Candida Albicans Homeopathic Cure

Yeast Infection No More

Linda Allen is a professional health expert who has worked as a health consultant and medical researcher for more than 17 years. Linda has worked with many experts to create the special online guide called Yeast Infection No More. The program had helped many yeast infection sufferers to cure their yeast infection permanently. She explains why over-the-counter and prescription medications might not work, and tells us why holistic medicine or therapies based on natural remedies can actually work extremely well. Yeast Infection No More comes with money back guarantee for 60 days and Linda Allen promises permanent results in less than 8 weeks which make this yeast infection treatment completely risk free. More here...

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In Vivo Antifungal Activity Test Results against Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis 17351 Evaluation of Efficacy of

Among various formulations, the liposomized clove oil was found to be more effective in suppression of fungal burden, measured as colony forming unit (cfu) at the end of 18 days, as compared to free form and an emulsion preparation of clove oil. Application of the formulation in all cases was subcutaneous (Table 17.5).

Fungal and yeast infections

Fungal and yeast infections (including cases of fulminant fungal pericarditis, mucormycosis, Aspergillus fumigatus infection, and cutaneous alternariosis) can be precipitated or aggravated by glucocorticoid treatment (SEDA-17, 449) (SEDA-18, 390) (SEDA-20, 377) (SEDA-21, 418) (SEDA-22, 449) (283-286). Primary esophageal histoplasmosis must be considered in patients who have a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and are immunosuppressed by long-term glucocorticoids (SEDA-22, 450) (287). Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a well-described adverse effect of inhaled glucocorticoids. However, few cases of esophageal candidiasis have been reported (SEDA-22, 179). The effect of dexamethasone has been assessed in a retrospective chart review study in neonates weighing less than 1200 g, both with (n 65) and without (n 269) Candida sepsis dexamethasone therapy and prolonged antibiotic therapy were associated with Candida infection (295).

Determination of MIC of Clove Oil against Candida albicans

The MIC for clove oil against Candida albicans, compared with that of the polyene antifungal drug nystatin, was determined by tube dilution method as described by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards 42 , with optical density readings measured at 580 nm. We found the MIC of clove oil against Candida albicans to be 0.051 mg mL-1 compared with 0.013 mgmL-1 for nystatin. This suggests that clove oil is at least four times less potent than nystatin.

Candida Infections

Candida can cause both exogenous and endogenous endophthalmitis. Candidal exogenous endophthalmitis is comparatively rare and usually occurs following eye surgery (keratoplasty, cataract extraction), traumatic ulcers, and contaminated ophthalmic irrigation solutions (117). Candida spp. commonly causes endogenous endophthalmitis particularly in the retina producing both retinal and vitreal lesions (118). It also causes cotton wool spots and white centered hemorrhages. Sometimes it can affect the contralateral eye structures producing conjunctivitis, episcleritis, iritis or iris abscesses.

Susceptibility Factors Age

The safety and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin in 40 preterm and 4 full-term neonates with invasive yeast infections have been studied retrospectively (134). The initial dosage was 1 mg kg day, and was increased step-wise by 1 mg kg to a maximum of 5 mg kg, depending on the clinical condition. There were no infusion-associated reactions. Blood pressure, hepatic, renal, and hematolo-gical indices were not altered. Hypokalemia was noted in 16 infants but was always transient and responsive to potassium supplementation. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin was successful in 72 of the children. However, 12 of the 40 preterm infants succumbed to the fungal infection all had a birth weight of less than 1.5 kg. Changes in serum creatinine and serum potassium have been measured in 21 neonates of very low birth weight who received amphotericin for presumed or documented yeast infections (135). The median dosage was 2.6 (range 1-5) mg kg day, and the median duration of therapy was 2 (11-79)...

Echinocandin Prophylaxis

An alternative strategy for the prevention of invasive fungal infections is the use of the echinocandins due to their excellent safety profile and activity against Candida and Aspergillus species. The results of a clinical study comparing micafungin to fluconazole as prophylaxis have been reported (63). This prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial enrolled both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients randomized to either micafungin or fluconazole and continued until approximately 5 days after engraftment (up to 42 days following transplant). Treatment success, defined as the absence of proven, probable, or suspected systemic fungal infections through the end of prophylaxis and the absence of proven or probable systemic fungal infections the the end of the 4-week post-treatment period, was higher for those who received micafungin (80 ) compared to fluconazole (73.5 P 0.03). This difference was primarily due to breakthrough aspergillosis, which occurred in one...

Organs and Systems Immunologic

Finger sepsis aggressive enough to cause osteomyelitis has been reported in two women, one aged 61 years with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus agalactiae, and Enterococcus faecalis, and another aged 57 years with a beta-hemolytic staphylococcus, Candida non-albicans, and unidentified anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotic treatment and local drainage were unsuccessful and the third phalanx had to be amputated. Both patients had poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c 14 and 12 respectively) they had estimated their blood glucose six times a week using an automatic lancet without changing their disposable needle (8).

Local adverse effects

The local adverse effects of inhaled glucocorticoids have been studied in a prospective, cross-sectional, cohort study in 639 asthmatic children using beclomethasone (721 micrograms day) or budesonide (835 micrograms day) for at least one month (28). The local adverse effects included cough (40 ), thirst (22 ), hoarseness (14 ), dysphonia (11 ), oral candidiasis (11 ), perioral dermatitis (2.9 ), and tongue hypertrophy (0.1 ). A spacer doubled the incidence of coughing. Potent glucocorticoids in high local doses increase the risk of local infection and even promote atrophy of the bronchial mucosa. The latter effect has not proved clinically important, but there is an increased incidence of oropharyngeal candidiasis. The incidence varies depending on the population studied and the criteria used to make the diagnosis candidiasis can affect 13-71 of patients, the highest incidence being seen with doses up to 0.8 mg. Candidiasis rarely requires treatment or withdrawal of the drug. Local...

General Information

The currently available echinocandins are anidula-fungin (rINN Versicor Inc, Freemont, CA), caspofungin (rINN) (Merck & Co, Inc, Rahway, NJ), and micafun-gin (rINN Fujisawa Inc, Deerfield, IL). They have relatively similar pharmacological properties. All three have potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Candida species and Aspergillus species without cross-resistance to existing agents. They have prolonged post-antifungal effects and fungicidal activity against Candida and they cause severe damage to Aspergillus at the sites of hyphal growth. Their efficacy against these organisms in vivo has been demonstrated in animals (1,2). Their activity against other fungal pathogens in vitro is variable (3).

Observational studies

The clinical efficacy of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against Candida species has been documented in phase II or phase III studies in immunocompro-mised patients with esophageal candidiasis. All achieved therapeutic efficacy at least comparable with standard agents. Phase III efficacy studies of caspofungin for esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and empirical antifungal therapy in persistently febrile neutropenic patients have been completed. Caspofungin had no serious adverse effects and had therapeutic efficacy that was at least as good as standard agents (7-9). It is approved in the USA and the EU for second-line therapy of definite or probable invasive aspergillosis and for primary therapy in non-neutropenic patients with invasive Candida infections (3,5).

Host Factors Affecting Pathogenesis

Endogenous endophthalmitis occurs due to sustained use of broad spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs. Intravenous drug abuse and application of medical device like intravenous catheters may potentiate fungal infections. The main organisms that are responsible for endogenous endophthalmitis are candida and aspergillus. However sometimes it may occur through dimorphic fungi like H. capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis and C. immitis (105).

Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

However, teratogenic effects have not been found in humans. The risk of malformations and other outcomes in children exposed to fluconazole in utero has been examined in 165 women who had taken fluconazole just before or during pregnancy, mostly in the form of a single dose of 150 mg to treat vaginal candidiasis (58). Birth outcomes (malformations, low birth weight, and preterm delivery) were compared with the outcomes among 13 327 women who did not receive any prescriptions during their pregnancies. The prevalence of malformation was 3.3 (four cases) among the 121 women who had used fluconazole in the first trimester, and 5.2 (697 cases) in offspring to controls (OR 0.65 CI 0.24, 1.77). The risks of preterm delivery (OR 1.17 CI 0.63, 2.17) and low birth weight (OR 1.19 CI 0.37, 3.79) were not significantly increased in association with fluconazole. Thus, the study showed no increased risk of congenital malformations, low birth weight, or preterm birth in offspring to women

Amphotericin B Lipid Complex ABLC

Risk factors Children The safety and efficacy of ABLC in 11 neonates with systemic Candida infections have been reported (6c). The infants were aged 3-14 (median 7) weeks and weighed 0.7-5 (median 1.4) kg. The median duration of ABLC treatment was 23 (range 4-41) days at an average dose of 4.9 (range 3.2-6.5) mg kg day. Nine of the 11 patients improved clinically, and eight of nine evaluable patients had a mycological cure. No infant discontinued treatment because of adverse drug reactions, and none had appreciable hepatic or hematological toxicity. Renal function improved or did not change in eight of the 11. The median pretreatment serum cre-atinine concentration was 80 (range 35-522) imol l and the median creatinine concentration at the end of treatment was 44 (range 18-628) mol l.

Infectious Diseases of the GI Tract

Diarrhea is the most frequent manifestation of gastrointestinal infection. Diarrhea is common in both the developed and developing world. Poor water quality and sewage disposal are the main factors for intestinal infections in the developing world, whereas the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and impaired host community owing to greater numbers of immunocompromised individuals are factors in the developed world. Symptoms of enteric infections are not limited to the gastrointestinal system, the respiratory system, nervous system eyes and skin may also be affected by microorganisms multiplying within the GI tract. For example infection by E. coli can result in kidney damage even so called simple GI infections can result in severe vomiting and diarrhea which in turn can lead to dehydration. Other examples of gastrointestinal infections include esophagitis from candidiasis gastritis from anisakiasis intestinal obstruction from tuberculosis, and proctitis from Chlamydia...

Thin Layer Chromatography Bioautography

While the methods above are used to test whole extracts or extracts fractionated at another time there is an increasing interest in bioassay-guided fractionation, where the separation of extracts into fractions is completed simultaneously with identification of bioactivity. In this method TLC is performed using crude extracts, extract fractions, or whole essential oils. The developed TLC plate is then sprayed with, or dipped into, a bacterial or fungal suspension (direct bioautography) or overlain with agar and the agar seeded with the microorganism (overlay bioautography) 34-37 . The latter method has been particularly used for determining the activity of extract against yeasts such as Candida albicans, however Masoko and Eloff 38 suggest that use of fresh cultures of yeasts and shorter incubation times eliminated the previously reported difficulties of using the direct method with yeasts 39 . Following incubation zones of inhibition are observed, either unaided or following...

Phenolics and Acetogenic Quinones

Schum. (Zingiberaceae) yielded 6-paradol (16) and 6-shogaol (17) as the major antimycobacterium agents, based on a bioac-tivity-guided fractionation (Fig. 14.3). These isolates were found to be active against M. chelonei, M. intracellulare, M. smegmatis, and M. xenopi (MIC 10-15 pg mL-1). The desmethyl derivative of 6-paradol retained the antimycobacterial activity and was found to be more active against Candida albicans than 6-paradol and 6-shogaol

Drug Administration Drug formulations

The effects of salmeterol 50 micrograms plus flutica-sone 250 micrograms delivered via a combination inhaler and via separate inhalers have been compared in 371 asthmatic patients (18). There were equivalent improvements in peak flows and asthma symptoms. Candidiasis, dysphonia, and throat irritation were the commonest adverse effects attributed to treatment and occurred equally in the two groups (35 ). Palpitation and tremor, which may have been related to salmeterol, occurred in 2 (for each symptom) of the combination group and in 1 and under 1 of the separate inhaler group. In both of these studies compliance was measured by dose counters on the inhalers and was equivalent in the two groups.

General Properties of Echinacea Species

It has been suggested that Echinacea is also a potentially useful therapeutic agent for infections with Candida albicans and Listeria monocytogenes 33 . During the past five decades, more than 200 papers have been published on the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical use of E. purpurea, and to a lesser extent E. angustifolia and E. pallida

Dolichandrone spathacea L f K Schum

Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) K. Schum. are used to treat thrush. In the Philippines, Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) K. Schum. is used to treat nervous diseases and flatulence. The pharmacological potentials of this interesting plant remain unexplored.

H3H5Hpirimidintriona Secbutabarbital sodium

Salad party Adolescent game in which each participant attending the party throws in some kind(s) of drugs - each participant then reaches in and blindly takes whatever s he grabs, and then waits for the effects to hit to find out what has been taken. Salamanga Brugmansia Candida. Salaman Brugmansia Candida. Salat Colloquial term for cannabis leaves. Salben German colloquial term for treating veins to retain smoothness. Saldeva Amfetamine sulfate. Salibar Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international con-trol Phenobarbital.

Antimicrobial properties

It is generally recognized that alkaloids have strong antimicrobial, antibacterial and antifungal biological Moreover, some studies have evidenced anti-parasitic activity in this group of compounds392 393. Caron et al.329 have investigated 34 quasi-dimeric indole alkaloids for antimicrobial activity using 8 different test micro-organisms. It was found that all of the studied alkaloids showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, which are Gram-positive bacteria. Caron et al.329 found that 31 alkaloids showed biological activity against micro-organisms. The micro-organisms tested by Caron et al.329 were B. subtilis, S. aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatits, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger. This study concluded that antimicrobial activity of alkaloids is connected with the stereochemistry of the carbon ring, its aromatic substitution and oxidation329.

Pharmaceutical interest

Heliotropium Ovalifolium

Antimicrobial properties The anti-infectious property of Heliotropium indicum L. is probably owing to pyrrolizidine alkaloids, quinones or triterpenes. Heliotropiones A and B characterized from Heliotropium ovalifolium, inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and Cladospo-rium cucumerimum (Guatera A et al, 2001). Epifriedenyl acetate characterized from Heliotropium marifolium has significant antimicrobial properties (Singh B et al., 2001). Extracts of Heliotropium ellipticum and Heliotropium bur-siferum inhibit the proliferation of a number of bacteria cultured in vitro (Jain SC etal., 1987 Marquina G et

Lay down the hustle Colloquial term for drug dealing

Len-15 Dexamfetamine sulfate. Len-22 Drug containing more than one substance under international control Phenobarbital and Phendimetrazine bitartrate. Len-5 Dexamfetamine sulfate. Lena German colloquial term for a joint of marijuana. Lenal Temazepam. Lenampheta Amfetamine sulfate. Lendex Colloquial term for amfetamine. Lengua de tigre Brugmansia candida. Lenidol Pethidine hydrochloride. Lenitin Bromazepam.

Bridelia stipularis L Bl

Bridelia Stipularis

Antimicrobial properties Note that it would be interesting to know whether the plant holds any antimicrobial properties as aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bridelia ferruginea inhibit the proliferation of hospital strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Irobi ON et a ., 1994). The antimicrobial property, if any, of Bridelia stipularis (L.) Bl. could be mediated by some tannins or other phenolic substances, since the benzopyran luteoforol

Nitrazepam DAK Nitrazepam Nitrazepam a um Nitrazepam Nitrazepan Nitrazepam

Nitrous oxide N2O, also called dinitrogen monoxide or laughing gas, one of several oxides of nitrogen, a colourless gas with pleasant, sweetish odour and taste, which when inhaled produces insensibility to pain preceded by mild hysteria, sometimes laughter. Nitrous oxide was discovered by the English chemist Joseph Priestley in 1772 another English chemist, Humphry Davy, later named it nitrous oxide and showed its physiological effect. The principal use of nitrous oxide is as an anesthetic in surgical operations of short duration prolonged inhalation causes death. The gas is also used as a propellant in food aerosols. It is prepared by the action of zinc on dilute nitric acid, by the action of hydroxyl-amine hydrochloride, and, most commonly, by the decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Nitwai-boracero Brugmansia candida. Niupo Anadenanthera peregrina. Nivalen Diazepam.

Phenobarbital sodium Natrium5thyl5phenylbarbiturat

Ngunsiana Brugmansia candida. NH-dragees Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Meprobamate. Ni-joh Psidium guajava. Ni-tabs Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Nitkwai boracero Brugmansia candida.

Alyxia stellata Forst Roem et Schult

Uses In Indonesia, Alyxia stellata (Forst.) Roem. et Schult. is used to give flavor to medicinal mixtures, promote digestion, and stop spasms, flatulence and diarrhea. In Malaysia, the dried bark is placed among clothes to perfume them. The leaves are mixed with onions and cooked in a plantain leave to offer an internal remedy for thrush. The plant is used to promote digestion, and to treat shingles as well as sterility associated with irregular menses. A decoction of leaves is drunk to treat leucorrhea and to stop dysentery. A decoction of roots is drunk to aid recovery from childbirth. An infusion of either the bark and leaves or flowers and leaves is used to treat gonorrhea and to stop dysentery. The plant is also used to calm the mind, combat fever, treat dimness of vision, heal buboes and burn, and assuage pain of bones. In Vietnam, a number of plants classified under the genus Alyxia are burned as incense, as well as to assuage headache. Alyxia stellata (Forst.) Roem. et Schult....

Miristilbencilmorfina Myrophine Mirsol Zipeprol

Misha colorada Brugmansia sanguinea. Misha curandera Brugmansia sanguinea. Misha huarhuar 1. Brugmansia arborea. 2. Brugmansia sanguinea. Misha rastrera Brugmansia sanguinea. Misha rastrera blanca Brugmansia arborea. Mithavis Hindi name for Aconitum ferox. Mithyl-5 dihydromorphinone Metopon. Mitidin Nitrazepam. Mitizan Pethidine hydrochloride. Mitore 10 Chlordiazepoxide. Mitore 5 Chlordiazepoxide. Mitragyba speciosa See Beisna. Mitran Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. Mitskway borrachero Brugmansia candida.

Cigarro grueso de marijuana Colloquial

Brug-mansia candida. Cimora blanca San Pedro. Cin Turkish colloquial term for cocaine. Cinchonine One of a series of alkaloids derived from cinchona bark. It is chemically similar to the alkaloid quinine and has a weak antimalarial activity. Cinchonine, which was isolated from cinchona bark in 1811, is one-fifth as active as quinine in combatting the growth and reproduction of the malarial parasites (Plasmodium species). Cinco dolares de drogas Colloquial term for 5 worth of drugs.

Datura And Brugmansia

Datura Candida, Datura ceratocaula (tornaloco), Datura discolor, Datura dolicho-carpa, Datura fastuosa, Datura ferox, Datura inoxia (Datura meteloides, dekuba, toloache, toloatzin, wichri, wysocean), Datura metel (dhatura, dutra), Datura sanguinea, Datura stramonium (devil's apple, devil's trumpet, devil's weed, James Town Weed, jimson weed, loco weed, qui-qui-sa-waal, stinkweed, thorn apple, white man's plant, yerba del diablo), Datura suaveolens, Datura versicolor, Datura volcanicola, Datura wrightii, jouzmathel, man-t'o-lo, tolouaxihuitl. AKA (Brugmansia) Borrachero, Brugmansia arborea, Brugmansia aurea, Brugmansia Candida, Brugmansia insignis, Brugmansia sanguinea, Brugmansia suaveolens, Brugmansia vulcanicola, buyes, campanilla, chamico, floripon-dios, huacacachu, huanco, huanto, huantuc, huanduj, kinde borrachero, maicoa, maikoa, misha toro, munchiro borrachero, tanga, toa, toe, tonga, tree datura, yerba de huaca.

Itraconazole Prophylaxis

Itraconazole Fungal Infections

Although prophylactic use of fluconazole is safe and effective in preventing invasive candidiasis, this strategy is ineffective against invasive aspergillosis. Many transplant centers have instituted prophylactic strategies utilizing agents with activity against Aspergillus species such as itraconazole secondary to the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with invasive aspergillosis in high-risk immunocompromised patients. In a

Ethinylestradiollevonorgestrel Microgynon 30 Minidril

- May cause oligo-amenorrhoea, vaginal candidiasis, nausea, weight gain, breast tenderness, mood changes, acne and headache. Other rare and severe adverse effects require discontinuation of treatment hypertension, cardiovascular and thromboembolic disorders, jaundice, hepatic adenoma, migraine, visual disturbances.

Bolsillas de diez dolares Colloquial term

Borachero Brugmansia candida. Bordeaux wine Also called Claret, any of numerous wines of the region surrounding the city of Bordeaux, France. Bordejo Colloquial term for addicts who wants cocaine. Border Colloquial term for low quality Seco-nal manufactured in Mexico. Borrachera Brugmansia candida. Borrachera de agua Brugmansia candida. Borrachero 1. Floripondo. 2. Brugmansia candida. 3. Brugmansia sanguinea. 4. Brug-mansia suaveolens. Borrachero rojo Brugmansia sanguinea. Borracherushe Brugmansia candida. Borrego Colloquial term for a small packet of drugs.

Mustang gold Cannabis

Mutabon Chlordiazepoxide. Mutah Colloquial term for cannabis. Mutanxion Chlordiazepoxide. Mutaspline Chlordiazepoxide. Muter Colloquial term for cocaine. Mutha Colloquial term for marijuana. Mutscuai Brugmansia candida. Muttergottesschuhlein German name for Aconitum napellus.

Calydermos rugosus Brunfelisa

Camazepam C19H18ClN3O3, Synthetic substance under international control according to the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, Schedule IV. Molecular weight 371. 8. Percentage of anhydrous base 100. See Benzodiazepines. Camazepam Camazepam. Cambanda Brugmansia candida. Cambodian red Colloquial term for marijuana from Cambodia. Cambrised Secbutabarbital sodium. Cambuche Colombian colloquial term for a secure place (to use or store drugs). Came 1. Colloquial term for cocaine. 2. French colloquial term for drug. Came through (for me) Colloquial term for provided for my drug or money needs. Camel 1. Brand name for cigarettes, introduced 1913 by R. J. Reynolds. Camels are made largely from a flue-cured bright tobacco much like the tobacco discovered in 1852 by Eli and Elisha Slade, but they also contain a sweetened burley from Kentucky combined with some Turkish tobaccos that make them the first of the modern blended cigarettes. Their package design has been inspired by Old Joe, a...


Methylpropylpropanodiolum dicar-baminicum Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Meprobamate. Methylquinazolone Methaqualone. Methyltestosterone Oral steroid. Methyprylon C10H17NO2. Synthetic substance under international control according to the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, Schedule IV. Molecular weight 183.3. Percentage of anhydrous base 100. Methysicodendron amesianum Synonym for Brugmansia candida. Methysicondendron amesianum See Culebra Borrachero. Metidon Methadone. Metil gobanal Diazepam. Metil-4-fenilpiperidina carboxilato de etilo Pethidine. Metrotonin Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Amobarbital. Mets Colloquial term for metamfetamine. Metsadorm Amobarbital. Metskwai borrachero Brugmansia candida.

Bridelia penangiana Hook f

Antimicrobial and antiplasmodial properties Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bridelia ferruginea inhibit the proliferation of hospital strains of Staphylococ-cus aureus, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Irobi ON etal., 1994). Ethanolic extract of Bridelia cathartica causes 50 inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro at 0.05 g mL (Jung A etal., 1991). Extracts of the stem bark of Bridelia retusa contains bisabolane sesquiterpenes, such

Triphenylmethane dyes SED14 761

Gentian violet is a triphenylmethane dye that is used as a topical antifungal and antiseptic. It was also used in the treatment of oral candidiasis for more than 70 years, until concerns arose over its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in animal studies. In the UK its licence is restricted to topical application on unbroken skin and it is no longer recommended for application to mucous membranes or open wounds. In the USA gentian violet is still used as a topical therapy for thrush, particularly in cases in which nysta-tin has failed. Mucosal lesions consistent with oral candidiasis developed in a previously healthy, full-term, exclusively breast-fed, 2-week-old girl. She was treated with oral nystatin, resulting in an initial reduction in the severity of the lesions. After a few days, the thrush became more prominent. At 4 weeks of age, 1 aqueous gentian violet was prescribed and the day after she developed a cough and difficulty in feeding. There was no nasal congestion, fever, or...

Hedera rhombea Miq Bean

Pharmaceutical interest The plant contains the monodesmosidic triter-penoid, saponin a-hederin, which is widespread in the genus Hedera. This saponin protects lymphocytes cultured in vitro against mutation caused by doxorubicin, as well as inhibits the growth of mouse B16 melanoma cells and noncancer mouse 3T3 fibroblasts cultured in vitro (Amara-Mokabe YA et al., 1996 Danloy S et al., 1994). It also modifies the cellular contents and cell membrane of Candida albicans after 24 hours of exposure (Moulin-Traffort J et al., 1998).

Effects of Echinacea Species on the Immune System and Various Immune Cells

Were able to kill tumor cells (WEHI 164 cells) and cells infected either with the parasite Leishmania enriettii or with the yeast Candida albicans 33, 39 . Luttig et al. 34 and Stimpel et al. 37 showed that purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of E. purpurea stimulate phagocyte activities in vitro and in vivo in mice and Roesler et al. 35 found that intravenous application of polysaccharides from cell cultures of E. purpurea induced acute phase reactions and activation of phagocytes in humans because monocytes were activated to secrete TNFa as well as inter-leukin 1 and 6. Roesler et al. 33 and Elsasser et al. 43 showed that these polysaccharides play an important role in the enhancement of the resistance of immuno-suppressed mice against systemic infections with Candida albicans and Listeria monocytogenes. However a number of randomized controlled trials must be done to prove the clinical efficacy of various preparations of Echinacea species.

Experiments Conducted to Develop Liposomal Clove Oil Formulation

Vivo efficacy we tested it against vaginal candidiasis experimentally induced in female Swiss albino mice. The oil was found to be quite effective against vaginal candidiasis as evaluated by frequent monitoring of fungal loads in vaginal lavage fluid. A further encouraging factor was that the liposomized form of clove oil was found to be more effective than both its free form as well as emulsion form in suppression of experimental vaginal candidiasis.

Advanced Formulations Targeting the Esophagus

Infections of the esophagus are primarily associated with immunocompro-mised hosts, including patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy or those with HIV. Available antifungals for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis include polyenes, azoles, nystatin, and AmB. Therapy with these agents is not always successful due to the poor permeation of the esophagus and their low systemic availability. The treatment of choice is fluconazole 100-200 mg daily which will achieve endoscopic clearance in more than 90 of patients (31). In patients who are susceptible to recurrent esophageal infections, prophylaxis with azoles reduces the risk of relapse. Recently, however, fluconazole-resistant Candida infections have been reported (32) thus necessitating alternative therapeutic strategies. Topical therapy designed to target the infection from the luminal aspect of the esophagus bypasses the need for high doses of systemic azoles. Although topical therapy has been used in the oral cavity with, for...

Special hazards of smoked cannabis

In volunteers who were subjected to a saline rinse of their lungs in order to sample the population of white blood cells present, about 2-3 times more macrophages were collected from the lungs of tobacco or cannabis smokers versus non-smokers, suggesting the presence of an inflammatory response (125C, 126C). The macrophages from both tobacco smokers and cannabis smokers also had significantly impaired ability to kill and engulf yeasts (Candida albicans) or bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The macrophages from smokers were also less able to generate some of the chemical toxins (e.g. superoxides) that they normally use to kill invading micro-organisms, or the cytokines that help to activate further inflammatory and immune system responses (126C). In addition, the macrophages had impaired ability to attack and kill cancer cells (small cell cancers) in vitro. The depressed immune function may be caused by an interaction of THC with the CB2 receptors present on macrophages (126C). These...

Dicationic DNA Minor Groove Binders as Antimicrobial Agents

Aromatic diamidines (dicationic molecules) which have been shown to bind to AT-rich regions of the DNA minor groove have a long history as antimicrobial agents 7 - Dicationic molecules of this type were initially studied for their activity against African trypanosomes in the 1930s 8, 9 . Aromatic diamidines have been reported to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and certain ones have been shown to be effective against Acanthamoeba 10 , Aspergillus sp. 11-13 , Babesia sp. 14, 15 , Candida albicans 11-13, 16, 17 , Cryptococcus neoformans 11-13 , Cryptosporidium parvum 18. 19 . Giardia lamblia 20 , Leishmania sp. 21-25 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis 16 , Plasmodium sp. 21, 23, 26 , Pneumocystis carinii 27-30 , Toxoplasma gondii 31 , and Trypanosoma sp. 32-37 . Despite the broad-spectrum activity of this class of compounds, only pentamidine has been found to be of significant use in the clinic to date, where it has been used against primary stage African trypanosomiasis,...

Dosage and duration

- Treatment of oesophageal candidiasis - Treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis Child 3 mg kg once daily for 7 to 14 days Adult 100 mg once daily for 7 to 14 days - Treatment of vaginal candidiasis - Secondary prophylaxis of oropharyngeal and oesophageal candidiasis Child 3 to 6 mg kg once daily, as long as necessary - Treatment of systemic candidiasis

Topical administration to the nose

The local application of glucocorticoids for seasonal or perennial rhinitis often results in systemic adverse effects. The use of nasal sprays containing a glucocorticoid that has specific topical activity (such as beclomethasone dipropionate or flunisolide) seems to reduce the systemic adverse effects, but they can nevertheless occur, even to the extent of suppression of basal adrenal function in children (371). Local adverse effects include Candida infection, nasal stinging, epistaxis, throat irritation (372), and, exceptionally, anosmia (373).

Drug Drug Interactions General

Since oral contraceptive users sometimes need to be treated for vaginal candidiasis, the question arises which of the available treatments can be used without risk of impairing contraception. In a crossover placebo-controlled study, fluconazole 300 mg weekly for two cycles has been studied in 21 healthy women using Ortho-Novum 7 7 7 as a contraceptive (330). Fluconazole in this dose, which is twice that ordinarily recommended, produced small but statistically significant increases in the AUC0-24 for both ethinylestradiol (mean 24 increase) and nor-ethindrone (mean 13 ). The Cmax of ethinylestradiol was slightly, but just significantly, higher with fluconazole than placebo. The Cmax for norethindrone was not different between the two groups. There were no adverse events related to fluconazole. These changes are such that one should not anticipate any increased risk of contraceptive failure when fluconazole is given simultaneously.

The Oral Cavity Infections of the Oral Cavity

Infections of the oral cavity are often caused by overactivity of endogenous flora (e.g. dental caries) and also by primary pathogens (e.g. candidiasis). Typical disorders include viral infections such as Herpes simplex (cold sores) fungal infections such as oral thrush caused by the Candida albicans and other Candida species bacterial-induced infection such as gingivitis leading to periodontitis in some cases.

Effects on lymphocytes other immunocytes and cytokines

Kusher et al. (1994) assessed the effect of THC (0.005-5.0 g ml) on the synthesis of TNFa by human large granular lymphocytes (LGL) in culture. These investigators reported that THC at physiological levels down-regulated TNFa production and diminished LGL cytolytic activity against K562 tumor cells. Furthermore, it was suggested that since the NK polymorphonuclear neutrophil axis represents an important early defense against the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans, repression of this system by THC could contribute to susceptibility to infections with opportunistic pathogens.

Advanced Formulations Targeting the Oral Cavity

There are many formulations readily available for the treatment of infections within the oral cavity. Reports suggest that fluconazole suspension may be better able to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis via a swish and swallow Daktarin gel is a popular therapy for mild oral infections, and this has been used successfully for many years although the high doses and relatively short retention time within the oral cavity means that it is less effective compared to more sophisticated delivery systems. Chitosan has previously demonstrated anti-fungal action, and this combined with chlorhexidine was examined as buccal gels or films for anti-fungal action by prevention of Candida binding to the mucosal surface. In vitro studies suggested that these formulations would provide prolonged levels of drug compared to oral rinses (5). Incorporation of amphotericin into Orabase prior to administration to the buccal mucosa resulted in sufficiently high salivary drug concentrations overnight to maintain...

Conazole antimycotics for systemic use

Concerning the use of fluconazole in pregnancy, there was a report of three children with craniofacial, skeletal, and cardiac malformations, similar to (hose seen in animal studies. Because of meningitis, their mother had used high doses of fluconazole (400-800 mg daily) through or beyond the first trimester on a long-term basis (Pursley 1996). A fourth case was reported of a child with similar malformations, whose mother was also treated, with high doses of fluconazole on a long-term basis for meningitis. They all shared sonic characteristics with the Antley-Bixler syndrome (Aleck 1997). Another malformed baby with encephalocele and an aorta emerging from the right ventricle was published. The mother had been taken a single fluconazole dose for vaginal candidiasis around conception, which makes a causal relation unprobable (Sanchez 1998). Recently, another case with craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities was reported after prenatal exposure to high doses of fluconazole on a...

Butalbital Acetaminophen Caffeine

Buyes borrachera Brugmansia candida. Buyes borrachershe Brugmansia candida. Buzz 1. Colloquial term for a pleasant intoxication, as after a moderate consumption or alcohol. 2. Colloquial term for PCP. Buzz bomb Colloquial term for small 8-gram metal cylinder of nitrous oxide. Buzz bomb propellant Colloquial term for torpedo propellant used as a beverage (NBA-denatured alcohol) consumed by Navy personnel.

In Vitro Antifungal Activity Tests Results Table 1

The methanolic solution of clove oil displayed strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In each case it inhibited the fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Strongest activity was shown against A. fumigatus followed by C. albicans and C. neoformans. Neat methanol showed no antifungal activity Fig. 17.1 Candida albicans culture plate showing growth inhibition zones caused by increasing amounts of clove oil. Fig. 17.1 Candida albicans culture plate showing growth inhibition zones caused by increasing amounts of clove oil.

Long Term Effects Drug tolerance

Intermittent administration of inhaled tobramycin has been recommended in patients with cystic fibrosis, as it improves pulmonary function, reduces the density of P. aeruginosa in sputum, and reduces the risk of hospitaliza-tion. The proportion of patients with isolates of P. aeru-ginosa with higher minimal inhibitory concentrations of tobramycin may increase (39). Treatment with inhaled tobramycin does not increase isolation of Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, or Alcaligenes xylosoxidans however, isolation of Candida albicans and Aspergillus species may increase (40).

Asclepias curassavica L

Structure Flowering Plants

Pharmaceutical interest The latex of Asclepias curassavica L. is caustic, laxative, emetic, deforms and empties the cytoplasm content of Candida albicans (Moulin-Traffort J et a ., 1990). The plant is known to contain ascle-pin, a cardenolide, which is inotropic positive and more active than G-strophantin, digoxin (Lanoxin ), digitoxin and digitoxigenin (Patnaik GK et a ., 1978). A number of glycosides characterized from Asclepias amplex-icaulis and Asclepias albicans inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells cultured in vitro (Piatak DM et al., 1985) and might hold some potential against cancer (Koike K et al., 1980).

Flor de los muertos Tagetes

Flor somnifera Colloquial term for opium poppy ( sleep flower ). Floral Colloquial term for LSD on paper. Floramine Phenobarbital. Florased Phenobarbital. Florema 25 Chlordiazepoxide. Florema 5 Chlordiazepoxide. Florema LP 30 Chlordiazepoxide. Florida snow 1. Colloquial term for cocaine. 2. Colloquial term for look-alike cocaine (procaine, benzocaine, lidocaine). Floripondia Brugmansia suaveolens. Floripondio 1. Brugmansia arborea. 2. Brugmansia candida. Floripondio blanco 1. Brugmansia candida. 2. Brugmansia suaveolens. Floripondio boliviano Brugmansia sanguinea.

Comparative studies

The efficacy and tolerability of amphotericin prepared in Intralipid 20 have been evaluated in 16 patients with HIV infection and esophageal candidiasis or crypto-coccosis and compared with standard amphotericin in a matched group of 24 patients (44). While both formulations had apparently similar clinical and microbiological efficacy, fewer patients receiving the lipid emulsion formulation required premedication or symptomatic therapy for infusion-associated adverse events, and fewer patients were withdrawn because of adverse effects. Renal adverse effects (a rise in serum creatinine and or electrolyte loss) were more common in patients who received the conventional formulation. Fluconazole and amphotericin as empirical antifungal drugs in febrile neutropenic patients have been investigated in a prospective, randomized, multicenter study in 317 patients randomized to either fluconazole (400 mg qds) or amphotericin deoxycholate (0.5 mg kg qds) (52). Adverse events (fever, chills,...

Sarcolobus Globulosus

Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Tylophora cissoides Bl. f. are used to assuage abdominal pain and to treat thrush. In Malaysia, the leaves of Tylophora tenuis Bl. are used to soothe inflamed parts. In the Philippines, a decoction of the roots of Tylophora brevipes (Turcz.) F. Vill. is drunk to induce vomiting, to promote menses, to treat flatulence, to combat fever, to promote expectoration and to assuage stomachache. The leaves of Tylophora perrottetiana Decne are used to heal wounds. In India, both Tylophora asthmatica Wight. and Arn. and Tylophora indica are used to treat asthma.

Natural and Cultural History of Datura

The principal alkaloids in the fifteen to twenty species that comprise the genus Datura and its four subgroups are hyoscyamine, norhyoscyamine, and scopolamine, all belonging to the tropane series. Depending on ecological factors, and possibly on genetic differences, there is considerable variation in the alkaloidal content even of the same species and their different parts. So, for example, scopolamine constitutes from 50 to 60 percent of the total base content of the arborescent Datura Candida growing in the Andes, but only 30 to 40 percent for the same species cultivated in England or Hawaii (Schultes, 1970 584). Similar differences have been recorded for other alkaloids. Here again we find the Indians to have been careful observers. Schultes notes that the alkaloidal content of cultivated D. Candida plants, for example, has been proved experimentally to correlate closely with accounts of their relative toxicity by the Indians of Sibundoy, Colombia, who certainly had no access to a...


Fungal superinfections commonly occur in the vagina, mouth, and anal and genital areas. Symptoms include lesions of the mouth or tongue, vaginal discharge, and anal or vaginal itching. Pseudomembranous colitis is a common bacterial superinfection candidi-asis or moniliasis is a common type of fungal superinfection.

Nursing Alert

Another type of superinfection may occur due to an overgrowth of the yeastlike fungi that usually exist in small numbers in the vagina. The multiplication rate of these microorganisms is normally slowed and kept under control because of the presence of a strain of bacteria (Doderlein's bacillus) in the vagina. If penicillin therapy destroys these normal microorganisms of the vagina (Doderlein's bacillus), the fungi are now uncontrolled, multiply at a rapid rate, and cause symptoms of a fungal infection called candidiasis (or moniliasis). Symptoms include vaginal itching and discharge. Candida fungal superinfections also occur in the mouth and around the anal and genital areas. Signs and symptoms include lesions in the mouth or anal genital itching.


Miconazole is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug. The drug is given cautiously in cases of chronic or recurrent candidiasis. With recurrent or chronic candidiasis the patient may have underlying diabetes. Recurrent or chronic candidi-asis requires an evaluation for diabetes. The drug is used cautiously during pregnancy (Category C). If used during pregnancy, a vaginal applicator may be con-traindicated. Manual insertion of the vaginal tablets may be preferred. Because small amounts of these drugs may be absorbed from the vagina, the drug is used during the first trimester only when essential.


One of the most important advances in the treatment of invasive fungal infections has been the development and availability of the echinocandin class of antifungal agents. Currently, three agents are available for use in the United States anidulafungin, caspofugnin, and micafungin. By inhibiting the fungal specific target beta-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in the reduction of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell walls of Candida and Aspergillus species, these agents avoid toxicities to mammalian cells associated with amphotericin B as well as the drug interactions commonly caused by triazoles due to inhibiton of cytochrome P450 enzymes (45-47). While the excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis have been well documented in clinical trials (48-50), the efficacy of the echinocandins for the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus species is less established. The majority of clinical data for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis come...


- Treatment of oesophageal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients - Second line treatment of oropharyngeal and vaginal candidiasis, when local treatment fails - Secondary prophylaxis of oropharyngeal and oesophageal candidiasis, in the event of severe and or frequent recurrences - Treatment of systemic candidiasis

Fungal Infections

Multicellular with filamentous hyphae. Fusarium species like solani and oxysporum are the most common fungi that cause keratomycosis. It predominantly occurs in tropical and sub-tropical regions, whereas Candida infections are observed more in temperate climates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous and commonly seen in a variety of climates. Ocular manifestations of fungal infections include the formation of indolent ulcers which are whitish yellow with raised edges and finger like process extending into the corneal stroma. Moreover satellite lesions and pus can also be observed in the anterior chamber. The diagnosis of these infections can be done by corneal scrapings which are examined for histological changes and also by culture to identify the causative organism. It can be further confirmed by an aqueous specimen or corneal biopsy. The fungal infection if untreated can cause haemorrhage into the anterior chamber (98).


Voriconazole is a novel synthetic, intravenous and oral antifungal triazole that is structurally related to fluconazole. It is active against a wide spectrum of clinically important fungi, including Candida spp., Trichosporon beigelii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and other hyaline molds, as well as dematiaceous and dimorphic molds. It has demonstrated efficacy in various animal models of invasive fungal infections (46RE, 47re). In humans, voriconazole has a half-life of about 6 hours. There is some non-linearity in its disposition, it undergoes complex hepatic metabolism, and it has the potential for drug-drug interactions through its affinity for CYP450 isozymes, in particular CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Voriconazole has demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy in a non-comparative phase I II studies in patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis and acute and chronic invasive aspergillosis (48R). In a randomized, open, multicenter trial for...

Postmortem Specimens

For postmortem analysis, ethanol is usually assayed in femoral blood, heart blood, bladder urine, vitreous humor, CSF (cisternal), bile, synovial fluid, brain, skeletal muscle, or liver (13). There could be other sources for postmortem ethanol. Many microorganisms are known to be responsible for ethanol formation in postmortem tissues, which is a frequent complication affecting interpretation of postmortem ethanol results. Candida albicans is most often reported to be responsible for ethanol formation in postmortem tissues using glucose as a substrate. C. albicans is located ubiquitously throughout the body particularly in the mouth and on the skin (14). Almost 100 different species of bacteria, yeast, and fungi have been reported to produce postmortem ethanol (15). Under optimal conditions, large quantities of ethanol can be generated by microorganism within hours of death thus complicating interpretation of ethanol levels in postmortem specimens. No significant increase in ethanol...

Silver sulfadiazine

Silver sulfadiazine (3) is a white, highly insoluble compound synthesized from silver nitrate and the sulfonamide sodium sulfadiazine. It is used in burns as a 1 formulation in a water-soluble cream base. It has in vitro activity against a wide range of burn wound microbial pathogens, including S. aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella species, P. aerugi-nosa, Proteus species, other Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida albicans. Its penetration into eschar is considered to be better than that of silver nitrate. Silver from silver sulfadiazine cream is rapidly absorbed and deposited in large amounts throughout the body (4).


Microorganisms existing in blood or urine samples may produce ethanol via fermentation of sugars that are present in the specimen. The mechanism of post-collection fermentation in a urine or blood specimen is the same mechanism that is exploited to produce alcoholic beverages. The microorganisms may be introduced to the sample through non-sterile collection procedures or if the donor has a genitourinary infection, commonly Candida albicans. The likelihood of post-collection formation of ethanol through fermentation goes up during warm summer months, as samples may sit at outdoor ambient temperatures during their transport to the laboratory. Similar to poppy seed ingestion resulting in a positive test for morphine, a positive alcohol result in a sample that underwent fermentation is a true positive result. Samples can be checked for glucose by a simple dipstick test. The medical history of the donor should also be investigated.

Local antimycotics

When systemic therapy is unavoidable, fluconazole should be selected over ketoconazole because it Is generally better tolerated. Fluconazole is not infrequently used to treat Candida infection of the breast. However, diagnosis is not easy, and should be made with caution. It is estimated that 20 of lactating women complaining of breast pain have a Candida infection. Local treatment is usually not sufficient, whereas oral therapy with fluconazole for 2-3 weeks, or for 2 weeks after symptoms have resolved, is recommended. The dosage should start with 400 mg on day 1, followed by 100-200 mg d (Abou-Dakn 2006). The breastfed infant has also to be treated (for example, with local miconazole). When systemic treatment of the mother is unavoidable, it should, if possible, be taken at night after the last breastfeed. A longer interruption of breastfeeding with the substitution of infant formula is not justified.

Brugmansia species

Brugmansia Candida (Datura Candida, angel's trumpet) and Brugmansia suaveolens (Datura suaveolens, angel's tears) are ornamental flowers that have been used for hallucinogenic effects. Both contain tropane alkaloids, such as hyoscine, hyoscyamine, meteloidine, and nor-hyoscine, which have anticholinergic properties.


Caspofungin has been compared with ampho-tericin in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial in 128 adults with endoscopically documented symptomatic Candida esophagi-tis (64C). There was endoscopically verified clinical success in 74 and 89 of the patients who received caspofungin 50 and 70 mg day respectively, and in 63 of patients given amphotericin B deoxycholate 0.5 mg kg day. Therapy was withdrawn because of drug-related adverse events in 24 of the patients who were given amphotericin and in 4 and 7 of those who were given caspofungin 50 and 70 mg day respectively. The most frequent adverse events with caspofungin were fever, phlebitis, headache, and rash. Fewer patients who received caspofungin had drug related fever, chills, or nausea than those who received amphotericin. More patients who received amphotericin (91 ) than caspofungin (61 and 32 ) developed drug-related laboratory abnormalities, the most common in the caspofungin groups being hypoalbuminemia and increased...

Anergia Anergy

Angelica Mixture of partially fermented wine, grape juice and brandy. Sweet, fortified dessert wine said to have originated near Los Angeles, for which it is named. Angelica is one of the oldest California wines it was probably originally made from the mission grape, a European variety brought to California in the 18th century by Spanish padres. Angelito Turbina corymbosa. Angels trumpet Brugmansia candida, Any of several New World plants of the genera Brugmansia or Datura, having large, variously colored trumpet-shaped flowers. All parts of the plants contain the poisonous belladonna alkaloids.

Trompillo Virola

Tsolich Argemone mexicana. Tsu-nem Virola. Tsuaak Brugmansia suaveolens. Tsuak Brugmansia suaveolens. Tsuwiri Ariocarpus fissuratus. Tsuwiri Ariocarpus fissuratus. Ts'ak tsimin 1. Brugmansia candida. 2. Brugmansia suaveolens. TT1 Colloquial term for PCP. TT2 Colloquial term for PCP. TT3 Colloquial term for PCP. TU Colloquial term for 40 mg. brown-colored testosterone undecanoate. Tu-to-a-va-a Brugmansia suaveolens. Tu tkhiks Brugmansia candida. Tualone Methaqualone hydrochloride. Tuanol 1. Colloquial term for (misspelling of Tuinal) barbiturate, a combination drug containing secobarbital (Saconal) and amo-barbital (Amytal). 2. Colloquial term for look-alike (misspelling of Tuinal) barbiturate, a combination drug containing secobarbital (Seconal) and amobarbital (Amytal) - typically composed of antihistamines such as doxyl-amine or chlorapheniramine, and an analgesic such as acetaminophen or salicylamide. Tuava Psidium guajava. Tuazol, -e Methaqualone...

Tchkiana Virola

It may have a hook, but no chorus. It may have a voice, but no lyric. Time stops when the mind's clock of frequent distractions is disconnected by the surreal, hypnotic syncopated rhythms being woven around your head by the DJ on the decks. Time stops and the Vibe begins. Tecnal Butalbital. Tecnal Cl 2 Butalbital. Tecnal Cl 4 Butalbital. Tecnal-C Butalbital. Tecodin Codeine methylbromide. Tecodin, -a, -e Oxycodone hydrochloride. Tecomaxochit Brugmansia candida. Tecomaxochitl 1. Brugmansia arborea. 2. Solandra.


Nystatin is an antimycotic that is effective against Candida infections of the skin and mucosa, and is not absorbed. It is bound to ergosterol in the cell membrane of the fungi, and causes a disturbance in the permeability of the cell membrane. Extensive data on intravaginal application of nystatin during pregnancy do not give any indication of embryo fetotoxic effects (King 1998). Nystatin use is limited by lower efficacy rates and by the need for longer duration of treatment required with this agent. Recommendation. Nystatin can be used throughout pregnancy without restriction. It is a drug of choice for the treatment of superficial Candida infections of the mucous membranes of mouth, intestine, and vagina, but may be less effective than newer agents.

Fungal Keratitis

This form of keratitis is frequently caused by filamentous fungi such as species of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Curvularia, and by yeast-like fungi such as Candida (107). The symptoms include blurred vision, red and painful eye, increased sensitivity to light, and excessive tearing or discharge. Clinically, it is often difficult to differentiate between fungal and bacterial infections. Diagnosis can be done by corneal culture, tissue biopsy or confocal microscopy (108). The commonly used antifungal agents are fungistatic and require an intact immune system and a prolonged treatment. Without innate immunity, the fungistatic medications are likely to be less effective in suppressing the organism. Drug classes used to treat fungal keratitis include polyene antibiotics (nystatin, amphotericin), pyrimidine analogs (flucyto-sine), imidazoles (clortrimazole, miconozole, econazole, ketoconazole), triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole), and silver sulfadiazine (109). The most commonly used...

Kieri Kieli

Kind bud Colloquial term for marijuana. Kinde-borrachero Brugmansia candida. Kinderdealer German colloquial term for underaged street-dealers often used by older drug dealers in the last chain to the consumer. Kinderfixer German colloquial term for ju-venils who inject drugs. Kindleinkraut German colloquial term for mandrake.

Antifungal Drugs

Fungal infections (mycoses) occur less than bacterial or viral infections. However, that statement may be untrue for a few geographical regions that are favorable for the existence and growth of specific fungal pathogens. A few fungal infections can spread to the surface of the body and cause local disturbances, while others can be systemic and life threatening. Some of these organisms (for example, Candida) can spread from a superficial location to internal organs, leading to systemic diseases with serious complications. Fungal (mycotic) infections cause a lot of discomfort, and as a rule, are difficult to cure. Fungal infections are conventionally divided into three categories dermatophylic, mucocutaneous, and systemic. Mucocutaneous infections caused primarily by the fungus Candida albicans occur in regions of moist skin and mucous membranes (i.e. gastrointestinal tract, perianal, and vul-vovaginal areas). Amphotericin B, miconazole, clotrimazole, and nystatin are used topically to...


Bifonazole has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro against dermatophytes, moulds, yeasts, dimorphic fungi, and some Gram-positive bacteria. It has been used in a strength of 1 in creams, gels, solutions, and powders, applied once a day to treat superficial fungal infections of the skin, such as dermatophytoses, cutaneous candidiasis, and pityriasis versicolor (3). In a multicenter, doubleblind, randomized, parallel-group comparison with flutri-mazole cream 1 in the treatment of dermatomycoses in 449 patients the overall incidence of adverse effects (mainly mild local effects such as irritation or a burning sensation) was 5 (4). Clotrimazole was the first oral azole. While it was effective in deep mycoses, its limited absorption and induction of liver microsomal enzymes after a few days, leading to accelerated metabolism of the compound, as well as its toxicity, preclude its use for systemic therapy. Clotrimazole is therefore currently only used for topical therapy of mucocutaneous...


To the product (vaginal itching after product insertion) and 43 as possibly or probably related. All were categorized as mild (84 ) or moderate (16 ). Excluding participants who withdrew by day 7, 71 of the signs and symptoms resolved during the trial and 24 within 3 days of product withdrawal at the end of the trial 5 persisted at the end of the trial (one woman was given treatment for a yeast infection and one was not re-evaluated for itching). Minor self-reported symptoms of irritation of limited duration accounted for 64 of reported signs and symptoms and were approximately equally distributed across study sites. They included vulvar and vaginal itching or burning, burning when urinating, and genital rash. The overall rate of symptoms of irritation for all sites combined was 0.58 events per woman-week of observation (95 CI 0.3, 0.88). Other signs and symptoms included lower abdominal pain or backache, symptomatic yeast infection, and vaginal discharge.

Kalmusrot Calamus

Kamp Danish colloquial term for cannabis. Kampaana wits Brugmansia candida. Kampachu Brugmansia candida. Kampe Colloquial term for cannabis. Kampana nichim Brugmansia candida. Kamuga Colloquial term for cannabis. Kamugo Colloquial term for cannabis. Kamuku Areca catechu. Kamunnu Areca catechu. Kamuyo Colloquial term for cannabis. Kamyon sofoerleri Turkish colloquial term for cannabis.

Antifungal azoles

In vitro studies and experiments in animals have given conflicting results relating to potential antagonism between the effects of fluconazole and amphotericin on Candida species (149). However, large, randomized, doubleblind comparisons of fluconazole with and without amphotericin for 5 days in non-neutropenic patients with candidemia showed no evidence of antagonism, but faster clearance of the organism from the blood and a trend toward an improved outcome in those who received the combination (151). The combination of amphotericin with ketoconazole appears to lead to antagonism (148). A study of the effects of combinations of amphotericin with fluconazole, itraconazole, or ketoconazole against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro showed antagonistic effects in some strains, but different effects in other strains (152). In one group of mice infected with Candida, combinations of amphotericin with fluconazole were more effective

Muirungi Khat

Multiple drug use disorder (F1g) is one of the Mental and behavioural disorders due to psy-choactive substance use in ICD-I0, diagnosed only when two or more substances are known to be involved and it is impossible to assess which substance is contributing most to the disorder. The category is also used when the exact identity of some or even all of the substances being used is uncertain or unknown, since many multiple drug users often do not know themselves what they are taking. The French term polytoxicomanie conveys a meaning similar to that of multiple drug use, except that dependence on one or more of the drugs taken is assumed. Synonym Polydrug use (abuse) Multisedil Meprobamate. Multum Chlordiazepoxide. Mumun Piper auritum. Mumun te Piper auritum. Munchies Colloquial term for the intense feeling of hunger and thirst that can follow after smoking cannabis. Munchira Brugmansia candida. Mundidol Morphine sulfate. Mundyadi vatika Cannabis. Mungondo Tabernanthe iboga. containing the...


Skin A 70-year-old woman taking itracona-zole developed erythema, edema, and vesicles on sun-exposed areas after taking itraconazole for 5 days for oral candidiasis (34A). Photo-sensitivity from azoles is uncommon only three other cases have been described, two attributed to ketoconazole and one to itraconazole.

Antifungal Activity

We concentrate on researching the antifungal properties of plants against fungi implicated in causing opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients, such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The microplate method for detecting antibacterial activity has been modified to result in a method appropriate for the antifungal testing of extracts 27 . Using this method, significant antifungal activity was found in several Terminalia species (Combretaceae) against a range of fungal organisms 27 . The antifungal activity of acetone, hexane, dichlorome-thane, and methanol leaf extracts of six Terminalia species (T. prunioides, T. bra-chystemma, T. sericea, T. gazensis, T. mollis, and T. sambesiaca) was tested against five fungal animal pathogens (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum canis, and Sporothrix schenckii). Fungi cultured from clinical cases of disease in animals were used in the screening procedure. These fungi represent the...

Mufete Zeroli Khan

Sokol-Anderson ML, Brajtburg J, Medoff G. Amphotericin B-induced oxidative damage and killing of Candida albicans. J Infect Dis 1986 154(1) 76-83. 13. Chavanet PY, Garry I, Charlier N, Caillot D, Kisterman JP, D'Athis M, Portier H. Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis. BMJ 1992 305(6859) 921-5. of candidal esophagitis. Clin Infect Dis 2001 33(9) 1529-35. 59. Mora-Duarte J, Betts R, Rotstein C, Colombo AL, 78. Thompson-Moya L, Smietana J, Lupinacci R, Sable C, Kartsonis N, Perfect J. Caspofungin Invasive Candidiasis icin B for invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med 79. 117. Pahls S, Schaffner A. Comparison of the activity of free and liposomal amphotericin B in vitro and in a model of systemic and localized murine candidiasis. J Infect Dis 135. 1994 169(5) 1057-61. Weitkamp JH, Poets CF, Sievers R, Musswessels E, Groneck P, Thomas P, Bartmann P. Candida infection in very low birth-weight infants outcome and...


In vitro studies and experiments in animals have given conflicting results relating to potential antagonism between the effects of fluconazole and amphotericin on Candida species (71). However, large, randomized, double-blind comparisons of fluconazole with and without amphotericin for 5 days in non-neutropenic patients with

Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B can be applied locally or can be used as a systemic therapy for mycosis - for instance, in systemic Candida infection, cryptococcosis, and coccidiomycosis. Amphotericin B is bound to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, and causes a disturbance in Flucytosine is effective against Cryptococcus neoformans and many Candida species. It is used in systemic infections with these pathogens, and works through inhibition of DNA synthesis. There is concern about adverse developmental and reproductive effects of this agent because in the fungus cell flucytosine is metabolized to - among others - 5-fIuorouracil, a cytostatic agent. To a lesser degree, this reaction is also to be expected in the human organism. In animal experiments, flucytosine has a teratogenic effect in doses that arc lower than those used in human therapy. As yet, no malformations have been reported in humans however, there is practically no published experience with the use of flucytosine in the first...

Antifungal Assays

Antifungal assays are regularly used to determine whether plants extracts will have potential to treat human fungal infections (e.g. tinea) or have use in agricultural horticultural applications. In general these assays are quick, low cost, and do not involve access to specialist equipment. Activity of plant extracts against the yeast candida is typically assessed using the disk or well diffusion methods described above, and many studies report anti-candida activity with antibacterial activity rather than with activity against fungi for this reason (see, for example, refs 45-48 ). Activity against filamentous fungi can be evaluated in well diffusion, agar dilution, and broth micro-broth methods with many of the same limitations and advantages as previously discussed for antibacterial assays 49, 50 .

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