a catalyst for studies to assess its role in signaling through the CB1 receptor in the brain as well as in the immune system. Valk et al. (1997) reported that anandamide acted through the CB2 receptor as a synergistic growth factor for hematopoietic cells. Derocq et al. (1998), in a similar study using IL-3-dependent and IL-6-dependent murine cell lines, postulated that anandamide exerted a growth-promotion effect. However, it was indicated that this growth-promoting effect...

Cannabinoids as Immune Therapeutic Agents

Cannabinoids, as immunosuppressive compounds, have been proposed as having therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory disorders and neurodegenerative disease triggered by inflammatory attack. Lyman et al. (1989) inoculated Lewis rats and strain 13 guinea pigs with myelin-basic protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to mimic MS and indicated that THC-treated animals had either no clinical signs or exhibited mild signs with delayed onset and greater survival. Examination of CNS tissue revealed a marked reduction of inflammation in the THC-treated animals. Wirguin et al. (1994) examined the effect of 48-THC, a more stable and less psychotropic analog of THC, on EAE using two strains of rats. 48-THC significantly reduced the incidence and severity of neurological deficit in both strains. It was suggested that suppression of EAE by cannabinoids was related to their effect on corticosterone secretion. Pryce et al....

Preparation Of Hashish From The Intensified Cannabis

Hashish may be prepared from the extracted cannabis oil by mixing it with finely powdered marijuana. The oil may be at any stage of refinement. L-frtmely strong hashish is obtained by using oil which has been isomerizf 1, acetylated, and refined through removal of non-psychoactive compounds. Along with the potency of the oil itself, the ratio of oil to powdered marijuana determines the strength. In order for the hashish to be the proper consistency, a minimum of fifteen per cent oil must be used. This gives a product with the same consistency as powdery Moroccan or Lebanese hash. Fifty to sixty per cent oil (about equal parts of oil and powder) is the maximum amount of oil usable to give a product with hashish consistency. This product will be very strong and resemble in appearance and consistency the sticky, pliable charas of Nepal and India. Powdered marijuana of the finest consistency is obtained by the follow ing method Clean, very dry marijuana is pulverized in a high-speed...

Cannabis Pharmacology

Understanding marijuana's impact on biological systems requires a description of its active components. This chapter begins by identifying the mind-altering molecules in marijuana, the substances that contain these chemicals, and their respective potencies. It continues with a discussion of the way these substances enter the body, metabolize, and reach their sites of action. The remainder of the chapter focuses on the receptors that respond to these cannabinoids and the natural substances in the body that work at these same sites. Marijuana contains more than 60 compounds unique to the plant called cannabinoids. They interact with each other in interesting ways, altering their impact. Cannabinoids appear in a variety of strengths in marijuana, hashish, hash oil, and synthetic medications like nabilone, dronabinol, and levonantradol. People eat or smoke these products, leading to slower or faster absorption of chemicals. The cannabinoids alter the permeability of nerve membranes. They...

Cannabis Preparations

Users can ingest cannabinoids in a number of forms, including marijuana, hashish, hash oil, and synthetic medications. Nearly all parts of the marijuana plant contain psychoactive ingredients, but most of the cannabinoids appear in the resinous glands and flowering tops. Thus, the price for glands or tops is markedly higher than for other parts of the plant. Different cannabis preparations have different names. a reMarijuana,a * a Spanish word purportedly coined in Mexico, originally meant cheap tobacco. The term may stem from the Portuguese expression a remariguango,a * which means intoxicant (Maisto et al., 1995). Later the word referred to the dried leaves and flowers of cannabis. Residents of India distinguish among three forms bhang, ganja, and charas. Bhang is the dried leaves of the plant, comparable to marijuana. People smoke these leaves or combine them with milk and spices to form a drink that is also called bhang. Ganja refers to the sap-carrying tops of female plants in...

Trends In Marijuana

When analyzing trends in adolescent use of marijuana, researchers usually discuss the national average trends. They do point out, however, that on narrower, individual levels, there are many subgroup differences based on gender, race ethnicity, region of the country, college plans, socioeconomic level, and whether the teen lives in an urban or rural area. For this discussion, we rely on the national average trends specific differences of these subgroups are reported elsewhere. It is also important to know when analyzing statistics that these surveys rely on self-reporting, a style that can contribute to some underreporting when teens are being asked to report illegal drug use. The data from these three major surveys (NHSDA, MTF, and DAWN) provide a great deal of insight into recent trends in adolescent use of marijuana. Among 12- to 17-year-olds, the NHSDA reports In 1999, the national average age of first-time marijuana use was 16.2 years old. Comparatively, the national average age...

Possible role of other neurotransmitter systems in the antiemetic properties of cannabinoids

Although the cholinergic neurotransmitter system per se is not directly involved in chemotherapy-induced vomiting (see section 2.1), dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms do appear to be important downstream in cannabinoids' antiemetic actions. Indeed, in the feline, nabilone dose-dependently prevents emesis produced by the dopamine D2 receptor agonist apomorphine (London et al., 1979). In a similar manner, A9-THC prevents vomiting produced by dopamine D2 D3 receptor agonists such as apomorphine, quinpirole, quinelorane and 7-OH DPAT in the least shrew (Darmani, unpublished observations). In this context, the least shrew seems to be an excellent dopamine animal model of emesis since the cited selective and nonselective dopamine D2 receptor agonists can potently induce emesis in this species, whereas D2 antagonists prevent the induced behavior (Darmani et al., 1999). As discussed earlier, clinical findings further underscore the role of blockade of the dopaminergic system in the...

Removing The Oil From Intact Marijuana Flowers Increasing Its Potency And Replacing The Intensified Oil Back On The

Reflux the cannabis material in the same manner as was done with the fine powdered cannabis material previously, except that when processing intact flowers the material is first placed in a cheesecloth bag. The oil is then extracted from the marijuana in the usual manner. The oil is purified by re-extraction with petroleum ether and then isomerized and acetylated. The tars and resins left behind from die ether extraction remain dissolved in the alcohol-water layer in the extraction jug. Evaporate and collect the alcohol in the usual manner and evaporate the water in an oil bath at 220 F. The tars and resins thus obtained are mixed with the intensified, purified oil and dissolved in the exact amount of alcohol that the completely dry flowers will absorb. This amount is determined by adding clean alcohol to the dried flowers until they will absorb no more alcohol but there is none lying in the bottom of the pan. The saturated flowers are then put into a distillation apparatus and all...

Marijuana and Cognition in

Cannabis use alters both motor and cognition-based behaviour in man. Collectively, data strongly indicate acute intoxication to be more effective in disrupting memory than chronic use, probably due to long-term habituation and related changes in brain function. While simple cognitive tasks can be performed normally, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates with task difficulty, and this maybe the direct consequence of deficits in attention and goal-directed learning. Importantly, there are few if any gross motor impairments, even after chronic cannabis smoking over many years. Acute cannabis intoxication leads to multiple effects, including changes in reaction time and perception. Simple reaction times are recorded such that test subjects have to press a button in response to a tone or light. This merely requires motor execution such tasks are devoid of complex cognitive processing. Several studies have reported that reaction times increase after marijuana use (Borg et al. 1975...

Cannabinoids Modulate Cognition in Animal Models

Guided by the older work from humans, research into the behavioural effects of cannabinoids concentrated on the disruption of working and short-term memory formation. This is in agreement with data suggesting marijuana-induced increases in CBF in paralimbic regions of the frontal lobes and the cerebellum, but reduced blood flow in the temporal lobe (O'Leary et al. 2002). Hypoactivity in the temporal lobe may constitute the neural basis of cognitive alterations seen in cannabis users and has prompted the search for the underlying mechanisms using behavioural paradigms that specifically activate the medial temporal lobe, or using electro-physiological recording protocols in medial temporal lobe structures. It is also in line with reductions of the cortical P300 amplitude in marijuana addicts. The P300 is an ERP reflecting attentional resource allocation and active working memory (Johnson et al. 1997). Similarly, monkeys treated with A9THC chronically have predominantly slow-wave EEGs...

Cannabis and Marinol Compared

In the year 2001, there are still many people who doubt or dismiss reports of Cannabis' medical utility and safety. Nevertheless, one quick glance at Dr. Tod Mikuriya's International Classification of Diseases, (ICD) table shows the vast number of medical conditions that have been treated with Cannabis. Some investigators and researchers argue that including these conditions is not based on randomized and controlled clinical trials, but self-reports that are scientifically suspect. The use of Cannabis as medicine has rarely been based on detailed clinical investigation of unique medical indications. It is, rather, a response by large numbers of people who gain significant symptomatic relief for a variety of sensory complaints by using Cannabis in many different forms. Suffering people, tired of using pharmaceuticals and medical treatments that not only bankrupt them but cause intolerable side effects, use Cannabis to assert a greater measure of control over their own lives. The lack...

Incorporation of advice into policy Cannabis

Changes in drug policy, especially classification decisions, must be accompanied by a comprehensive information campaign. We recognise that the Government did undertake a campaign when the reclassification of cannabis came into effect but in view of the subsequent confusion, which was publicly acknowledged by the Home Secretary, we can only conclude that these efforts were insufficient. (Paragraph 46) 17. We recognise that the Home Secretary followed due process in asking the ACMD to review the classification of cannabis in response to concerns about the link between cannabis use and mental illness and perceptions that cannabis was becoming more potent. However, the timing of the second review against a backdrop of intense media hype and so soon after the change in cannabis classification had come into effect gave the impression that a media outcry was sufficient to trigger a review. (Paragraph 47) 18. Having already caused confusion by failing to adequately communicate the...

Cannabis in the international prohibition regime

As noted, almost all countries are signatories to the 1961 and 1988 drug control Conventions, and are required under these conventions to criminalize production, distribution, use or possession of cannabis. Cannabis was brought into the emerging international drug control system in 1925, at the instance of the Egyptian delegate to the Second Opium Conference, but only with respect to medical preparations from the resin (Bruun et al., 1975 183). Cannabis preparations had had wide medical use at the end of the 19th century (Fankhauser, 2008), and in 1952 1000 kg. per year was still used for this purpose (Bruun et al., 1975 201). Primarily under urging from the US (Bruun et al., 1975 195-203 Edwards, 2005 153), cannabis was included in the strictest prohibition regime category in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. This decision was premised on a conclusion that cannabis had no medical value it was agreed that in the new treaty it should be made clear that the use of cannabis...

Exocannabinoids As Agonists In Pg Synthesis In vitro preparations

As mentioned above, under certain conditions the primary cannabinoids (THC, CBD etc.) and some of their metabolites inhibit the synthesis of eicosanoids. However, in most instances where systems were exposed to cannabinoids stimulatory effects were observed. The basis of these actions seems to reside in the ability of cannabinoids to mobilize phospholipid bound arachidonic acid, which then enters the cascade of reactions leading to various eicosanoids (Figure 14.2). This suggests either a direct or indirect action of these cannabinoids on one or more of the cellular phospholipases. Several reports using subcellular preparations with phospholipase activity have been published that lend support to this hypothesis (Burstein and Hunter, 1981b Hunter etal., 1984, 1986 Evans et al., 1987). The activation of phospholipases is generally considered to be a major physiological control point for the regulation of tissue levels of eicosanoids in response to inflammatory and other stimuli. Thus,...

Putative Endogenous Cannabinoids Inhibit LTP

The range of putative endogenous cannabinoids have been outlined previously (see Di Marzo et al., this volume), and several studies have investigated the effects of application of these on LTP. In rat hippocampal slices, perfusion of 20 M sn-2 arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) blocked LTP of CA1 field EPSPs induced by high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz for 1 s), with little or no effect on the baseline field

Do Cannabinoids Suppress Baseline Excitatory Transmission in the CA1 Region

Any drug that reduces excitatory drive would be expected to impair high-frequency stimulus-induced LTP by limiting the level of postsynaptic depolarisation achieved during the induction train. This would in turn reduce the relief of the voltage-dependent block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-gated channels by Mg2+ and hence reduce the postsynaptic Ca2+ entry that is required to trigger the processes that lead to synaptic potentiation. The question of whether cannabi-noids inhibit baseline excitatory transmission is therefore an important one. The suppression of inhibitory transmission by cannabinoids in the hippocampus has been well documented, but whether cannabinoids also suppress excitatory glu-tamatergic transmission (as they do in the cerebellum, see the chapter by Szabo and Schlicker, this volume) is less clear cut. Thus, there are reports stating explicitly that WIN55,212-2 either inhibits (Misner and Sullivan 1999 Al-Hayani and Davies 2000 Ameri and Simmet 2000 Hajos...

Motivations to Use Marijuana

There are many reasons why teenagers enjoy getting high. Survey data over the years indicate that a majority of teens use marijuana to feel good, experiment, have a good time with friends, explore the inner self, and relax or relieve tension. According to these data, much of the motivation is celebratory in nature, and many teens use marijuana in social settings such as parties. Others use marijuana out of a sense of curiosity or adventure, the desire to fit in with a group of friends, or boredom. For every generation, defiance of parents can be a motivation to use marijuana. Daily users often seem to use marijuana to deal with depression, anger, anxiety, and family school problems and to get away from problems. These negative reasons for getting Heavy marijuana users may use marijuana to cope with emotional problems like depression and anxiety. Marijuana affects areas of the brain associated with memories, judgment, and reward. Using marijuana may exacerbate the problems the user is...

Control of Different Neurotransmitters by Cannabinoids in Motor Regions

As indicated above, the administration of different cannabinoids impairs movement in rodents and humans. It is expected that this effect depends on the direct or indirect action of cannabinoids on the levels of several neurotransmitters that have been classically involved in the control of basal ganglia function. Three neurotransmitters seem to be influenced by cannabinoids in this circuitry, dopamine, Y -aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate. In the case of the last two neurotrans-mitters, a direct action is possible since GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the basal ganglia contain CB1 receptors located presynaptically (see Fig. 1). This enables endocannabinoids to directly influence presynaptic events, such as synthesis, release, or reuptake (see Fernandez-Ruiz et al. 2002 for a review). In contrast, dopaminergic neurons do not contain CB1 receptors (Herkenham et al. 1991b). However, these receptors are abundantly expressed in the caudate-putamen, which is innervated by...

Reinforce That Thoughts About Marijuana Use Are Normal

The counselor discusses the relationships among thoughts, feelings, and using marijuana Counselor (C) For people who have smoked marijuana for a long time, thoughts about using are normal almost anyone who stops using thinks about starting up again. Thinking about using is not a problem provided you don't act on those thoughts. You may feel guilty about thoughts, and you may try to get them out of your mind. This skill topic will help you learn new ways to manage your thoughts before you slip. Sometimes the thoughts are obvious, but sometimes they creep up on you without notice.

Effects Of Longterm Cannabis Use On Cognition And Behavior

A major concern with long-term use of cannabis, whether consumed for recreational or medicinal purposes, is the possibility of irreversible damage to brain structure or function. There is agreement among researchers, however, that long-term use of cannabis does not result in structural brain damage or gross cognitive deficits (Solowij, 2002). However, the possibility that cannabis use results in subtle and or specific cognitive impairments has been the subject of considerable controversy. Hall and Solowij (1998) have reported detrimental neurocognitive effects in long-term heavy cannabis users. However, these subjects were investigated while they were current users and therefore the deficits could have been a direct effect of intoxication. Until recently, no studies were available which observed a period of abstinence of more than a few days (Solowij, 2002). In an additional study performed by Solowij and colleagues (2002), very long-term cannabis users (median 24 yr of use) showed...

The Purification Analysis and Understanding of Cannabis

In 1964 THC was obtained in its pure form and the structure elucidated (Gaoni and Mechoulam, 1964). Lilly Research Laboratories, in 1968 initiated a cannabinoid research program. Early clinical studies investigated the pharmacological actions of THC and synthetic analogues. The objective was to derive a compound with the benefits of cannabis but without the adverse effects. As a result nabilone came to the forefront and was marketed as an anti emetic in Canada in 1982 and the UK in 1983. On May 13, 1986, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in America transferred a synthetic form of THC from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2 for use as an antiemetic for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In effect, this action by the DEA resulted in a dual scheduling of an identical molecule. A molecule of THC derived from the cannabis plant is a schedule 1 molecule, since the definition of cannabis includes all derivatives of the plant but an identical molecule when synthetically derived and...

Therapeutic Usefulness of Cannabinoids

Medicines used for the treatment of HD include mainly antidopaminergic drugs to reduce the hyperkinesia characteristic of the first phases of the disease (Factor and Firedman 1997) and antiglutamatergic agents to reduce excitotoxicity (Kieburtz 1999). However, the outcome of both strategies has been poor in terms of improving quality of life for HD patients, despite the progress in the elucidation of molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of HD (Cattaneo et al. 2001). In this context, cannabinoid agonists might be a reasonable alternative, since they combine both antihyperkinetic and neuroprotective effects (for review see Fernandez-Ruiz et al. 2002 Lastres-Becker et al. 2003b). As mentioned above, we will not address here the neuroprotective potential of cannabinoids in HD, because this has been addressed in the chapter by Guzman (this volume), but we will address the potential antihyperkinetic action of substances that can elevate endocannabinoid activity in Plant-derived...

United States of America v Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative No 9816950

Supreme Court ruled that people who are arrested on federal marijuana distribution charges may not raise a medical necessity defense in federal court to avoid conviction. Background In California, dozens of medical marijuana distribution centers received considerable media attention following the passage of Proposition 215. Yet many of them had been quietly operating for years before the law was enacted. State and local responses ranged from prosecution to uneasy tolerance to hearty endorsement. In January 1998, the U.S. Department of Justice filed a civil suit to stop the operation of six distribution centers in northern California, including the Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative (OCBC). The U.S. District Court issued an injunction in May 1998 to stop the distributors' actions and rejected, in October 1998, OCBC's motion to modify the injunction to allow medically necessary distributions of marijuana. In September 1999, the Ninth Circuit ruled 3-0 that medical...

Effects Of Cannabinoids On Neurotransmitter Receptors

The fact remains that psychoactive cannabinoids affect a broad range of membrane-bound receptors, which supports the concept of a direct influence on the membrane lipid bilayer, rather than an embedded receptor specific for A9-THC on each of these very different receptor molecules to neurotransmitters.

Is Marijuana A Gateway To Harder Drugs

Many experts believe that marijuana use can lead to the use of harder drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and LSD. However, no conclusive evidence supports this direct cause-and-effect relationship. Studies in several countries, including the United States, indicate that most marijuana users never progress to other drugs. Teenagers who do go on to use other illegal drugs typically use tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana first. In fact, it has been shown that most teens use tobacco cigarettes and alcohol before they are of legal age before ever using marijuana. Also, many more teens use tobacco and alcohol than use marijuana. Thus, tobacco and alcohol may be gateways to marijuana use, although it is still not clear whether one drug can cause an individual to start using other drugs. Also, experts point out that psychological and behavioral problems, poor relationships with parents, or drug-taking peers who approve of drug use all are much more reliable predictors of a teen's progression to...

Antinociception and Suppression of Pain Neurotransmission by Systemically Administered Cannabinoids

Fathers of modern pharmacology, Ernest Dixon (1899). He observed that dogs that inhaled cannabis smoke failed to react to pin pricks. Early studies by Bicher and Mechoulam (1968) and Kosersky et al. (1973) provided a foundation for subsequent work that verifiedthe to acute noxious stimuli and inflammatory and nerve injury-induced pain. In these early studies, it was noted that the potency and efficacy of cannabinoids rival that of morphine (Bloom et al. 1977 Buxbaum 1972). However, cannabinoids also produce profound motor effects e.g., immobility, catalepsy (Martin et al. 1991) , a potential confound for behavioral studies, which inevitably employ motor responses to noxious stimuli as a measure of pain sensitivity. In part to address this potential confound, subsequent electrophysiological and neurochemical studies examined the question of whether cannabinoids suppress activity within pain circuits. These studies provided convincing evidence that cannabinoids suppress nociceptive...

Reform Beyond Permitting Cannabis Use Regulating Availability

In cannabis control reform regimes where cannabis use is depenalized or even permitted on a de facto or de jure basis, as in the reform systems in the countries outlined above, the supply and availability of cannabis for the purpose of personal possession and use inevitably becomes a key practical matter. This is an especially challenging issue, since most standing drug control laws in these reform systems strictly prohibit and provide for heavy punishment for any cannabis supply activities (and in some instances have been strengthened further in exchange for more liberal control approaches to dealing with possession or use), and thus by default may expose most users to considerable criminal enforcement and consequences which the alternative use control measures are aiming to reduce or avoid. Conversely, some cannabis use control reform regimes have included provisions for a reduction of penalties (e.g. by way of imposing civil penalties, e.g. a limited non-criminal fine for the...

WoMenS Alliance for Medical Marijuana Valerie Corral and Michael Corral v United States ofAAmerica No 0315062

Ruling As of July 2005, the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals was still considering whether to overturn an earlier U.S. district court ruling that denied the return of the 160 marijuana plants that were taken by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents during the September 2002 raid. Visit www.SantaCruzvsAshcroft.com for updated information. Background This is the second suit that was filed by the Wo Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana (WAMM) following the DEA raid in 2002. WAMM cofounders Valerie and Michael Corral filed this lawsuit on the grounds that the federal government unlawfully seized property from them during its raid of the medical marijuana cooperative. The DEA has said that it will not return the marijuana plants.

Antinociceptive and Electrophysiological Effects of Spinally Administered Cannabinoids

Antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids are mediated, in part, at the spinal level. Spinal reflexive responses to noxious stimuli are inhibited by cannabinoids in spinally transected dogs (Gilbert 1981). Support for spinal mechanisms of cannabinoid analgesic action is also derived from the ability of intrathecally administered cannabinoids to produce antinociception (Smith and Martin 1992 Welch et al. 1995 Yaksh 1981). The behavioral data are consistent with the ability of spinally administered cannabinoids to suppress noxious heat-evoked and after-discharge firing (Hohmann et al. 1998) and noxious stimulus-evoked Fos protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn neurons (Hohmann et al. 1999c). Spinal administration of a CB1R-selective agonist also inhibits C fiber and A6 fiber-evoked responses of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons through a CB1R mechanism with only minor effects on A-3 fiber-evoked responses (Kelly and Chapman 2001). Systemic and intrathecally administered cannabinoids...

ChapterV The Impacts of Cannabis Policy Reforms

This chapter reviews the existing evidence on the impact on cannabis use and other indicators of the alternative regimes of cannabis control which have been implemented within the current constraints of the international drug conventions. As noted in the preceding chapter, in a number of countries, at both a national and subnational level, governments have introduced changes to the policies and laws applying to cannabis. The reforms that are generally agreed to have been conducted within the bounds of the existing international drug treaties and conventions (e.g. Krajewski, 1999), can be broadly seen as moving away from prohibition with strict criminal penalties on the user (full prohibition) to some form of depenalisation. As described in detail in the previous chapter, the reform typologies include prohibition with cautioning or diversion prohibition with civil penalties (often termed 'decriminalisation') partial prohibition, including both 'de facto' and 'de jure' legalisation and...

Presence Of Endocannabinoids And Cannabinoid Cbt Receptors In Gutbrain Circuits Affecting Git Motility And Emesis

Though most motility functions of the GIT are mediated by the local ENS, the brainstem plays an important role in both the initiation and coordination of GIT motility (Krowicki and Hornby, 1995). As will be discussed later in the text, both exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids affect GIT motility functions and emesis via cannabinoid CE receptors. The first endocannabinoid to be identified in a peripheral tissue was 2-AG. Although Mechoulam et al. (1995) detected 2-AG but not anandamide in the canine small intestine, more recent studies show that relatively large amounts (44.1 4 nmol g tissue and 36.4 6.1 pmol g tissue, respectively) of both endocannabinoids are present in the small intestine of mice (Izzo, Fezza, et al., 2001). The mouse small intestine is highly enriched with 2-AG, as its concentration exceeds the levels found in other peripheral tissues (liver, spleen, lung, and kidney) by 37 to 55 times and in various brain regions by 3- to 20-fold (Bisogno et al., 1999...

Functions Of Endocannabinoids At The Cellular Level

Elucidating the cellular action of endocannabinoids can assist in the understanding and discovery of the functional significance of cannabinoid receptors in the neural systems as well as uncovering the therapeutic usefulness of cannabinoids. The known cellular actions of cannabinoids include effects on ion channels, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the inhibition of phospholipase C which leads to arachidonic acid (AA) accumulation. Studies have show that both CB1 and CB2 receptors are coupled to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and the stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins (Caulfied et al, 1993 Felder et al, 1992 Mackie and Hille, 1992 Schatz et al., 1992). However, the CB1 receptor mediates several ion channels while the CB2 receptor has not yet been shown to modulate the activity of ion channels. The observed cellular endocannabinoid effects are mediated, at least in part, by...

Dependence On Marijuana

Most research indicates that marijuana does not cause much physical dependence in most users. Therefore, such dependence tends not to be used as an indicator or predictor of marijuana use patterns. What research does show is that although marijuana usually does not cause physical dependence, it has the ability to create strong psychological dependence, as do almost all drugs. This dependence has many of the same characteristics of physical dependence cravings, tolerance, withdrawal, and the continuation of the drug despite negative consequences. Psychological dependence therefore can be a useful tool for understanding marijuana use patterns. Studies indicate that about 10 percent of people who try marijuana become dependent on it at some time during their four or five years of heaviest use. Trends show that marijuana use peaks during teenage years through about age 25 therefore, the four or five years of heaviest use likely correspond to some part of adolescence in most users. Other...

Endocannabinoids In Relation To Feeding And Appetite

In parallel into other brain centers where they exert antagonistic actions on food intake. Thus, the NPY AGRP expressing neurons increase feeding, whereas those that express POMC CART inhibit feeding. The stimulatory effects of cannabis products on appetite has been anecdotally known for centuries. A9-THC as well as other exogenous cannabinoids also produce hyperphagic effects under laboratory conditions in most human and animal models (Kirkham and Williams, 2001 Croxford, 2003 Berry and Mechoulam, 2002, Mattes et al., 1994) however, no effect (Graceffo and Robinson, 1998) or a reduction in food intake (Miczek and Dixit, 1980) has been reported. The hyperphagia induced by A9-THC is cannabinoid CB1-receptor mediated as it is reversed by the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716A and not by SR144528, an antagonist for the CB2 receptor (Williams and Kirkham, 2002). In addition, following temporary food restriction, CBj knockout mice eat less than their wild-type littermates (Di Marzo et al.,...

Regulation of Endocannabinoids by Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

Three putative endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide, 2-AG, and NADA, appear to be susceptible to degradation by FAAH (Cravatt et al. 1996 Deutsch and Chin 1993 Di Marzo et al. 1998 Huang et al. 2002). Immunohistochemical studies show that FAAH is present in the ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus (Egertova et al. 1998, 2003 Tsou et al. 1998b), the termination zone of the

Endocannabinoids And Vomiting

Methanandamide is in line with their discussed ability to attenuate (1) in vitro electrically evoked contractions of both isolated MPLM preparation of guinea-pig ileum as well as circular muscle preparation of guinea-pig ileum, (2) in vitro distension-induced propulsive motility of luminally perfused guinea pig isolated ileum, (3) in vitro electrically evoked contractions of gastric smooth muscle preparation, and (4) in vivo passage of charcoal marker in the upper GIT and glass beads in distal colon of mice. In addition, as noted earlier, a large amount of anandamide is found in the brainstem, an area which is generally sparse with cannabinoid CE receptors. However, specific emetic loci of brainstem such as the NTS and CTZ contain significant amounts of CB x sites as well as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) that metabolizes anandamide (Darmani, Sim-Selly, et al., 2003 Van Sickle et al., 2001 Glass et al., 1997). Spurred on by our initial publication that high doses of the cannabinoid...

Assessing Cannabis Craving in a Research Setting

The measurement of cue-elicited cannabis craving in studies testing human research volunteers is described in Subheadings 3.1.1.-3.1.7. This includes (1) recruiting cannabis users who are not seeking treatment for their cannabis use, (2) obtaining written informed consent from research participants, (3) training participants in completion of the MCQ, (4) cue presentation to elicit a craving response, (5) measuring the craving response with the MCQ and physiological The use of cannabis-experienced participants who are not seeking treatment for their cannabis use is critical. There are no proven methods for long-lasting craving reduction thus, it would be unethical to elicit craving in individuals who were trying to reduce or quit using cannabis. A thorough screening procedure, including a history of cannabis use (see Note 1), will generally ensure that appropriate participants are enrolled in the study. Various types of cues have been used to elicit craving in drug users (7). We have...

Effects of Cannabinoids on Pain in Humans

The human trials of cannabis and 49-THC are few in number and typically small in size. These studies differ in important ways. There are marked differences between studies in dose and dose regimens, and the drug preparations differ, with some using smoked marijuana and some using49-THC by the oral or intravenous routes. Some studies used healthy volunteers whereas others used patients with clinical pain of various origins. Therefore, it is important to note that (1) some negative results may have arisen from ineffective doses (2) the oral route of administration adds variability due to the unpredictable absorption of 49-THC (3) smoked marijuana contains additional constituents that likely contribute to any observed effects (4) clinical pain is very different from experimental pain due to plasticity in the neuronal circuits that mediate pain. In light of the fact that the extant materials do not permit one to reach solid conclusions about the utility of direct-acting full cannabinoid...

Assessing Cannabis Craving in a Treatment Setting

The use of the MCQ in a treatment setting may be more flexible than in a research setting. A patient's level of craving may be assessed at initial intake or at baseline before entering treatment. Craving can then be measured periodically during and at the end of treatment to determine treatment outcome. Presumably, craving levels will decrease as a person reduces cannabis use or achieves abstinence. 1. At a minimum, a history of cannabis use should include the following age of first use, age when use became regular (e.g., weekly, monthly), lifetime estimate of number of times using cannabis, frequency of use in past 6 mo, frequency of use in past 30 d, amount (e.g., number of joints) typically used at one time, and type of cannabis preparation typically used. a lot of static on the line and you can hear other voices faintly in the background. Your friend just told you that he's making plans to visit you in a couple of weeks. You're happy and excited. The two of you always had great...

Possible Role Of Endocannabinoids In Gi Pathological States

As discussed earlier, studies in this laboratory have shown that 2-AG is a potent emetogenic agent, whereas anandamide possesses antiemetic and emetic effects (Darmani, 2002b). Xenobiotic cannabinoids prevent 2-AG-induced emesis as well as vomiting produced by other emetic stimuli. The emetic activity of 2-AG was also blocked by the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indo-methacin, suggesting downstream metabolites of endocannabinoids are responsible for the induced emesis. The chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin not only produces vomiting but also causes intestinal mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, and ileus, as well as release of emetic agents such as serotonin, dopamine, and downstream emetic metabolites of endocannabinoids such as PGE2 and PGF2a (Darmani, 2001b, 2001c Goto et al., 1998 Ito et al., 1994 Endo et al., 1990 Bostrom, 1988 Dewit et al., 1987). In collaboration with Di Marzo's laboratories, we have shown that IP administration of cisplatin, specifically and dose...

Cannabinoids effects on vomiting and nausea in animal models

5-HT3 antagonists often combined with the corticosteroid, dexamethasone, during the first chemotherapy treatment has reduced the incidence of acute vomiting by 70-90 1, 8-14 . If acute vomiting is prevented, the incidence of delayed and anticipatory vomiting is reduced 2, 8-11, 20 . However, the 5-HT3 antagonists are less effective at suppressing acute nausea than they are at suppressing acute vomiting 1, 9, 10, 14, 20 and they are ineffective in reducing instances of delayed nausea vomiting 13, 15-20 and ANV 1, 10, 11, 14, 20-22 when they do occur. Therefore, it is likely that another system may be involved in chemotherapy-induced nausea, delayed nausea vomiting and ANV. Two such systems include the neurokinin 1 (NKj) tachykinin receptors for substance P (e.g. 16,17, 23 ) and the endocannabinoid system 24-39 . The effect of cannabinoids on nausea and vomiting is the subject of this review. Cannabinoids as anti-emetics The marijuana plant has been used for several centuries for a...

Marijuana and Highway Accidents

The published evidence suggests that marijuana use may impair motor performance. In a recent review, Ramaekers and colleagues (80) report that both epidemio- logical and experimental studies show that marijuana use is associated with motor accidents. Further, they state that combined use of THC and alcohol produced severe impairment of cognitive, psychomotor, and actual driving performance in experimental studies and sharply increased the crash risk in epidemiological analyses. Significantly increased rates of motor vehicle injuries resulting in hospitalization have also been reported among marijuana users (81). Despite many reports in the published literature, the incidence and prevalence of accidents causally related to marijuana use are not known. More research is needed to establish a causal association between marijuana use and traffic accidents.

Cardiovascular Effects Of Cannabinoids

Actions of Cannabinoids In Vitro Vasorelaxation The overwhelming theme from in vitro studies is that endogenous cannabinoids cause vasorelaxation. However, as will be seen later, this does not simply translate into the in vivo situation. The first in vitro report that anandamide was a vasodilator came from Ellis et al. (1995), who demonstrated that anandamide caused cerebrovascular vasodilatation. Subsequent studies also demonstrated that anandamide was a vasorelaxant in the rat isolated mesenteric and coronary vasculatures (Randall et al., 1996 Randall and Kendall, 1997). The role of the endothelium in vasorelaxation to endogenous cannabinoids varies between vascular beds and tissues. Most studies have shown that the vasorelaxant responses to anandamide are endothelium-independent (Randall et al., 1996 White and Hiley, 1997 White et al., 2001) or only partly endothelium-dependent (Chaytor et al., 1999). However, in the bovine coronary artery, anandamide induces relaxations that are...

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