Sample Adulteration in Urine DOA Testing

The instant DOA testing procedures are instituted, opposing forces are at work to develop methods to avoid detection of drug use. Initially, common household chemicals such as laundry bleach, table salt, toilet-bowl cleaner, hand soap, and vinegar were used. More recently, a variety of products became commercially available, which can be ordered through Internet sites and tollfree telephone numbers. Commercially available adulteration products can be classified into two broad categories. The first category consists of specific fluids or tablets, which when taken along with plenty of water, serve to flush out drugs and metabolites, resulting in diluted urine and reduced concentrations of drugs or metabolites. Examples of products in this category include Absolute Detox XXL drink, Absolute Carbo Drinks, Ready Clean Drug Detox Drink, Fast Flush Capsules, and Ready Clean Gel Capsules. All products are available from Internet sites. Root Clean is a hair-cleansing system targeting drug tests involving hair specimens. It is claimed that using this shampoo will remove all "toxins" from hair within 10 min and the hair zone will be drug free up to 8 h.The second category consists of in vitro urinary adulterants, which are added to urine after collection in order to affect the results of a drug test. Stealth (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Klear (containing nitrite), Clean ADD-IT-ive™ (containing glutaraldehyde), and Urine Luck (containing pyridinium chlorochromate [PCC]) are urinary adulterants that are easily available through the Internet.

Another trick to avoid a positive drug test is to substitute a drug-positive urine sample with a drug-negative urine sample. Synthetic urine is commercial available and can be switched with the true sample in situations when sample collection is not supervised. For example, Quick Fix Synthetic Urine contains premixed laboratory urine having all the characteristics of natural urine, with correct pH, specific gravity and creatinine levels. The product can be heated in a microwave oven for up to 10 s to reach a temperature between 90 and 100°F. It can also be taped to a heater pad so that the temperature can be maintained for up to 6 h in a pocket.

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