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Appendix P Partial List of Organizations with Favorable Positions on Medical Marijuana

Partial List of Organizations Favoring Legal Prescriptive Access to Medical Marijuana other endorsement of a physician's right to discuss marijuana therapy with a patient We call upon our elected officials to r eform federal laws to allow for the legal cultivation of medical cannabis and its provision in a safe and orderly manner. other letter opposes federal threats against doctors for discussing risks and benefits of marijuana March 14,1997, letter May 21,1997, endorsement of CA research bill amicus curiae brief supporting right to distribute medical marijuana in California (U.S. v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative) Partial List of Organizations Favoring Legal Prescriptive Access to Medical Marijuana prescriptive access according to Associated Press, the CPA passed a resolution supporting pharmacy participation in the legal distribution of medical marijuana prescriptive access Federal laws should be relaxed in favor of states' rights to allow physicians to administer marijuana...

Following Smoked Cannabis Administration

THC detection times in plasma of 3.5 to 5.5 h were reported in individuals who smoked two cannabis cigarettes containing a total of approximately 10 mg of THC (GC MS LOD 0.8 ng ml) (McBurney et al. 1986) and up to 13 days for deuterated THC in the blood of chronic cannabis users who smoked four deuterium-labeled THC cigarettes (GC MS LOD 0.02 ng ml) (Johansson et al. 1988). In the latter study, the terminal half-life of THC in plasma was determined to be approximately 4.1 days, as compared to frequent estimates of 24 to 36 h in several other studies (Agurell et al. 1984 Lemberger et al. 1972 Wall et al. 1983) that lacked the sensitivity and the lengthy monitoring window of the radio-labeled protocol. THCCOOH concentrations were monitored in human plasma for 7 days after controlled cannabis smoking (Huestis et al. 1992b). This inactive metabolite was detected in all subjects' plasma by 8 min after the start of smoking. THCCOOH concentrations in plasma increased slowly and plateaued for...

The Natural History of Marijuana Dependence

For those who have used marijuana at least once, the relative probability of ever becoming dependent on the substance is estimated to be 9 percent. This level of risk is considerably lower than risk estimates of dependence for those who have used tobacco (32 ), heroin (23 ), cocaine (17 ), or alcohol (15 ) (Anthony et al. 1994). However, the risk of developing marijuana dependence may be higher among individuals who have smoked marijuana more frequently. Among those who have used marijuana five or more times, the risk of dependence is estimated to be 17 percent (Hall et al. 1999). For people who use daily or near daily, the risk may increase to 33 percent (Kandel and Davies 1992). People using marijuana who are recruited into treatment outcome studies averaged more than 10 years of near-daily use and more than six serious attempts at quitting in the past (Stephens et al. 1994b, 2000). Their use had persisted in the face of multiple forms of social, psychological, and physical...

Consequences of Marijuana

Several surveys of people using marijuana heavily who are not in treatment show that a majority report impairment of memory, concentration, motivation, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and health related to their marijuana use (Rainone et al. 1987 Roffman and Barnhart 1987). A similar profile of marijuana-related consequences is seen in samples of adults seeking treatment for marijuana dependence (Budney et al. 1998 Stephens et al. 1994b, 2000). Exhibit VII-1 shows the frequency of self-reported problems in a group of 450 people who chronically used marijuana participating in the Marijuana Treatment Project (MTP) (Stephens et al. 2002). The table shows that clients who presented for treatment with primary marijuana dependence demonstrated a high prevalence of social, legal, medical, and psychological problems, which tend to be directly or indirectly connected with chronic marijuana use and acute marijuana intoxication (Hall et al. 1999). Exhibit VII-1....

Cannabinoids And Pain

Cannabinoids suppress the pain behavior evoked by noxious stimuli of various types including thermal, mechanical and chemical (tail flick, hot plate Buxbaum, 1972 Bloom et al., 1977 Jacob et al., 1981 Lichtman and Martin, 1991a,b Martin et al., 1996, Yaksh and Rudy, 1976 mechanical pinch tests Sofia et al., 1973 chemical Sofia et al., 1973 Formukong et al., 1988). Typically, cannabinoids were comparable to opiates both in their potency and their efficacy (Bloom et al., 1977 Jacob et al., 1981). These findings are interesting and important, but more work was needed to make a convincing case for cannabinoid analgesia, because at appropriate doses cannabinoids suppress the motor system, a potential confound in most tests of experimental pain (Martin et al., 1996). This, together with the emerging possibility that endogenous cannabinoids may mediate endogenous pain suppression, led to studies that examined the neural basis of cannabinoid analgesia.

Suppression of noxious stimulusevoked expression of cfos in spinal cord by cannabinoids

Hunt et al. (1987) demonstrated that noxious stimuli induce the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the spinal dorsal horn, and this response is diminished by analgesics such as morphine (Presley et al., 1990). This laboratory first studied the effects of cannabinoids on the neural processing of pain by examining their effects on spinal c-fos expression induced by injections of dilute formalin in the hindpaw (Tsou et al., 1995). The cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 markedly suppressed this effect. The mediation of the actions of WIN 55,212-2 by canna-binoid receptors was indicated by the dose-dependency of the effect, its reduced magnitude in cannabinoid-tolerant animals, and the lack of efficacy of the canna-binoid receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN 55,212-3.

Reinforcing Effects of Cannabinoids in Animals

Despite the fact that marijuana has consistently been the most commonly used illicit drug for more than 25 years (Johnston et al. 2004), it is only relatively recently that cannabinoids have been shown to elicit rewarding effects in animal models of addiction, including drug self-administration, conditioned place-preference, and

Both hippocampal lesions and exposure to cannabinoids alter sequential dependency in the DNMS task

The similarity in behavioral effects of both cannabinoids (Figure 23.1a) and hippocampal lesions (Figure 23.1b) suggested that cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus may shut down information processing in the hippocampus in much the same manner as a reversible hippocampal lesion (Hampson and Deadwyler, 1998b). The proactive interference or sequential dependency shown in Figure 23.2a appeared to involve a hippocampal protection from proactive interference in normal animals, these same measures of proactive interference were examined both for lesioned animals and animals exposed to A9-THC (Figure 23.2b). Following ibote-nate lesions of the hippocampal cell fields, the carryover of Nonmatch information occurred with equal likelihood following all trial delays (Figure 23.2c and 23.2d). This reflected an increase in the number of trials with the delay-dependent type of error (even at short delays, see Figure 23.1b) produced by the fact that Nonmatch information was carried over to the...

Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

Although it has been contended that further controlled research is needed to diagnose a withdrawal syndrome in human marijuana users (Smith 2002), criteria for cannabinoid withdrawal have been proposed (Budney et al. 2003). Moreover, converging lines of evidence from retrospective, outpatient, and inpatient stud ies indicate a pattern of cannabis withdrawal signs. In an early inpatient study, Jones and his colleagues reported that subjects reported a variety of subjective effects upon abrupt discontinuation from chronic oral THC, which included strange dreams, decreased appetite, restlessness, irritability, sweating, chills, and nausea (Jones and Benowitz 1976 Jones et al. 1976). More recently, similar abstinence symptoms were reported by subjects following abrupt withdrawal from continued administration of either oral THC (Haney et al. 1999a) or inhalation of smoked marijuana (Haney et al. 1999b). In these studies, subjects were found to experience increased anxiety, irritability,...

Human Studies of Cannabinoids and Medicinal Cannabis

3 Safety Issues with Cannabis-Based Medicines 739 Abstract Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind. Pioneering clinical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century has given some support to these anecdotal reports, but the methodological challenges to human research involving a pariah drug are formidable. Studies have tended to be small, imperfectly controlled, and have often...

Marijuana Chemistry Update

A new compound, A7-cis-iso-tetrahydrocannabivarin, has been isolated from Thai marijuana (CPB 29,3720 1981 ). For the biosynthesis of propyl and other cannabinoids see Phyto-chemistry 23, 1909 (1984). Further evidence that CBN and CBN acid are aging products is given by Acta Univ. Palacki Olomuc Fac. Med. 108, 29 (1985). A recent study ofTHC oil mixed in marijuana found that only storage in a freezer at minus 18 degrees centigrade prevented rapid degeneration. Storing in a refrigerator at 5 degrees centigrade, at room temperature under nitrogen, or at room temperature in the dark all led to decomposition of about 75 percent of the THC in twelve weeks, g. P. S. 67, 876 (1978)). The morphology of Brazilian hemp is described in Rev. Cienc. Farm 4,31 (1982). The morphology and cannabinoids of Egyptian plants are presented in Biological Abstracts 76 (2) 8474. The figure shown here has been reversed in printing and the fiber variant is found on the right. Emboden J Psychoactive Drugs 13,15,...

The History of Marijuana

Marijuana is the flowering part of the Indian hemp plant Cannabis sativa, a weed-like species that grows wild and is also cultivated in many tropical and temperate parts of the world. Cannabis means hemp in Latin and is derived from the Greek word kannabis. Marijuana probably comes from the Mexican Spanish marijuana marihuana (Mary's leaf or plant) or from Maria and Juan (Mary and John). Among its many names, marijuana is commonly known as weed, ganja, mary jane, and pot. For thousands of years, cannabis has enjoyed historical significance as a recreational drug, a useful fiber, an oil, an edible seed, and a medicine. It has been used to aid religious practices, alter mood (psychoactive effect), stimulate creativity, treat disease, relieve anxiety and boredom, enhance sensory experience and pleasure, rebel against authority, and go along with peer influence. That is a lot of work for one plant to do. This probably explains why cannabis has always been an important cultivated crop and...

Prediction Models for Estimation of Cannabis Exposure

Although there continues to be controversy in the interpretation of blood cannabinoid results, some general concepts have wide support. A dose-response relationship has been demonstrated for smoked THC and THC plasma concentrations (Perez-Reyes et al. 1981,1982). It is well established that plasma THC concentrations begin to decline prior to the time of peak effects, although it has been shown that THC effects appear rapidly after initiation of smoking (Huestis et al. 1992d). Individual drug concentrations and ratios of cannabinoid metabolite to parent drug concentration have been suggested as potentially useful indicators of recent drug use (Hanson et al. 1983 Law et al. 1984). The ratio of plasma THCCOOH to THC was found to exceed 1 at 45 min after cannabis smoking (Kelly and Jones 1992). This is in agreement with results reported by Mason and McBay (1985) and Huestis et al. (1992d) who found that peak effects occurred when THC and THCCOOH concentrations reached equivalency, within...

Analytical And Legislative Aspects Of Cannabis

Diary Wimpy Kid Activity Pages

This first section of Chapter 4 is concerned with forensic definitions of cannabis and its products as a controlled drug of abuse. Three following sections address related offences and attitudes, techniques used in forensic analysis, and the pharmaceutical quality of cannabis products. There is a long history of medicinal use and social abuse of Indian Hemp (see Chapter 1) but there were strong representations from some delegations to the 1923 Opium Conference, notably reports of Egyptian experience, seeking to ban all non-medicinal uses. In the subsequent 1925 (and 1931) League of Nations Conventions, the description of cannabis restricted the controlled drug to the female plant and named a particular species, Cannabis sativa, alias indica. In the UK, 'Indian Hemp' was dropped in the 1932 revision of the British Pharmacopoeia 1914 and non-medicinal use was banned in 1928. Indian hemp is the dried flowering or fruiting tops of the pistillate plant known as Cannabis sativa alt.indica...

Cannabinoids And Movement Disorders

Cannabinoid receptors in the brain appear to be intimately involved in the control of movement. For example, the administration of plant-derived, synthetic, or endogenous cannabinoids produces a complex pattern of movement disorders with low-dose cannabinoids producing hyperactivity, whereas high doses produce a marked catalepsy. This effect is paralleled by changes in the levels of a range of neurotransmitters in basal ganglia, including GABA, dopamine, and glutamate (Romero et al., 1995 Maneuf et al., 1996a,b Romero et al., 1998 Szabo et al., 2000), all of which are important in the control of movement. These actions of cannabinoids are mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, which are densely localized in the basal ganglia (Herkenham et al., 1991 Glass et al., 1997). Specifically, CB1 receptors are located presynaptically on striatal GABAergic projections to Systemic cannabinoid exposure produces an overall inhibition of movement. This may, however, be misleading in the...

The Chemistry Of Cannabis

Thc Compound C5h11

The phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa has been extensively researched and more than four hundred compounds belonging to a variety of phytochemical groups have been reported to occur in the plant. According to one estimate, over 7000 scientific papers had been published on cannabis, its constituents and their pharmacological activities by 1980 (Turner et al., 1980). Many detailed descriptions of the chemistry of cannabis have been published over the years, such as those of Mechoulam (1973), Razdan (1973), Crombie and Crombie (1976), Schultes and Hoffman (1980), Harvey (1984) and a major review article dealing exhaustively with the phytochemistry of cannabis by Turner et al. (1980). In the present text, only the most important features of cannabis phytochemistry will be described the interested reader is referred to one of the more extensive treatments listed above for greater detail. A further source of information is the annotated bibliography of cannabis covering the literature from...

Possible Effects Of Endocannabinoids On Gi Secretions

Evidence is also accumulating that structurally diverse cannabinoids (A9-THC, WIN55212-2, HU210) inhibit stimulated but not basal gastric acid secretion (Rivas-V and Garcia, 1980 Coruzzi et al., 1999 Adami et al., 2000, 2002) as well as reducing the volume of gastric juice (Sofia et al., 1978). In the latter study, acid concentration was not changed, however, gastric acid output was reduced in people who have chronically smoked cannabis (Nalin et al., 1978). The gastric antisecretory effect of these cannabinoids appears to be CBj-receptor mediated, because the selective CBj agonist HU210 dose-dependently decreased acid secretion produced by both pentagastrin and 2-de-oxy-D-glucose (Adami et al., 2000, 2002 Coruzzi et al., 1999). In addition, the CB1 CB2 agonist WIN55212-2 also caused similar antisecretory effects however, both its inactive enantiomer (WIN55212-3) and the selective CB2 agonist JWH015 were ineffective. Moreover, selective CB1 receptor antagonists such as SR141716A and...

Interactions Between Cannabinoids And 5ht Receptors

In addition to the effects of cannabinoids on the serotonergic metabolism, cannabinoids may affect the function of 5-HT receptors. The receptors for serotonin include seven distinct classes (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple members in each class (Hoyer et al., 2002). Although most of these receptors are G protein-coupled, the 5-HT3 receptor is the only ion channel receptor for serotonin in mammals (Derkach et al., 1989). Among the seven 5-HT receptors, only 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors have to date been found to interact with cannabinoids. Interactions between Cannabinoids and 5-HT2 Receptors Studies with rodents suggest functional interactions between cannabinoids and some behaviors induced by the 5-HT2 receptors. For instance, A9-THC and several synthetic cannabinoid agonists (HU210, CP55940, and WIN55212-2) have been shown to reduce the frequency in mice of the Interactions between Cannabinoids and 5-HT3 Receptors Pharmacological observations have shown that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists...

Preparation of Marijuana Smoke Condensate

Patel and Gori (1) described the preparation of marijuana cigarettes and the production of MSC. Various analytical parameters of blended marijuana (i.e., ash, hex-ane solubles, nitrate, reducing sugars, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, cadmium, chromium, and A9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC ) and marijuana cigarettes (average weight, average moisture content, static burning rate, fire zone temperature at 15- and 55-mm marks) were determined.

Pharmacological Profile Of Cannabinoids

In the absence of a behavioral or physiological response which is unique for cannabinoids, Martin and colleagues (1991) have developed a multiple in vivo assay for the evaluation of cannabimimetic effects. These procedures have been shown to be predictive of psychoactive cannabinoid activity and to highly correlate with affinity for the - predominantly central- cannabinoid CB x receptor (Abood and Martin, 1992 Compton et al., 1993 Martin et al., 1991 Razdan, 1986). The full battery includes a fourfold evaluation in mice (the tetrad ), a drug discrimination test and catalepsy test in rats, an evaluation of static ataxia in dogs and operant suppression in monkeys (Martin et al., 1991). However, often only parts of the battery are used, such as the mouse tetrad and the two tests in rats (Martin et al., 1991) or mouse tetrad and the dog ataxia test (Little et al., 1989), or the mouse tetrad, the rat discrimination learning and in addition, assessment of psychotomimetic activity in man...

Effects of cannabinoids on prostaglandin levels in the CNS

One study on PG-CB interactions in humans has been published (Perez-Reyes et al., 1991). Blood levels of PGs when measured by immunoassay were seen to increase about twofold shortly after volunteers smoked a standardized marijuana cigarette. Both the increase in PG concentration and several of the effects of the drug were reduced by the prior administration of indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of eicosanoid synthesis. In particular, the THC-induced impairment of time estimation was reduced greatly by indomethacin.

Pre-Flowering And Flowering Tips For Growing Marijuana

Everyone makes mistakes on their first time growing. Very few get to this stage without problems, so don't feel too bad if you did not get it right. Growing marijuana is like riding a bike. Once you get it, it is hard to forget. Keeping these things in mind, you can either choose to flower now or choose to keep your plant growing until it reaches its size threshold before you start flowering. If you take the longer route then prepare to have the space for it, because when you flower most cannabis strains they can sometimes more than double in height and width. Most people never get good results or bud quantities from cannabis plants because they have never heard of 12 12. 12 12 is easy to explain. Cannabis plants grow outdoors naturally between the months of April to October November. This means that towards the Sept Oct Nov dates the plants will be in flowering. During this time the days get shorter and the nights get longer. When this occurs the plant is under 12 hours of light and...

Cannabinoids Pharmacokinetics and Drug Analysis

Metabolic Transformations

Cannabinoids immunoassays for each type of biological matrix have to be designed and interpreted in the context of A9-THC absorption and metabolism. The Fig. 1. Chemical structure of naturally occurring cannabinoids. 21 CFR 862.3870 defines a cannabinoid test system as a device intended to measure any of the cannabinoids, hallucinogenic compounds endogenous to marihuana, in serum, plasma, saliva, and urine. Cannabinoid compounds include A9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, and cannabichromene. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of cannabinoid use or abuse and in monitoring levels of cannabinoids during clinical investigational use. Fig. 1. Chemical structure of naturally occurring cannabinoids. 21 CFR 862.3870 defines a cannabinoid test system as a device intended to measure any of the cannabinoids, hallucinogenic compounds endogenous to marihuana, in serum, plasma, saliva, and urine. Cannabinoid compounds include...

Determination of Other Cannabinoids in Urine

Although detection of THCA in urine continues to be the primary method for identifying recent use of marijuana, Manno and Manno and their co-investigators have shown that THC and other metabolites of THC are also excreted in urine as glucuronide conjugates that are not, however, as easily hydrolyzed as THCA glucuronide (38,39). THC and its hydroxylated metabolites are excreted in urine primarily as ether-linked glucuronide conjugates that do not undergo hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis using P-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli at a pH of 6.8 is highly effective in cleaving ether-linked glucuronide conjugates. Manno et al. have used this method for quantitative analysis of cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC, and six THC metabolites in plasma and urine. After enzymatic hydrolysis, they extracted the cannabinoids with hexane ethyl acetate (7 1), derivatized them with BSTFA, and analyzed the products by electron ionization GC MS. Analysis of urine samples by this...

Brief Counseling for Marijuana Dependence

Numerous people contributed to this document, which is part of the Marijuana Treatment Project (MTP) Cooperative Agreement. The document was written by Karen L. Steinberg, Ph.D., Roger A. Roffman, D.S.W., Kathleen M. Carroll, Ph.D., Bonnie McRee, M.PH., Thomas F Babor, Ph.D., M.PH., Michael Miller, Ph.D., Ronald Kadden, Ph.D., David Duresky, M.A., and Robert Stephens, Ph.D. The MTP Research Group provided valuable guidance and support on this document. See appendix B for a full list of contributors. Steinberg, K.L. Roffman, R.A. Carroll, K.M. McRee, B. Babor, T.F Miller, M. Kadden, R. Duresky, D. and Stephens, R. Brief Counseling for Marijuana Dependence A Manual for Treating Adults. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-4022. Rockville, MD Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005.

Reassurance about the Safety of Marijuana

Experts speak of perceived risk versus perceived benefit when attempting to understand the teenage trends of marijuana use. Most of our everyday decisions are based on a balanced scale of these two ideas. When deciding to do something, we weigh the pros and cons the benefits and risks and then make our decision. It is commonly believed that this risk benefit assessment is a primary factor in determining whether or not a teen will use marijuana. perceived benefits of a drug usually spreads much faster along teen grapevines than does information about the potential risks of that drug. Evidence of a drug's risks usually takes longer to accumulate and become recognizable. Thus, misinformation about the risk benefit ratio of marijuana use may be a significant contributor to its use. This view is supported by an analysis of NHSDA surveys from 1979 to 1996, which showed that adolescents ages 12 through 17 who perceived slight or no risk in occasional marijuana use were 12 times more likely...

Collection Of The Most Commonly Asked Questions About Cannabis Cultivation

Pruning or topping plants redirects their growth hormones. By pruning selectively, you manipulate auxin hormone levels in branch and flower tips. Removing a branch or branch tip causes hormonal balances to shift. Cutting the meristem top growth tip) of a cannabis plant will diffuse hormones (auxins) and cause greater concentrations in tower branch tips, which will cause tower buds to gain girth and weight. Disc One, Ultimate Grow Indoor Marijuana Horticulture, gels you started Willi a complete overview ol the cannabis plant and its lifecycle, _ Disc Two, Ultimate Grow Hydroponic Cannabis Indoors & Organic Marijuana Outdoors, features Jorge on a magical tour ot the best gardens in his home country of Spain.

Fractionation and Analysis of Marijuana Smoke Condensate

Stamboom Van Cleopatra Vii

In 1975, Jones and Foote (7) reported acids, phenols, and bases that were chemically separated from the smoke condensate of 2638 marijuana cigarettes and semi-quantitatively analyzed by GC and GC mass spectrometry (MS). The analysis of the basic fraction (1.47 g, 4.8 of total MSC hydrochlorides) was carried out by GC FID using a packed column (10 ft. x 1 8 in., 28 Pennwalt 223 + 4 KOH on chromosorb R, 80-100 mesh). While no fore-column was used for the GC MS analysis, a glass fore-column was used for GC MS analysis with the first 2 in. packed with powdered soda lime to liberate the amines and the remaining 5 in. packed with ascarite to absorb water. The phenolic fraction (0.96 g, 4.6 of total MSC) was analyzed as the TMS derivative by GC thermal conductivity detector using a packed column (5 OV-17 on Diatoport S, 60-80 mesh). The acidic fraction (1.57g, 7.5 of total MSC) was esteri- Fig. 1. Fractionation scheme for marijuana smoke condensate. Fig. 1. Fractionation scheme for marijuana...

Dr Grccnthumbs Cannabis Travels

441 n l 8,1 look my first trip in search of giwxl anil abundant smoke. At that time, I'd been i smoking for a year or two and I'd heard about potent cannabis in Mexico, so it seemed natural to go to the source. After all. the price of a pound in Canada had skyrocketed from 80 to 250 almost overnight. Mexico was great TTic pot was chcap. noi lo mention potent and abundant. My traveling buddy and I bought green trash lugs full of untrimmcd colas for under 100 U.S. at Pie de la Quctsta. near Acapulco. plus a few shocboxcs' full at Oaxaca life was good I've done a lot of traveling over the years, but always to cannahis-producing countries. Since the formation of Greenthumb Seeds in 1995. some travel lias been in order to search for pure gene stock for breeding purposes. But both liefore and since forming my company. I have made it a point to only travel where cannabis is produced, if itoi to collect seeds, then to show ray support, and of course, lo sample and enjoy. Historically, the Nl...

Marijuana Dipped Wd40

You can bypass that whole nightmare by finding yourself a reputable dealer who yau can trust. If you know that your dealer is a marijuana connoisseur and knows his pot like the Pack of his hand, it gives you a sense of security because you know that he is dealing with people of the same mindset. The last thing you want on your mind after buying a bag and getting reatly stoned off it is whether or not that was marijuana you just smoked or some chemical additive. I've often heard of novice smokers who got extremely high off a joint of kind bud say that they thought it was Faced with something when what really happened is that they just got their money's worth ol bud and experienced a superior high. Over time you'll come to understand th.it different strains of pot will give you different highs. Some witl be psychedelic, laughy and colorful, and others wiil feel debilitating and almost narcotic. After you come to know what to expect, the high isn't as scaiy or unexpected as it might be...

Cannabis Use And Abuse By Man An Historical Perspective

The hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, is native to central Asia north of the Himalayas. It was initially confined to an area stretching from Turkestan in the west, to Pakistan in the east. Southern China probably marked the northernmost boundary of this original domain. Hemp has subsequently become much more widespread, largely due to the intervention of man. Cannabis, a dioecious species, is a member of the Cannabidaceae family, which contains only one other genus Humulus. The hop plant, Humulus lupulus, is used to preserve and flavour beer. The ancient Chinese, and others inhabiting the plant's native region of central Asia, must have discovered the properties of cannabis centuries before it came to the attention of other more distant civilisations. In the right conditions the plant grows quickly to maturity, and the multiplicity of potential uses made it too valuable to be ignored. Copies of a Chinese herbal, thought to have been originally written in the 3rd millennium BC by the...

Cannabis And Its Derivatives

Photos Lord Shiva During Doping Ganja

There's been do top authority saying what marijuana docs to you, I really don't know that much about it,) tried it once but it didn't do anything to me. This is a plant with a dream, a vision of world conquest in less than 10,000' years. From prehistoric times, the destinies of man and marijuana have been inextricably linked. Shamans toted magic weed around in medicine bags, and nomads introduced it everywhere they prowled in ancie.nt Eurasia. Familiar but enigmatic, provoking extravagant praise and ferocious condemnation, cannabis has long been t- most widely used hallucinogen on earth. Modern farmers sprout specimens from every nook and cranny of the globe. And every time the cry goes up for more research, hemp gets scattered further. Recently the United Nations planted it above the Arctic Circle, where it was never known before, to see whether a powerful strain of South African dope will retain its potency up near the North Pole. And with all the scientists who now turn . on, it's...

United States v Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative

Under the federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA), marijuana is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance, a classification reserved for drugs found by the federal government to have no currently accepted medical use. 21 U.S.C. 812(c), Schedule I (c)(10). Consistent with this classification system, the CSA does not allow Schedule I drugs to be dispensed upon a prescription, unlike drugs in the less restrictive drug schedules. Id. 829. In particular, the CSA prohibits all possession, manufacture, distribution or dispensing of Schedule I substances, including marijuana, except in the context of a government-approved research project. Id. 823(f), 841(a)(1), 844. Some states have passed laws that create a medical use exception to otherwise applicable state marijuana sanctions. California was the first state to pass such a law, when, in 1996, California voters passed a ballot initiative, Proposition 215, which removed certain state criminal penalties for the medical use of...

Pharmacological Characteristics of Cannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents

THC is the pharmacologically and toxicologically most relevant and best studied constituent of the Cannabis plant, responsible for most of the effects of natural Cannabis preparations (42). (A MEDLINE search covering the period 1993-2003 and using the keywords tetrahydrocannabinol and pharmacology produced about 1000 citations.) THC mainly acts through binding to the CB-1 receptor (see Chapter 6). The natural (-)-trans isomer of THC is 6- to 100-fold more potent than the (+)-trans isomer. A review of the pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutic potential of Cannabis, cannabinoids, and other Cannabis constituents is given in refs. 43-53. It is claimed that Cannabis as a polypharmaceutical herb may provide two advantages over single-ingredient synthetic drugs (1) the therapeutic effects of the primary active Cannabis constituents may be synergized by other compounds, and (2) the side effects of the primary constituents may be mitigated by other compounds (34). Thus, Cannabis has been...

Limitations Of Human Studies On Marijuana

Marijuana has been an area of significant social and scientific interest for many years, yet many questions remain unanswered or not fully answered. In part, this is due to the inherent difficulties of human research on any illegal substance and in part it is due to special characteristics of marijuana. For example, marijuana has a very long half-life making the cause and effect less obvious, and marijuana is not a specific chemical, but rather a substance derived from the cannabis sativa plant that contains numerous active and inert chemicals. In general, studies on acute exposure to marijuana are better controlled than studies on long-term use. However most acute exposure studies using human subjects were done decades ago. Many of these older studies may underestimate adverse effects of current marijuana preparations since marijuana is now generally much more potent than that used in the past. Investigations on the adverse effects of chronic marijuana are very important, but most of...

Exogenous Cannabinoids

Smith et al. (1978) were among the first to note structure-activity relationships of natural and synthetic cannabinoids in suppression of humoral and cell-mediated Schatz et al. (1992) reported that inhibition of adenylate cyclase by THC constituted a potential mechanism for cannabinoid-mediated immunosuppression. Diaz et al. (1993) treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures with THC and a variety of cAMP stimulators. Lymphocyte cAMP levels were stimulated using three hormone receptor stimulators, isoproterenol, histamine, or N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA), each of which utilizes a different receptor to enhance cAMP production. THC suppressed cAMP levels independently of the hormone and receptor utilized. It was suggested that THC exerted its effects on second messenger systems at the lymphocyte membrane level, and that a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein was involved. Kaminski et al. (1994) also reported that suppression of the humoral immune response by...

Francis Kombe Marijuana Doping

List of athletes caught doping with cannabinoids. Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabinoids Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis (self-admitted) Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Cannabis Indian Cannabis Cannabis it produces. Furthermore, reported cannabis use for this reason was positively correlated to the competitive intensity of the sport in question (8). This is the closest contemporary science appears to have come to observing or recognizing this potential for cannabis to play a beneficial roll in an athlete's overall plan or, depending on one's perspective, to act as an effective doping agent. Most available attempts in the literature to address the topic of cannabis use by athletes have been quite firmly against it. Although most acknowledge that cannabis is used by athletes for its...

Endocannabinoids in the modulation of pain

One major therapeutic indication of cannabinoids is analgesia, but it may be limited by their psychotropic effects. Over the years, strong evidence of the physiological and biochemical basis of the involvement of the EPCS in pain has emerged. The antinociceptive effects of CB receptor agonists have been demonstrated in animal models of acute, inflammatory, and nerve injury-induced pain, following peripheral, systemic, spinal, supraspinal, or intracerebral administrations (Goya et al., 2003). Thus, a number of preclinical studies have shown that cannabinoids reduce the hyperalgesia and allodynia associated with formalin, capsaicin, carrageenan, nerve injury, and visceral persistent pain (Karst et al., 2003). Evidence also exists that endocannabinoids suppress pain. Endocannabinoid mechanisms for pain suppression are known to exist at various levels of the pain pathway, in a system that is distinct from, but parallel to, that involving opiates (Iversen and Chapman, 2002). Parallel with...

Endocannabinoids And Gl Motility

Over the past three decades, Pertwee and his coinvestigators have been the leading contributors to the understanding of the in vitro effects of A9-THC, its synthetic analogs, and anandamide on intestinal motility functions (Pertwee, 2001). Their studies evolved from the observation that A9-THC inhibits the contractile response produced by electrically evoked contractions of isolated whole ileum or isolated myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle (MPLM) preparation of the guinea-pig ileum. In these preparations, the contractile response is thought to be due to the electrically induced release of acetylcholine from enteric cholinergic nerves. Cannabinoids of diverse structure and activity attenuate the induced contractions with a potency order (CP55940 WIN55212-2 nabilone A9-THC cannabinol anandamide) that is similar to their affinity rank order for the cannabinoid CBi receptor (Breivogel and Childers, 2000 Breivogel et al., 2001). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of cannabinoids can be...

Role of Vanilloid TRPV1 Receptors in the Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabinoids

The above observations do not implicate the endothelium in the vasodilator response to anandamide. Other studies, which documented both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent components for the vasodilator effect of anandamide, confirmed the role of TRPV1 receptors but only for the endothelium-independent component (Jarai et al. 1999 Mukhopadhyay et al. 2002). The endot-helium-dependent vasodilator effect of anandamide in the rabbit aorta or the similar effect of abn-cbd in rat mesenteric arteries is unaffected by capsazepine (Mukhopadhyay et al. 2002 Jarai et al. 1999 Offertaler et al. 2003 Ho and Hiley 2003). Interestingly, sensory nerve terminals also appear to have CB1 receptors, stimulation of which by very low doses of anandamide or by the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210, neither of which results in activation of TRPV1 receptors, inhibits sensory neurotransmission (reviewed in Ralevic et al. 2002). Furthermore, a recent study by Zygmunt et al. (2002) indicates that THC...

Endocannabinoids Act via Presynaptic Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors to Inhibit Transmitter Release

THC and a number of synthetic non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists (such as WIN 55,212-2 and HU-210) modulate neuronal excitability by presynaptic CBi-mediated short-term inhibition of glutamatergic and y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic transmission (for more detailed reviews see Schlicker and Kathmann 2001 Alger 2002). Release studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids also modulate other neurotransmitter systems. In accordance with the electrophys-iological evidence, anatomical studies have demonstrated that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are located presynaptically on nerve terminals in numerous brain structures. Exogenous application of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG also modulates synaptic transmission within a number of regions throughout the central nervous system, including the hippocampus, midbrain periaqueductal grey, spinal and medullary dorsal horn, and the substantia nigra (Shen et al. 1996 Vaughan et al. 2000 Morisset et al. 2001 Jennings et al. 2003...

The Cannabis Plant Botany Cultivation And Processing For

Yaprak Sanat Etkinlikler

Cannabis plants have been cultivated in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas for hundreds, perhaps even thousands of years as a source of three main products hemp fibre, cannabis seeds and medicinal or narcotic preparations (Fairbairn, 1976). Hemp fibre is obtained from cannabis stems, and has been used over the centuries for the production of textiles, rope and sacking. It is strong and durable, composed of about 70 cellulose and reaches lengths of 3-15 feet (Schultes, 1970). The fibre has been used in the past to make paper, and has been proposed as a replacement for wood pulp in modern paper production (Kovacs, 1992). However, there are many technological limitations to be overcome before this becomes a commercially viable proposition (Judt, 1995). The seeds (which technically are the fruit or achene) may be roasted and consumed by man, used as birdseed or anglers' bait or pressed to yield a greenish yellow, fixed oil which has been used in foodstuffs and in varnishes, paints and...

Adverse Events From Cannabis Administration

Acute cardiovascular effects of cannabis administration include tachycardia, slightly increased blood pressure when supine, orthostatic hypotension, increased cardiac output, and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (32,33). These effects increase myocardial oxygen demand at the same time that oxygen delivery to tissues may be decreased because of the increased car-boxyhemoglobin from smoking. As a result, smoking one marijuana cigarette significantly reduces maximal exercise performance and exercise tolerance of physically healthy subjects (34) and patients with angina (35). However, in healthy subjects the acute cardiovascular effects of cannabis are mild, self-limiting, and rarely cause clinically significant adverse events (32,36-38). Orthostatic hypotension may be associated with light-headedness and syncope (39). This may be minimized by ensuring that subjects are well hydrated (including encouraging fluid intake during cannabis administration), avoiding sudden changes...

Determination of Cannabinoids in Meconium

Clinicians are increasingly interested in determining when a newborn infant has been prenatally exposed to marijuana or other drugs of abuse. Meconium is the preferred matrix for analysis in these cases because it retains drugs and drug metabolites for a longer time than does an infant's blood or urine (55). ElSohly and co-investigators extensively investigated methods of measuring THC and its metabolites in meconium (8,55). They found that HO-THC and 8P,11-diHO-THC were present in significant quantities in meconium from neonates whose mothers had used marijuana and that those metabolites were mainly in the form of glucuronide conjugates. The investigators developed two different GC MS assays for determination of cannabinoids in meconium both included enzyme hydrolysis, but one employed liquid liquid extraction (55) and the other an immunoaffinity extraction procedure (8). The liquid liquid extraction method included the following procedures after addition of THC-d9 and THCA-d6 the...

Nonclassical Cannabinoids

A second class of cannabinergic ligands possessing close similarity with CCs was developed at Pfizer in an effort to simplify the CC structure, while maintaining or improving biological activity (52-56). This group of compounds is generally designated as nonclassical cannabinoids and includes AC-bicyclic (e.g., 26 and 27, Fig. 2) and ACD-tricyclic (e.g., 28, Fig. 2) ligands lacking the pyran Bring of CCs. NCCs share some of the key pharmacophores of the CCs, namely, the phenolic hydroxyl, the side chain, and the northern aliphatic hydroxyl groups. Additionally, this class of cannabinergics has a hydroxypropyl chain on the cyclohexyl ring contiguous and trans to the aromatic phenolic group (e.g., (-)-CP-55,940, 27, Fig. 2). This important new pharmacophore was designated as the southern aliphatic hydroxyl group (3) and has been subjected to extensive investigation by the Makriyannis and Tius groups (46,47,57-60). Synthetic approaches for the SAH group are given in hybrid cannabinoids...

The Cannabis Species Debate

Twentieth-century taxonomists have variously characterized Cannabis. Although all taxonomists recognize the species Cannabis sativa, Small and Cronquist (20) subdivided C. sativa into two subspecies, each with two varieties based largely on can-nabinoid content and traditional usage. Schultes et al. (21) divided Cannabis into three separate species C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis. Several other researchers do not preserve C. ruderalis, but recognize both C. sativa and C. indica (22,23). We consider C. sativa to include all wild, hemp, and drug Cannabis races, with the possible exception of those traditionally used for hashish production in Central Asia. These morphologically and chemically distinct Central Asian races deserve the separate specific name of C. afghanica following the variety name for C. indica determined by Vavilov and Bukinich (23). Some Chinese races may also deserve taxonomic distinction separate from either C. sativa or C. indica (24). Validation of these...

How to Harvest Marijuana: A Step by Step Guide

The payment for all the research, work, risk, expense, and the long, patient wait is a bountiful harvest. Strong, healthy, well-grown clones and seedlings yield the heaviest harvests. A well-organized pre-harvest and harvest are essential to preserve cannabis quality and decrease the workload. Fragrance is often a problem before, during, and alter harvest. Control fragrance by keeping drying and manicuring rooms well-vented. If possible, allow plenty of fresh circulating air to pass through the drying room to remove odors quickly. If air in and around drying and manicuring room is stagnant, odors linger and accumulate. Keep temperatures below 70° F (21° C) so essential oils in cannabis do not volatize and release pleasant but unwanted fragrances. Contain cannabis fragrance in sealed drying and manicuring rooms. Filter air before expelling with a carbon filter. See Odor in Chapter Thirteen for more information on controlling fragrance. The THC chemical is produced in leaves,...

Marijuana Addiction Introduction

Nausea and vomiting are the common side effects associated with cancer chemotherapy that profoundly affects the patient's quality of life and may lead to refusal of further chemotherapy treatment (Coats et al., 1983). In the interest of enhancing patient compliance and for humanitarian reasons, it is essential to develop new drugs which can prevent the discomfort of chemotherapy without decreasing its effectiveness. In the past two decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapy produces emesis. This new knowledge has led to the introduction of clinically useful antiemetics such as serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in early 1990s, which has revolutionized the treatment of the acute phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, 5-HT3 antagonists seem to be ineffective in the treatment of the delayed phase of emesis (Cubeddu, 1996 Hesketh, 1996). More broadspectrum antiemetics, such as tachykinin NK1 receptor...

Introduction Marijuana and movement

The recreational and medicinal properties of the marijuana plant have been known by humankind since ancient times. Today, the plant is primarily used for its euphorogenic properties, despite its continuing illegal status. But even for the common user, one of the many physiological effects known to be induced by the active ingredients in the plant is especially striking, that is, the effects on movement. The major recognized effect of marijuana on movement is the induction of hypoactiv-ity. Nevertheless, as will be described below, the hypoactive states induced by these compounds are complex. Even when inducing hypoactivity this is characterized by a state of hyperreflexia uncommon to other drugs inducing depression of the central nervous system. Other than the effects on general activity in humans, cannabinoids are known to induce small impairments in motor coordination (Dewey, 1986 Hall et at, 1994 Hollister, 1986 Martin et al, 1994 Wilson et al, 1994).

Special hazards of smoked cannabis

Traditionally the use of cannabis both in Oriental and Western medicine involved taking the drug by mouth, but most current use in the West involves the inhalation of cannabis smoke. Unfortunately, although smoking is a remarkably efficient means of delivering an accurately gauged dose of THC it also carries special hazards. Although THC itself appears to be relatively safe, the same cannot be said of marijuana smoke. Cannabis smoke and smoking behavior Although there has been relatively little research on the effects of cannabis smoke, a great deal is known about the toxic components in tobacco smoke and their biological effects. Cannabis smoke is very similar in chemical composition to tobacco smoke, so it is not unreasonable to suggest that our knowledge of the dangers of tobacco can provide useful predictions about the hazards of smoking cannabis. Both cannabis and tobacco smoke contain carbon monoxide and a number of toxic chemicals, several of which are carcinogenic. Two of the...

Managing Thoughts About Marijuana5

Here are several ways of managing thoughts about marijuana Find distractions Think of something unrelated to marijuana use. Use the decision-delay technique If nothing else is working, then look at your watch and put off a decision to use marijuana for 15 minutes or more (use images to tough it out until the urge passes).

Chronic effects related to marijuana use

Drug induced phenomena may be subsumed under acute effects, withdrawal, chronic residual (possibly reversible) effects and permanent effects that may be associated with morphological changes. Demarcation among these categories is clearer with certain drugs but less so with others. For example, in the case of ethyl alcohol, phenomena related to intoxication (acute effect), withdrawal (delirium tremens in extreme cases), reversible functional changes (cognitive changes including memory defects) and gross morphological changes (diffuse brain atrophy with ventricular and sulcal dilation) are well described. However, in the case of marijuana, such distinctions are less clear. Many studies are available on marijuana's acute effects. While greater attention has been focused recently on determining potential chronic effects of marijuana, much less is known about potential chronic morphological brain changes in humans. Animal data seem to support chronic effects, perhaps permanent changes in...

Urinary Biomarkers of Recent Cannabis

Significantly higher concentrations of THC and 11-OH-THC in urine are observed when Escherichia coli -glucuronidase is employed in the hydrolysis method compared to either Helix pomatia -glucuronidase or base (Kemp et al. 1995a,b). THC and 11-OH-THC are primarily excreted in urine as glucuronide conjugates that are resistant to cleavage by alkaline hydrolysis and by enzymatic hydrolysis procedures employing some types of -glucuronidase. Kemp et al. demonstrated that -glucuronidase from E. coli was needed to hydrolyze the ether glucuronide linkages of the active cannabinoid analytes. Mean THC concentration in urine specimens from seven subjects collected after each had smoked a single 3.58 marijuana cigarette was 22 ng ml using the E. coli -glucuronidase hydrolysis method, while THC concentrations using either H. pomatia -glucuronidase or base hydrolysis methods were near zero (Kemp et al. 1995a,b). Similar differences were found for 11-OH-THC with a mean concentration of 72 ng ml from...

An Introduction To Cannabis Sativa

Differents Types Indian Drugs

The chemical compounds primarily responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of the hemp plant are concentrated in an aromatic, tar-like resin in the flowering tops of the Indian hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). This resin tends to be most potent in the female plants, especially when they are cultivated before the seeds form. (They are also known as sinsemilla, a Spanish word meaning without seed. ) It is said that the hemp plant produces the resin as protection from heat in order to preserve moisture during reproduction. The plants highest in resin therefore tend to grow in hot regions such as Mexico, the Middle East, and India. It is the flowers, buds, or leaves of the hemp plant that are known as marijuana. The resin itself can be collected and pressed into cakes or lumps called hashish. In addition, the resin can be extracted into a thick, oily liquid known as hashish oil. Any of these preparations can be eaten or smoked. The three most prevalent varieties of the Indian...

Determination of Cannabinoids in Adipose Tissue and Other Tissues

Quantitative determination of cannabinoids in adipose tissue is even more challenging than analysis of cannabinoids in blood. Johansson et al. developed a lengthy assay for measurement of THC in human fatty tissue (53). The procedure included homogenization of the fat samples with hexane isopropanol (3 2) and sequential SPEs with Lipidex 5000 gel and a C18 resin. The extracted THC was derivatized with (MTBSTFA), and the derivatized THC was purified by preparative HPLC using a C18 column. Finally, the purified and derivatized THC was analyzed by means of GC and high-resolution MS.

Determination of Cannabinoids in Hair

Determination of drugs in hair has continued to grow in importance its advantages over analysis of other matrices are that it is relatively noninvasive, and drugs can be detected in hair for a much longer time period. However, cannabinoids in blood are not taken up in hair nearly as efficiently as most other drugs are. As a result, concentrations of cannabinoids in hair after smoking or ingestion of marijuana are very low and can only be detected with extremely sensitive analytical methods. Furthermore, cannabinoid metabolites such as THCA are normally present in hair at even lower concentrations than parent cannabinoids such as THC, cannabinol, and canna-bidiol. This is a problem in forensic cases because passive exposure to marijuana smoke can result in external adsorption of cannabinoids to hair follicles. Consequently, a hair analysis that detects THCA provides more convincing evidence of intentional smoking or ingestion of marijuana than a hair analysis that detects THC,...

Reproductive Effects Of Cannabis

Cannabis is widely used by adolescents and young adults during the peak age for reproduction. Animal studies in the mid-1970s raised concerns that cannabis use during this period could adversely affect reproductive outcomes because large doses of THC reduced the secretion of gonadal hormones in both sexes (Brown & Dobs, 2002) and adversely affected foetal development (Bloch, 1983). In animals, marijuana, crude marijuana extracts, THC and some purified cannabinoids depress male reproductive endocrine function (Bloch, 1983 Brown & Dobs, 2002). If used chronically, cannabis may reduce plasma testosterone, retard sperm maturation, reduce sperm count and sperm motility, and increase the rate of abnormal sperm production (Bloch, 1983 Murphy, 1999). The mechanisms for these effects are Studies of the effects of cannabis on human male reproductive function have produced mixed results (Brown & Dobs, 2002). An early study that reported reduced testosterone, sperm production, and sperm motility...

Cannabis Drug Formulation

Thc Symbol

Synthesis of THCA begins when a molecule of geranyl diphosphate (a monoterpene) is joined to a phenolic ring (a circular molecule with six-carbons). This is why THC is sometimes referred to as a terpenophenolic. Because it has a few extra molecular attachments, the phenolic ring is called olivetolic acid and it is through the enzyme geranylpyrophosphate olivetolate geranyltransferase that forms cannabigerolic acid, or CBGA. The final product after CBGA formation is THCA by way of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (TCHA) synthase. Subsequently, high levels TCHA are found in Cannabis trichome cavity (Sirikantaramas et al., 2005). A look inside the Cannabis cell, showing geranyl diphosphate and olivetolic acid combining to yield THCA. A look inside the Cannabis cell, showing geranyl diphosphate and olivetolic acid combining to yield THCA. With all this biochemistry comes the curiosity of why Cannabis has evolved to produce THC-like molecules. It has been hypothesized that the...

Cannabinoids affect encoding strength but not encoding functions

The loss of Sample firing correlates described above (Figure 23.5) confirmed an earlier report that exposure to A9-THC reduced firing of hippocampal cells during the Sample phase of DMS, but not the Nonmatch phase (Heyser et al, 1993). In terms of the behavioral cascade, this means that more trials show weak encoding (red arrow, Figure 23.4b), and consequently, LDEs and miscodes are increased. The frequency distributions of ensemble Sample phase firing rates (Hampson and Deadwyler, 2000) reveals that cannabinoids shift the distribution toward weaker codes (lower rates). Comparison with the vehicle (control) distribution shows that a larger number of trials were at risk and the mean encoding strength was

Stability of Cannabinoids in Biological Matrices

Different stability studies have been conducted to investigate the stability of THC-COOH in urine or the stability of THC and THC-COOH in blood (84,85,129-134). The hydrophobic nature of cannabinoid molecules may lead to the loss of drugs in the specimen caused by surface adsorption to the specimen-handling and storage devices and containers. The loss of analyte from calibrator solutions can lead to inaccuracy of the analytical system (129). The stability of cannabinoids in immunoassay calibrator solutions and in urine samples has been extensively evaluated in various container materials at different temperatures (129-134). In addition to potential analyte loss to surface adsorption, the temperature and storage conditions can affect the stability of cannabinoids in specimens. Drug partition into strata when frozen in urine was observed and postulated to be due to the thermodynamics of the freezing process (131). 'The products are indicated the immunoassay technology-cutoff level the...

Endocannabinoids And Neuroprotection

Exogenous cannabinoids inhibit glutamate release upon binding to presynaptic CBj receptors in vitro (116,117). Endocannabinoids are increasingly believed to be inhibitors of neurotransmitter release via binding to presynaptic CBj receptors following their retrograde transport from a postsynaptic locus of synthesis. This retrograde endocannabinoid function has been demonstrated to modulate GABA release (118-120) and glutamate release (121-124) in different brain regions of the rat. Activation of CB1 receptors may thus inhibit excitation. Depending on the anatomical site of action, the CB1 receptors may also cause disinhibition of excitatory synapses via modulation of GABA release, which results in increased glutamate release. In accordance with this notion, the principal plant-derived cannabinoid, A9-tetrahydrocannabinol (A9-THC, see Figure 14.1), decreases extracellular GABA levels and elevates extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex of the rat (125). This intriguing...

Interaction Between Cannabinoids and Nicotine

The consumption of cannabis is highly associated with tobacco, which contains nicotine, an important psychoactive compound (Nemeth-Coslett et al. 1986 Mc-Cambridge and Strang 2004). The administration of THC and nicotine in rodents produces multiple common pharmacological responses including analgesia, hypothermia, impairment of locomotor activity and addiction (Hildebrand et al. 1997 Ameri 1999 Maldonado and Rodriguez de Fonseca 2002). Nicotine responses are mediated by the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which have a pentameric structure consisting of different receptor subunits (Grutter and Changeux 2001 Le Novere et al. 2002). and nicotinic systems. The specific behavioural and biochemical consequences of such an interaction are poorly documented in animal models in spite of the high frequency of association of these two substances in humans. Nicotine facilitated THC-induced acute pharmacological and biochemical responses in mice, including hypothermia,...

Cannabinoids and Analgesia

5ht Immuno Spinal Cord

Pain pathways are described at three levels in the periphery, where it originates at the level of the spinal cord, where some control gating the transmission of pain exists and in the CNS, particularly at the level of the periaqueductal gray. CBj receptors are found on peripheral nerves (59), and injection of anandamide into tissues swollen from carageenan-induced inflammation has been shown to reduce pain in rats (60). But there is much more evidence for a spinal and a central site of action of cannabinoids. To understand better some of the sites and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids, a simplified pain pathway model is presented in Figs. j0 and jj. Fig. 10. Neurotransmitters and spinal modulation of pain whereas serotonin (5HT) abolishes pain transmission, y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increases it by inhibition of the 5HT neuron. Cannabinoids may modulate pain transmission by inhibiting the firing of this GABA neuron, in a way similar to opiates. RVM, rostral ventrolateral medulla....

Legislative History of Medical Cannabis in Oregon

The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act in some ways represents an end-point of focused attention and efforts by a considerable number of Oregonians over many years. It is also a beginning for Oregon patients. The first legislative attempt in 1979 at creating a medical marijuana bill was, remarkably, passed and signed into law. House Bill (HB) 2267 called for a coordinated effort between the Oregon State Police and the Oregon Health Division (OHD) to channel confiscated Cannabis through the OHD to patients suffering from two specific conditions cancer chemotherapy and glaucoma. This legislation was cosponsored by six Oregon Senators and nine Representatives. It also provided for the testing of confiscated Cannabis by the OHD for purity and safety. HB 2267 allowed physicians to lawfully obtain, prescribe, and dispense marijuana to their patients. Essentially this meant that doctors would have to stock and supply Cannabis to their patients from their office. HB 2267 was never implemented...

Cannabinoids and Thermoregulation

One of the characteristic pharmacological properties of CB1 receptor agonists is an ability to induce hypothermia (Pertwee 1985). The changes of body temperature caused by cannabinoids are dose dependent. According to Pertwee, higher doses of THC cause hypothermia by lowering the thermoregulatory set point , while lower doses are hyperthermic. It has been postulated that differential Gs and Gi protein activation by CB1 receptors could explain these findings (Sulcova et al. 1998).

Endocannabinoids and regulation of fertility

Blastocyst

The adverse effects of cannabinoids, and in particular of A9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (A9-THC), on reproductive functions have been known for a long time 1,2 , and include retarded embryo development, fetal loss and pregnancy failure (recently reviewed in 3, 4 ). A9-THC has been reported to account for the majority of the reproductive hazards of marijuana use, in particular in males it leads to impotency by suppressing spermatogenesis, by reducing the weight of reproductive organs and by decreasing the plasma concentration of circulating hormones like testosterone. In females, A9-THC inhibits ovulation by prolonging the estrous cycle and decreasing the proestrous surge of luteiniz-ing hormone. In addition, exposure to natural cannabis extracts during pregnancy has been correlated with embryotoxicity and specific teratological malformations in rats, hamsters and rabbits. Also the major endocannabinoid anan-damide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) has been shown to impair pregnancy and...

Marijuana Use In Cell Survival Neurogenesis And Apoptosis

Marijuana use and the effects of exogenous synthetic cannabinoid administration, including the activation of endocannabinoids and multiple signaling capabilities, have been shown to control cell survival and death by inhibiting or stimulating cell growth. Thus, cannabinoids induce growth arrest or apoptosis in a number of transformed neural and nonneural cells in culture (Guzman et al., 2002). Cannabinoids of all classes also have the ability to protect neurons from a variety of insults that are believed to underlie delayed neuronal death after traumatic brain injury, including excito-toxicity, calcium influx, free radical formation, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation (Biegon, 2004). Specifically, an important physiological role of cannabinoids is neuroprotection, and in animal studies, inhibition of calcium influx into cells, antioxidant properties that reduce damage caused by oxygen radicals, and modulation of vascular tone has been shown (Grotenhermen, 2004). It has been...

The Indoor Cannabis Grow

Duct Work For Growing Marijuana

There are many ways to grow your cannabis plant indoors. The two core methods of indoor growing are soil growing and hydroponics. There is a separate chapter for hydroponics, and so this chapter will deal with soil growing. Plants are green, which means that Plants absorb light at the middle of the spectrum (Orange to Indigo). Cannabis plants need this part of the light spectrum to reach full growing potential. The intensity of the light is also important. A light that feeds the full bandwidth with all light spectrums will work very well - like sunlight. When dealing with artificial lights it is better to choose a light that concentrates its intensity on the top part of the spectrum. The most common indoor light systems are called HID lights. We will discuss the full range of lights that you may come across in some grow rooms. These lights are the long industrial lights that are found in many a school and work place. These lights come in nearly all lengths and sizes. 2 to 10 feet are...

Cannabinoids in appetite and obesity

In contrast to most drugs, many of the pharmacological activities of cannabinoids were described in humans before being investigated by pharmacologists in laboratory animals. This peculiarity is of course due to the use of Cannabis sativa preparations for recreational purposes from ancient civilizations up to modern times. The effects of cannabinoids on appetite makes no exceptions the fact that cannabis can stimulate appetite has been observed since ad 300 1 . Recent experiments using potent synthetic or natural endogenous cannabinoid agonists, as well as transgenic animals in which the cannabinoid system has been disrupted confirm the role of the cannabinoid system as a modulator of food intake. A large anecdotal and descriptive literature suggest that smoking cannabis stimulates hunger, and selectively increases the appetite for sweet and palatable food, which smokers sometimes refer to as 'the munchies'. Starting in the 1970s, a series of well-controlled scientific studies was...

The development of Sativex a natural cannabisbased medicine

Capitate Stalked Trichomes

Cannabis has been used medicinally for 4000 years 1-4 in a variety of cultures and was re-introduced into British medicine in 1842 by W. O'Shaughnessy 5 . It remained in the British pharmacopaeia until 1932, when cannabis, extract of cannabis and tincture of cannabis were among 400 medicines removed, though all three remained in the British Pharmaceutical Codex of 1949 5 . However, following the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, cannabis and cannabis derivatives became scheduled products and were subject to special measures of control and parties could ban their use altogether. Following the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the UK enacted the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Cannabinol and its derivatives, including A9-tetrahydrocannabinol (A9-THC), appeared in Schedule I to the Convention, and their regular medical use was prohibited. The introduction of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations in the UK in 1973 listed cannabis and cannabis products in Schedule 4 (now...

Respiratory effects of inhaled cannabis vapor andor smoke

Cannabis Respiratory Effect

Cannabis stimulates the cardiovascular system, like mild exercise, or falling in love Cannabis stimulates the cardiovascular system, like mild exercise, or falling in love Here are some common uses for medical marijuana CANCER, AIDS HIV Cannabis reduces the gut-wrenching nausea caused by chemotherapy (and radiation therapy), while it stimulates the appetite to help patients eat and combat excessive weight loss (the wasting syndrome) and cachexia. It reduces pain and helps cancer patients sleep and rest. It often raises the patients' spirits and mood, improving their will to live and chance of recovery. Direct application of THC in vitro shows promise as a tumor-killing or reducing agent and also kills the herpes virus. PAIN Pain control is possible not only by consuming cannabis flowers, but possibly even the leaves, because, along with THC, cannabidiol (CBD) seems to have a major analgesic (pain lowering) effect. Not all pain responds to cannabinoids, but some of the most troublesome...

Cellular Origins of Cannabinoids

Double Cystolith

Cross section of a bract from the fruiting plant a, cystolith hair b, large grandular hair with several cells in head and stalk c, head of one of the large glandular hairs d, small glandular hair with bicellular head and unicellular stalk e, thick walled conical trichomes f, large developing glandular hair g, stalk of a large glandular hair h, palisade cell i, cluster crystal , parenchymal cell k, stomate. (Reprinted by permission, from Joyce and Curry, The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis, 1970. Drawn by O. Erasmus.) Fig. 9. Cross section of a bract from the fruiting plant a, cystolith hair b, large grandular hair with several cells in head and stalk c, head of one of the large glandular hairs d, small glandular hair with bicellular head and unicellular stalk e, thick walled conical trichomes f, large developing glandular hair g, stalk of a large glandular hair h, palisade cell i, cluster crystal , parenchymal cell k, stomate. (Reprinted by permission, from Joyce and Curry,...

Effects of Cannabinoids on Neurotransmission in the Peripheral Nervous System

Adrenergic Neurotransmission

Effects of cannabinoids on the sympathetic nervous system have been studied in isolated tissues and in pithed animals (Table 4). Sympathetic neurons were usually activated by electrical stimulation. Activation of CB1 receptors led to inhibition of noradrenaline and or ATP release and, consequently, to inhibition of the effector responses in the heart, in mesenteric and renal blood vessels and in the vas deferens. Figure 5A shows that cannabinoids inhibit sympathetic neuroeffector transmission in the heart. Sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction was inhibited in many tissues of pithed rats and rabbits. Sympathetic tone is depressed during long-term A9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans the presynaptic inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on sympathetic axon endings maybe the basis of this effect. Cannabinoids also inhibit transmitter release from cholinergic autonomic neurons (Table 4). As an example, the bradycardia elicited by vagal nerve stimulation is depressed. Figure...

Effects of Cannabinoids on the Brain

To date, there is no evidence for gross morphological and structural changes in brain following short-term or long-term marijuana smoking. Although this has been investigated over many years, of particular interest here are studies that have utilised modern imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no regional or global changes in brain tissue volume or composition in cannabis users (Block et al. 2000). More subtle changes can be determined through post-mortem analysis using radiolabelled compounds, or measurement of endocannabinoid levels. Such work showed reduced cannabinoid binding in caudate and hippocampus of Alzheimer's brains (Westlake et al. 1994), and in normal ageing (Biegon and Kerman 1995). No such studies have been reported on chronic marijuana smokers yet. Alterations in brain function following acute and chronic use of cannabis is nevertheless detectable using cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements such as positron emission tomography (PET)...

Cannabis helps people feel better

One underlying denominator, which underscores Cannabis' vast utility, is its antianxiety effect. Most people who suffer from disease suffer also from the accumulation of the experience of suffering. Coping strategies and finances deteriorate over time. This ongoing mental and emotional weight contributes to hopelessness and depression and, in turn, increases the severity of the disease process. Cannabis has the quality, similar to benzodiazepines like Xanax and Ativan, to compartmentalize the emotional strain of disease away from immediate perception. This shunting of the awareness of symptoms seems to allow patients to relax and even understand deeper meanings in the disease. Unlike benzodiazepines, Cannabis does not often lead to serious drug-dependence issues. Many patients report using Cannabis to counter the withdrawal effects of long-term benzodiazepine use. This antianxiety effect originates in part from the human ability to regulate emotional and physical functions by the use...

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of the Plant Cannabinoids Tetrahydrocannabinol Cannabidiol and Cannabinol

2.4.4 Urinary Biomarkers of Recent Cannabis 5.1.2 Following Smoked Cannabis Administration 673 5.1.5 Prediction Models for Estimation of Cannabis Exposure 675 5.4 Cannabinoids in Sweat 5.5 Cannabinoids in Abstract Increasing interest in the biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of cannabinoids and in the development of cannabinoid medications necessitates an understanding of cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and disposition into biological fluids and tissues. A drug's pharmacokinetics determines the onset, magnitude, and duration of its pharmacodynamic effects. This review of cannabinoid pharmacokinetics encompasses absorption following diverse routes of administration and from different drug formulations, distribution of analytes throughout the body, metabolism by different tissues and organs, elimination from the body in the feces, urine, sweat, oral fluid, and hair, and how these processes change over time. Cannabinoid pharmacokinetic research has been especially challenging...

Cannabis s Origin Domestication and Dispersal

Cannabis originated either in the riverine valleys of Central Asia or in northern South Asia along the foothills of the Himalayas and was first cultivated in China on a large scale for fiber and seed production and soon after in india for resin production. Various cultures have traditionally used Cannabis for different purposes. European and East Asian societies most often used Cannabis for its strong fibers and nutritious seeds. Species of Cannabis from these regions are usually relatively low in THC (average

Effect Of Cannabinoids On Phospholipid Enzymes And Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis

A phospholipid messenger system constitutes a major function of the lipid bilayer and involves signal-mediated hydrolysis of phospholipids within the membrane. The best characterized of these systems is that originating from arachidonic acid, which is released from phospholipids following activation by a phospholipase. Psychoactive cannabinoids and some of their non-psychoactive acid metabolites also release arachidonic acid from phosphatidylcholine in a dose-related manner (Hunter et al., 1985 Burstein et al., 1986). Arachidonic acid has been associated with biosynthesis of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids such as leukotrienes and platelet activation factors (PAF). Its metabolism has been shown to be inhibited by steroids (NSAIDs) (Burstein et al., 1986) and by the THC metabolite, THC-11-oic acid (Zurier et al, 1998). In direct contrast to the stimulation of prostaglandin

Marijuana Thc and Analogs

Cannabis sativa has been a cherished friend of an ever-increasing proportion of mankind since prehistoric times. The genus Cannabis contains only this one species, but its appearance and psychedelic properties vary tremendously depending on growth conditions. It seems to have originated in Asia, but its medicinal properties and the long fibers in its stem used to make rope (hemp) have led to its being carried all over the world. The early American colonists brought seeds with them and George Washington, the father of our country, was among its cultivators. There is evidence for Cannabis use as early as 5,000 B.C. in Central Europe and there are probable references to it in the earliest writings of China and Egypt. The frozen tombs of the inhabitants of Siberia in about 500 B.C. have yielded quantities of seeds along with a variety of devices for burning them. A very hot, dry climate appears necessary for producing grass with high psychedelic activity, which may account for the failure...

Endogenous Internally Produced Cannabinoids

Thc Action

There are many examples of naturally-occurring plants that contain drugs that interact with neuronal receptors, including THC, nicotine, morphine, LSD, and cocaine. The effects that result from the use of these drugs, both desirable and undesirable, are determined through their actions at specific receptors. Scientists have long wondered why nature would create receptors in the human body that could be activated by chemicals in plants. Clearly, these receptors did not evolve simply to recognize THC from ingesting or smoking the cannabis plant, nicotine from When marijuana is ingested or inhaled, THC binds to cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain and body, where it mimics the actions of internally produced neurotransmitters, such as the endocannabinoid known as anandamide. Anandamide is named after the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss. Similar reasoning led scientists in 1993 to the discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid called anandamide that binds to cannabinoid...

Methods of Using Cannabis

Smoking inhaling Burning or vaporizing cannabis and inhaling the smoke into the lungs is the fastest route to the blood stream. Conventional wisdom is that holding in the smoke increases the effects felt. Recent research shows the opposite it causes more harm to the lungs without increasing the amount of THC absorbed. Studies done in Australia indicate that 95 of the THC in cannabis is absorbed in the first few seconds of inhaling. Holding in the smoke longer just allows more tar and other noxious chemicals to be absorbed. Take small, shallow puffs rather than deep inhalations. Irritation of the throat and lungs is one of the most obvious adverse effects to the marijuana smoker as is the inevitable cough upon inhaling. The cough is the body's reaction to the irritation of the numerous constituents of the smoke. Prolonged and repeated exposure to these irritants can lower resistance to, and aggravate infections from viruses, bacteria, or fungi. The lesser coughing, the safer the smoke....

Interaction Between Cannabinoids and Psychostimulants

Several studies suggest that CB1 cannabinoid receptors do not participate in the acute rewarding properties of psychostimulants. Thus, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and sensitization to the hyperlocomotor effects produced by chronic administration of the drug were preserved in CB1 knockout mice (Martin et al. 2000). In addition, acute self-administration of cocaine, performed during a single session, was also maintained in mice lacking CB1 receptors (Cossu et al. 2001). However, administration of the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 has been found to decrease the reinforcing actions of cocaine in a brain stimulation paradigm in mice (Vlachou et al. 2003), whereas the blockade of CBi receptors by SR141716A treatment decreased the reinforcing value of intracranial self-stimulation in rats (Deroche-Gamonet et al. 2001). These results suggest that the endogenous cannabinoid system could modulate cocaine reward. Other studies have also supported the existence of an...

Cannabinoids and Immunomodulation

Immune inflammatory responses are at the basis of a number of pathological conditions. CB1 are mainly found centrally and mediate analgesic effects of cannab-inoids. CB2 receptors are mainly found on cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and natural killer cells (93). High doses of cannabinoids suppress immune responses, whereas low doses cause metabolic stimulation of lymphocytes (94,95). The mechanism of immunomodulation by cannabinoids is still unclear, but evidence suggests that CB2 receptors mediate most of these effects, with The immunomodulatory effects of THC have been tested in a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Placebo-treated animals died, whereas THC-treated animals survived and had no or minimal signs (97) and notably reduced inflammatory response. These results were reproduced with various THC-like drugs, and anecdotal reports from multiple sclerosis patients that marijuana would decrease...

The complexities of Cannabis Making informed choices

Herbal Cannabis is a drug cocktail with many different constituents. Smoking or eating the same variety will result in different effects. Smoking Cannabis will also form many chemical substances, some of them harmful. For these reasons, patients should understand the complexities. Patients who expect to use Cannabis on a long-term basis have decisions to make about the amount, variety, frequency of dosing, procurement, metabolic interactions with other drugs, and work involved in procuring, growing, and storing the drug. Patients need to understand the basis of their disease and how Cannabis may help. Additionally, patients need to understand a whole host of legal and regulatory issues in their community. This is a daunting task. The metabolism of cannabinoids affects their chemical nature .because they are broken down by the liver into other compounds. Delta-9-Tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) is the cannabinoid responsible for most of the effects of herbal Cannabis. Cannabinol (CBN)....

Difference between male and female cannabis plants and hermaphrodites

Drugs Abuse Test

The female cannabis plant is very easy to recognise from her production of little white hairs. The first white hairs are found in the 'armpits' of the plant, where two of them spring from one pistil. The pistil is the place on the plant where the leaf is attached to the main stem and from where a side branch sprouts. Here you can see clearly the THC crystals on a bud. Pressed THC crystals are the ingredient for hashish. Here you can see clearly the THC crystals on a bud. Pressed THC crystals are the ingredient for hashish.

Cannabinoids The Active Chemicals of Marijuana

Although chcmical research on marijuana began over 150 years ago, it wasn't until 1964 that the first authenticated isolation of a pure, active principle delta-one tetrahydrocannabinol (A'-THC) was achieved, and not until 1970 that it was determined to be the only major psychoactive component. Even though dozens of cannabinoids have been isolated since then, none have been found to be significantly psychoactive. Cannabinoids arc the compounds with 21 carbon atoms they and their carboxylic acids, analogs and transformation products are some of the chemical components of marijuana. Figures 1, 2 and 3 give the structures of a few of these compounds and their probable biosynthctic relationships. Most cannabinoids are extremely insoluble in water, and in the living cell they are probably present entirely as their carboxylic acids. When isolated from fresh marijuana they are usually in their acid form until aging, drying and heat decarboxylate them. The data usually give the percentage of...

Ecological Cannabis Growing

People like to think that homegrowing cannabis is an ecological pastime. That they are somehow aiding the environment, and so on. This is an urban myth Firstly, we must make a clear distinction between 'outdoor' and 'indoor' cultivation (they aren't the same thing ) Outdoor, the ecological benefits of organic cannabis farming are visible for all to see. Cannabis plants, grow quickly, provide shelter for wildlife, consume large amounts of C02 and throw out lots of Oxygen in return. Outdoor cannabis finds semblance within Nature. Indoors however, when a growing area is bought into an artificial environment, the parameters of what ecologists term ecology becomes somewhat stretched. The mathematicians might want to snatch a calculator and or a pen and paper at this point. An average indoor garden (if there is such a thing) uses anyplace between 200 and 1500 watts of electricity for a 12hour period during its bloom cycle. Anyplace between this figure in cycles of 18 or 24hour veg. As we...

Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Cannabinoids

The major psychoactive component of marijuana, A9-THC, has been shown to cross the placenta in humans (Blackard and Tennes, 1984) and in rodents (Vardaris et al., 1976). Moreover, during pregnancy, CBX receptors have been detected in uterus (Das et al., 1995), blastocytes (Paria et al., 1995) and in fetal tissue from the earliest day studied (day 11, Buckley et al., 1998), thus exposing the developing organism to potential teratogenic effects of cannabinoids throughout gestation. Hence, marijuana consumption by pregnant women which, in North America, has a reported incidence of about 15 (Briggs et al., 1990 Fried and O' Connel, 1987 Wenger et al., 1991), is of major concern vis-a-vis the well being of the offspring of these mothers. However, possible consequences of marijuana smoking during pregnancy for development of the offspring have been found inconsistent as discussed previously (Fried et al., 1999 Fride and Mechoulam, 1996b). For example, transient and permanent changes in...

Cannabinoid Content of Hashish

When we examine the cannabinoid content of hashish, we reach some very interesting conclusions. First, the actual content of SOURCE E. Small and H. Beckstead, Common Cannabinoid Phenotypes in 350 Stocks of Cannabis, Uoydia 36 (1973) 144. SOURCE E. Small and H. Beckstead, Common Cannabinoid Phenotypes in 350 Stocks of Cannabis, Uoydia 36 (1973) 144. THC is extremely low considering the price. The highest amount given in table 6 (11.5 ) is not even twice the amount present in good quality marijuana from Africa, India, Mexico or Colombia, and it is accompanied by so much CBD that the high will be significantly diminished. In fact, there is almost always more CBD than THC in hashish, sometimes as much as ten rimes more. This validates the frequent observation that hash promises much more than it delivers. An ounce of average quality hash from the Near East, costing 100, would provide about 1.4 g of THC along with a sizeable quantity of the inhibitory CBD. The same 100 would buy two ounces...

The Cannabis Grow Bible By Greg Green

Strawdog Cannabis

Since it's inception marijuana is natural. Given by God for all living creatures to use. Let peace and sanity prevail, let the herb grow free. There is no finer hobby on this planet, than tending to a garden that gives such delightful rewards. - Greg Green. THE CANNABIS PLANT A BRIEF HISTORY OF CANNABIS AND THE BASICS OF USING CANNABIS. Cannabis plants have been living on this planet for thousands, maybe millions of years, and have been doing so for quite some time before man's intervention and after. Cannabis can grow nearly everywhere and anywhere as long as the temperature is not too low and there is enough sunlight and food present for the plant to flourish. In Asia, one can travel to the various regions around Mongolia and visit the cannabis plant naturally growing on the hillsides and across the vast plains, sometimes covering entire hill faces and spreading down onto the valley below. The Cannabis plant is a very adaptable plant and can grow both in and outdoors. The Cannabis...

Sar Of Endocannabinoids For Cannabinoid Receptors Anandamide Amidase And The Anandamide Transporter

Cannabinoids produce a wide range of pharmacological effects, which include anticonvulsant, antiglaucoma, antiemetic, antianxiety, analgesic, and antiasthmatic activity. The structure-activity relationships of cannabinoids and anandamide analogs indicate that their pharmacological activities are significantly influenced by their chemical structures and stereochemical features. The chemical structure of anandamide can be divided into two major molecular fragments (a) a polar ethanolamido head group and (b) a hydrophobic arachidonyl chain (Figure 18.4). The polar head group comprises a secondary amide functionality with an N-hydroxyalkyl substituent while the hydrophobic fragment is a non-conjugated cis tetraolefinic chain and an n-pentyl tail reminiscent of the lipo-philic side chain found in the classical cannabinoids. A number of anandamide analogs have been synthesized and tested for their biological activities. These efforts have resulted in the development of several potent...

Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Effects

Blood Pressure Ach

Most of the research on cannabinoids has focused on the CNS, yet there are very well-described effects of synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids in the periphery, particularly at the level of vascular tone, resulting in complex blood pressure and cardiac responses. In humans, the acute administration of cannabinoids causes marked tachycardia and a small increase in blood pressure, whereas in chronic users, hypotension and bradycardia are generally noted (85,86). Blood vessel tone and heart contractility act in concert to regulate blood pressure thanks to what is known as baroreceptor reflexes, which involve the autonomic nervous system. Principles of hemodynamics illustrate how blood pressure is directly proportional to the total peripheral resistance (how constricted blood vessels are) and to the cardiac output (how much blood is forced by the pump in the vasculature, the plumbing ). Cardiac output is itself controlled by heart rate (how fast the pump is working) and stroke volume...

Acute Effects of Marijuana on Airway Physiology

Although anecdotal reports dating back to the 19th century suggested a therapeutic role for marijuana in the relief of asthma, formal experiments first documented this effect in the 1970s. Smoke from marijuana cigarettes was found to produce short-term bronchodilation both in healthy individuals (11,12) and in patients with asthma (13). This bronchodilator effect was clearly attributable to the presence of THC, because oral administration of synthetic THC also produced a dose-dependent bronchodilatation (11). Recently, a potential mechanism for this effect on bronchomotor tone was identified. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors were found on axon terminals of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers in rat lung. These nerve terminals are in close proximity to airway smooth muscle (14). In the guinea pig airway, stimulation of these receptors by the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide resulted in dose-dependent relaxation of capsaicin-contracted airway smooth muscle, whereas anandamide...

Marijuana Dairy Products

All dairy products can be made into cannabis products, and can be reconstituted back into the original form. For example, whole milk, buttermilk, whipped cream, sour cream, cream cheese, etc. Begin with 1 8, 1 4, 1 2 or 1 cup of a dairy product. To taste a small bud, finger crushed or 1 4 to 1 2 cup marijuana bud, leaf, seeds, stems, or pulverized root. Combine both ingredients in a pot and bring to a gentle simmer for 5 to 25 minutes (depending on the strength) strain through a coffee filter, oil filter, wire strainer or cheese cloth. Discard wet marijuana. Use marijuana dairy product as if it were regular. SIMPLE CANNABIS CREPES (makes 16 to 18 6 crepes) 1 cup marijuana milk 2 eggs 1 cup flour dash salt

Timeline Follow Back Marijuana Use Summary Sheet

(To be completed after the calendar data have been collected.) I would like to ask you a few more questions about your marijuana and alcohol use. marijuana per week do you think you used in ounces Probe by asking the participant how many ounces of marijuana he or she buys (or receives) per week. If the client seems uncertain about level of use, the counselor helps him or her approximate by using the following types of probes Would you say it was more like 1 8 ounce or closer to 1 ounce per week The counselor continues until the client seems comfortable with the estimate and says, So, you think it was closer to an ounce. Was it just an ounce, a little more than that, or a little less 5. During the past month, did you use marijuana 1 hour before the following activities If yes, would you say (read coding options to client)

The Interaction Of Cannabinoids With The Membrane Lipid Bilayer

Lawrence and Gill (Lawrence and Gill, 1975), in 1976, first demonstrated that THC at low concentrations (1 micromolar) increases the molecular disorder of the liposome. At higher concentration, the effects level off and do not increase as the molecular ratio of THC to lecithin is increased. The maximum degree of fluidization (disordering) produced by THC does not approach that required to produce anesthesia and THC has been designated a partial anesthetic . The term incomplete could also be used. It was reported (Leuschner et al., 1984) that the disordering effect of THC occurred in vivo, there was an equilibrium between the concentration of the drug in erythrocytes and plasma. A disordering effect in the membrane was also reported after chronic treatment of mice with ethanol (Wing et al., 1982) which led the authors to suggest that tolerance might be associated with changes in the membrane lipid composition. By contrast, the non-psychoactive cannabinoids, CBN and CBD, produce an...

Antiemetic Properties Of Clinicallyuseful Cannabinoids

During 1970s and 1980s, dopamine D2 antagonists were the mainstay of antinauseant-antiemetic agents in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, they had limited clinical success. Because of anecdotal reports by young cancer patients that smoking marijuana alleviated the nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutic agents, both government and industry sponsored clinical trials were initiated to test the antiemetic potential of cannabinoids. These trials began in 1975 and have continued up to 1995 (Tables 13.1-13.3 Abrahamov et al., 1995 Archer et al., 1983 Staquet et al., 1981). A recent MEDLINE search yielded 194 titles on the antiemetic properties of marijuana and cannabinoids (Voth and Schwartz, 1997). This literature suggests that A9-THC is a useful antiemetic for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. Thus far, the following cannabinoids have been tested for their antiemetic efficacy against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in clinical trials...

Interactions Between Cannabinoids And Dopamine At The Corticolimbic Structures

Target for the pharmacological effects of habit-forming drugs (Self and Nestler, 1994 Wise, 1996 Spanagel and Weiss, 1999 Gardner, 2002), including cannabis derivatives (Tanda et al., 1997 Gardner and Vorel, 1998 Diana, Melis, Muntoni, et al., 1998 Gardner, 2002). This is possibly the consequence of the existence of interactions between endocannabinoids and dopamine in relation to both brain reward stimulation of mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons (Tanda et al., 1997 Gardner and Vorel, 1998 Diana, Melis, Gessa, 1998 Gardner, 2002) and abstinence or dysphoric responses to inhibition of this circuit (Diana, Melis, Muntoni, et al., 1998 Gardner, 2002). However, the interactions of endocannabinoids and dopamine are probably largest at this level and involve different cortical and subcortical structures and their specific functions. Thus, cannabinoids, depending on doses and duration of treatment, produce euphoria (Gardner, 2002), stimulate brain reward (Gardner et al., 1988 Gardner...

Cannabis for spasticity and neurological disorders Now we know why

One of the oldest and most dramatic indications for Cannabis is as a treatment to decrease spasticity associated with neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). Until recently, basic science had not uncovered the precise biochemical mechanism underlying its efficacy. Thanks to research conducted in Britain, the scientific basis for Cannabis' use as an antispasmodic is now clear. Published in the March 2nd 2000 issue of the journal Nature is the article Cannabinoids Control Spasticity and Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis Model Scientific scrutiny is finally unlocking the secrets about how and why cannab-inoids work. One of the oldest and most dramatic indications for Cannabis is as a treatment to decrease spasticity associated with neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis Several U.K. research teams .coordinated investigations into the anti-spasmodic properties of cannabinoids. Herbal Cannabis decreases spasticity Until recently, little or no research had evaluated the...

Implication For The Medical Use Of Marijuana

The use of cannabis for both recreational and medicinal purposes dates back for thousands of years. In recent times, there has been increased attention that marijuana should be legalized for medicinal use in AIDS, cancer, obesity, multiple sclerosis, and other medical conditions where patients might benefit from the pharmacological effects of cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoids such as dronabinol, marinol, and nabilone already have an established use as antiemetics in nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. The reported beneficial effects in cancer and AIDS patients might be reflected in improved weight gain, owing to the well-documented antiemetic and appetite-stimulating effects of cannabinoids. This might be a major advantage for cancer patients undergoing rigorous chemotherapy or for advanced AIDS patients. Interestingly, although cannabis is widely used as a recreational drug in humans, only a few studies have revealed an appetite stimulant potential of cannabinoids...

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