Adulterant Effects on Positive Drug Specimens Over Time

The kinetics of adulterant effects were studied by Tse and Bogema (20). In these experiments, urine controls containing two times the cut-off levels of THC, MOR, AMP, PCP, and cocaine (COC) were set up. The samples were divided into three groups. To the first group, Urine Luck Formula 6.3 was added according to the manufacturer's instructions. To the second group, Stealth was added. The third group served as positive control, with no adulterants added. Within 5 min after the addition of adulterants, samples from each group were taken and simultaneously tested for presence of drugs and adulterants. The tests were repeated at 30 min and at 1,2, 3, 5, 8, 24, and 30 h after addition of adulterants. Detection of drugs was performed using Monitect, whereas adulterants were detected using Intect 7.

Results of the drug tests with Monitect were as expected. Urine Luck and Stealth were found to be potent adulterants for THC and MOR, but were only marginally effective for AMP, PCP, and COC. For adulterant testing with Intect 7, Urine Luck and Stealth did not provide any change in creatinine, glutar-aldehyde, pH, and specific gravity in the drug-spiked urine samples. However, there were distinct changes when the samples were added to the nitrite, bleach, and PCC chemical pads (Table 3). The addition of Urine Luck (group 2) produced a dark blue coloration on the nitrite pad and a light blue coloration on the bleach and PCC pads. Addition of Stealth (groups 3) produced a very dark blue coloration on all three chemical pads. These color changes are regarded as highly abnormal, or abnormal in accordance with the expected color change in Intect 7 with unadulterated urine (group 1). The color change occurred imme-

Kinetic Studies of Adulterant Detection in Adulterated Urine Control Samples Using Intect® 7 Testing Strips

Chemical Time

Groups

pad

5 min

30 min

1 h

2 h

3 h

5 h

8 h

24 h

30 h

Group 1

Nitrite

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

(no

(white to

adulterant

pink)

added)

Bleach

Normal (white)

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

PCC

Normal (white)

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Group 2

Nitrite

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Normal

Normal

Normal

(Urine

(dark

(dark

(dark

(dark

(purple)

(purple)

(white to

(white to

(white to

Luck™

purple)

purple)

purple)

purple)

pink)

pink)

pink)

added)

Bleach

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Normal

(blue)

(blue)

(light blue)

(blue)

(light blue)

(light blue)

(lighter blue)

(very light blue)

(slight tint of blue)

PCC

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Normal

(blue)

(blue)

(light blue)

(light blue)

(blue)

(light blue)

(light blue)

(very light blue)

(slight tint of blue)

Group 3

Nitrite

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

(Stealth™

(dark

(dark

(dark

(purple)

(white to

(white to

(white to

(white to

(white to

added)

purple)

purple)

purple)

pink)

pink)

pink)

pink)

pink)

Bleach

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Normal

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(blue)

(blue)

very light blue)

(slight tint of blue)

PCC

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Abnormal

Normal

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(dark blue)

(blue)

(blue)

(blue)

(very light blue)

(slight tint of blue)

Creatinine, Glutaraldehyde, pH and Specific Gravity were normal in all groups and are not listed in this table. PCC, pyridinium chlorochromate.

diately after addition of the adulterants and lasted for at least 3-8 h. Thus, the presence of the adulterants Urine Luck and Stealth could be detected during the earlier time points. Unexpectedly, as the tests proceeded, the dark blue coloration in the nitrite tests became lighter and lighter, and exhibited normal coloration by 3 h in the Stealth group and by 8 h in the Urine Luck group. Similar color lightening was observed for the bleach and PCC tests, although the kinetic was much slower. Significantly, the lightening of color in these two tests continued, and by 24 h after addition, both adulterant groups showed only a very slight tint of blue to almost normal color levels. It was noteworthy that this discoloration process progressed more dramatically in the Stealth group than in the Urine Luck group. These results demonstrate that there is a built-in time limit for the detection of the adulterants Urine Luck and Stealth. Twenty-four hours after addition, these compounds appeared to have performed their adulteration functions and then faded away to almost undetectable levels. Such results underscore the importance of performing adulterant testing on site as soon as urine samples are collected. Delaying 24 to 48 h for testing runs the risk of not being able to detect them. Such observations were confirmed in a further study by Wong et al. (21).

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