A positive drug test result has important impact on one's life, which may include (a) loss of job, (b) extension or initiation of jail sentence, or (c) disqualification of participation privileges including school sports. Hence, the incentive to defeat a drug test is high. Furthermore, advocacy groups such as the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) view drug testing as a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution, which forbids unreasonable search and seizures.

Throughout the history of drug testing, masking the positive test result has been a serious problem, and this issue has been described in a number of

From: Forensic Science and Medicine: Drugs of Abuse: Body Fluid Testing Edited by R. C. Wong and H. Y. Tse © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

publications (1-3). An audit conducted at 66 certified laboratories in the National Laboratory Certification Program in 2001 identified a total of 6440 adulterated specimens and 2821 substituted specimens during a 2-yr period (4). The semi-annual Drug Testing Index released by Quest Diagnostics, Inc. shows that adulteration rate (including the presence of oxidizing adulterants, abnormal acid and base range, and substituted samples) ranges from 2.67% of all positive samples (in 1999) to 1.10% (in 2003) (5).

This chapter summarizes the current status of urine adulteration and describes an on-site device, Intect® 7 (Branan Medical Corporation), to detect such masking.

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