Glutaraldehyde As a Urine Adulterant

Glutaraldehyde has also been used as an adulterant to mask urine drug tests (18). This product is available under the trade name of UrinAid. Each kit contains 4-5 mL solution of glutaraldehyde, which is to be added to 50-60 mL of urine.

Glutaraldehyde solutions are readily available in hospitals and clinics as a cleaning and sterilizing agent. A 10% solution of glutaraldehyde is also available from pharmacies as over-the-counter medication for treatment of warts. The addition of glutaraldehyde at a concentration of 0.75% volume to urine can lead to false-negative drug-screening results for cannabinoid tests using EMIT II immunoassays. Amphetamine, methadone, benzodiazepine, opiate, and cocaine metabolite tests can be affected at glutaraldehyde concentrations of between 1 and 2% using the EMIT screen. At a glutaraldehyde concentration of 2% by volume, Braith-waite (18) found that the assay of cocaine metabolite was significantly affected, with an apparent loss of 90% of assay sensitivity. A loss of 80% sensitivity was also observed with the benzodiazepine assay. Wu et al. (19) reported that glu-taraldehyde also interfered with the CEDIA immunoassays for screening of abused drugs. Goldberger and Caplan (20) reported that glutaraldehyde caused false-negative results with EMIT but also caused false-positive phencyclidine results with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories) and the kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution immunoassay (KIMSĀ®, Roche Diagnostics); the Roche RIA assay was least affected.

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